The Italian grammar presents many similarities with the French Grammaire and the Spanish Grammaire. Indeed, the Italian belongs to the same linguistic family as the French and the Spanish , i.e. that of the Romance languages.
The definite article
- it , which is the normal case in front of a consonant
- lo , which gets busy in its form elided the in front of the words starting with a vowel, or in its normal form with the words beginning with a consonant known as impure , is: PS , pn , gn , X , Z , or S impure (in other words a S followed by another consonant). In the precise case of lo (as in that of uno ) the words are added starting with a I followed by another vowel
- I is the general case for the consonants
- gli gets busy in the event of impure consonant or of vowel
- the in front of a consonant
- the in front of a vowel
- the in all the cases
The indefinite articleSingular masculine:
- a is the general case
- uno gets busy in front of the words with impure consonant (or starting with a I followed by a vowel )
- una in front of a consonant
- un' in front of a word starting with a vowel
There strictly speaking does not exist indefinite plural; to express indefinite plural, one even possibly has recourse to the partitive masculine degli or female delle , with indefinite the qualche and alcuni/alcune , which is two forms to say " quelques".
Irregular employmentThe only article to take an irregular form is it in the plural, in fact in the plural of " it dio" (the god), where he is written " then; gli dei" (instead of " I dei").
The substantiveThe substantive has two kind S (the female one and masculine) and two numbers (singular, plural).
Names finished in - has (plural in - E ) are generally female; the exceptions are numerous; in particular much of loans to the Greek and names of trades in - has is male and forms their plural in then - I : it problema , the problem; it regista , the director; it poeta , the poet…
Those which present a final in - O (plural in - I ) are most of the time male, except notable for the mano , the hand, and of the words formed by Apocope like the foto , the motor bike , the radio …
Names finished in - E (plural in - I ) are male, female, or both: it duck , the dog; the edge , flesh, meat; it laying/laying it , the chanteur/la singer.
One finds the same terminations for the adjectives.
The kind of the Italian substantives often differs from that their French counterparts in a a little random way, in particular when they derive from Latin neutrals. Example: it pond , sea; to note all the names finishing in - ore (in French - or ) is male: it fiore , the flower, the odore (masc.), the odor (fém.) except the folgore , the lightning.
Some male substantives form their singular while finishing by " a" (like " it turista"), or form their plural with the female one. Some have a double plural, according to the direction. Thus, the uovo , the egg , made in the plural the uova (fém.). For much of words two plurals coexist of which one recovers the clean direction and the other the illustrated direction. It ciglio , the lash , gives the ciglia , but regular plural I cigli exists with the illustrated direction of the edges of a road ( I cigli beyond strada ). It filo , on the contrary, has a regular plural with the clean direction, I fili LED telefono the wire of the telephone ; spun it LED ragionamento , the wire of the reasoning , with the illustrated direction.
Irregular plurals: the uomo - gli uomini (the man), it drunk - I buoi (the ox), it tempio - I templi (the temple). Notable case of the word god which in addition to one irregular plural also takes the article gli : it dio - gli dei , article usually reserved for the words starting with a vowel, a Z or a group of two different consonants (whose second L nor R is neither ).
Are mainly invariable:
- all substantives finished by a consonant; bar, film, sport … (generally of the loans)
- all substantives finished in I : analisi, diagnosi …
- all monosyllabic substantives: Re, gru …
- all substantives accentuated on the last syllable (the word mug ), such as coffee, libertà, virtú …
- except exceptions (example: the moglie => the mogli ), female names finished in IE : the specie …
- the word euro when it indicates the European currency: dieci euro .
SubjectsThe prone personal pronouns are used only when one wants to insist on the person who carries out the action, or when the verbal form is ambiguous (in particular for the subjunctive or relative with the complimentary close, which is on the third nobody). Pareillement with French, they are however also used when it is a question of establishing an opposition between two subjects, like at the time of an enumeration of actions implying various subjects.
