Italian Socialist party
Born in 1892, with Genoa, under the name of Party of the Italian workers (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) which joins together the experiments of the Italian working Party (Partito Operaio Italiano) born in 1882 with Milan, Lega Socialista Milanese as well as other leagues and movements Marxiste S Italian. At the time of its IIe congress to Reggio of Emilie (in 1893), it adopts her final name of PSI. Its social and electoral importance increases as from 1896, especially in the north of the country. After the repression of the social disorders of 1898, the direction adopts a line reformist. Filippo Turati is the principal leader. The party conquers the direction of many municipalities and takes part in the development of the urban and rural labor movement. Also it strongly contributes to the organization of the trade unions. In 1904, a left coalition, directed by Enrico Ferri and Arturo Labriola, carries it with the direction of the party. In 1906, the revolutionary wing trade unionist (Labriola, Enrico Leone) is however isolated; it is formally excluded from the party at the time of the congress of 1908. The hybrid coalition which succeeds, with at its head the integralist Oddino Morgari, is demolished in 1912 in favor of a revolutionary current led by Benito Mussolini. Become director of the socialist daily newspaper Avanti! , Mussolini is expelled shortly after the release of the First World War for its engagement in favor of the entry in war of Italy. The party defends neutrality with the formula " neither to adhere nor saboter" of Costantino Lazzari. Vis-a-vis the rise of the Fascism, the party, led by its wing known as maximalist (having for leader Giacinto Menotti Serratti), knows scissions. In 1921, with Leghorn, the Italian Communist party separates some, then it is the turn of the Socialists reformists who are expelled and found the PSU.
The Italian Socialist party is dissolved by the fascistic government in 1925, its leaders are imprisoned or escape abroad. Many militants of the PSI take part in the civil war of Spain, then with resistance antifascist in Italy during the Second world war, in the " Brigate Giacomo Matteotti ". The PSI takes part in the governments according to war, then, in 1947, passes to the opposition.
In 1948, it presents to the legislative elections whole with the Italian Communist party (PCI) in the " Fronte Popolare" (Popular front - FP). The result of the elections is a failure for the left, and the PSI in particular, which pursues however a strategy of unit of action with the NCV. This strategy leads to a clear subalternity compared to the Communists.
The PSI regains a certain room for maneuver in 1956, after the facts of Hungary. Under the leadership of Pietro Nenni, an operation of bringing together to the Christian Democrat starts then, which will carry in 1962 to a " turn on the left " (" svolta has sinistra") in the Italian policy, and with the constitution of the first government of center-left (will centrosinistra).
The reforming dash of the center-left grows blurred rather quickly, while the PSI undergoes scissions (gauchists of the PSIUP, Partito Socialista di Unità Proletaria), and operates reunifications (fusion with the social democrats of the PSDI, in the PSU, Partito Socialista Unificato).
In 1968, the social democrats of the PSDI again give up the PSU, which then takes again its historical denomination of PSI (Italian Socialist party). The party is resigned, in the years which follow, to be used as auxiliary force in the primarily center governments, under the formula of the " pentapartito" (government of the " five partis" : Christian Democrat, Socialists, Social democratic, Republican, Liberal) In the years 1980, under the impulse of its general secretary, the deputy of Milan Bettino Craxi, the socialist party incarnates the component of left of the governmental majority: in 1983, after a good performance in the legislative elections, Bettino Craxi becomes President of the Council (the resident until 1987) in a government of center-left in coalition with the Christian Democrat, which remains majority.
Executives and members of the PSI then founded the Socialisti italiani which were going to become the Socialistes Italian democrats while the other faithful ones of Bettino Craxi were going to found the Nouveau Italian Socialist party, combined with Silvio Berlusconi. Others finally constituted the Labor Fédération which amalgamated with the PDS and other small formations within the Left Democrats. ----
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