Notes: (1) Lei means it or you according to the case, but when it is about the complimentary close (French use of the vous), he is always written with a capital letter with the writing, and he is used, just like our use of the vous, indifferently for the men and the women. Lei replaced Ella in the neighborhoods of XVe century; the use of this pronoun finding its origin in phrases such as “Its Seigniory” or “Its excellence”, which thus required the use of a female pronoun ( Lei or Ella ), and initiated the generalization of this one. When it is a question of addressing as vous several people at the same time, Italian has recourse to Loro , third person plural; however it should be noted that this form is rather seldom used, and that its use tends to disappear with the profit from voi , more informel. (2) Form commonly used in the language parlée. (3) Written language. Meet sometimes in the place of him and lei, and refer exclusively to beings humains. (4) Written language. Meet to indicate things or animaux. (5) Written language. Indifferently individuals, animals or objets. indicate
In Italian, there exists for pronouns C.O.D. two forms:
- one, known as weak form (or dull ), which is generally used in front of the verb. Example: Semi segui? (You are to me?)
- the other, known as strong form (or tonic ), gets busy in several cases:
- after the verb, as insistence, or to emphasize the complement. Example: Segui me? (It is me whom you are?)
- after a preposition. Examples: Ho fatto per voi ; Partirò idiot you.
- after the comparative ones (like, quanto, più… di, meno… di).
- when the pronoun is attribute. Example: Not riderei, fossi in you. (I would not laugh, if I were you.)
- in certain exclamations. Example: Povero me! (Poor of me!)
Semi , Ti , Ci , VI , like lo and the can be elided in front of a vowel; on the other hand Li and the cannot it.
Pronouns C.O.I are distinguished from French in particular in what Italian does to the distinction between masculine and female with the third nobody of the singular (without doing with third person plural of it). The pronouns are the following:
Notes: (1) loro is placed after the verb. To note that gli is very employed in the spoken language, but that loro , which belongs to a register of language a little more sought, has a utility function, in fact that to remove confusion possibly induced by the presence of gli in the singular and.
Particular pronouns: Ci &
Ci is the equivalent of our there , it with the function of adverbial phrase of place. For example, to say " I there vais" , " will be said; Ci vado".
Attention, to say " it there a" , the verb " is used; essere" , which agrees then with what follows. " thus will be said; it E plate oggi" (there is sun today) but " Ci sound system delle person che not parlano italiano" (there are people which does not speak Italian). In the same way, one will say Ci vuole or Ci vogliono to translate one needs .
It is placed in Enclise in the following cases:
- with infinitive. Example: Possiamo andarci? (can one go there?)
- with gerund. Example: Andandoci in bus, andresti più velocemente. (While going there by bus, you would be more quickly.)
- with the requirement. Example: Vacci subito! (Go ahead immediately!)
- with the servile verbs.
Caution! When in French the does not indicate a place there in particular (for example, in the expressions " one there va"), Italian will not put a pronoun: " andiamo".
does not correspond to French in .
Example: " I take deux" of it; - > " prendo due"
It is placed in Enclise in the following cases:
- with infinitive. Example: Voglio prender' ne' due . (I want to take two of them)
- with gerund. Example: Prendendo' ne' due , sarò felice. (By taking some two, I will be content)
- with the requirement. Example: Prendi' ne' due per me, per favore . (Take two for me, please)
- with ecco . Example: Ecco' ne' due per you . (In here are two for you)
- with the verbs semi-auxiliaries
The adjective agrees in kind and of number with the name to which it is referred.
Conjunctions and interjections
The verbThe verbs can combine with the indicative , with the Conditionnel, the Subjonctif and the Impératif. There exist also three modes Impersonnel S: the Infinitive , the gerundio (gerund) and the Participle.
Italian resorts more often than French to the subjunctive.
One distributes the Italian verbs in three categories according to their termination: verbs in - are ( Parlare “To speak”), verbs in - era ( Prendere “To take”), and verbs in - anger ( Partire “To leave” or Finire “To finish”).
It will be noted that the group of the verbs in - anger is divided into two. However, it is difficult to give an exhaustive list of the verbs belonging to one or the other group, just as it is difficult to say to which conjugation belongs the majority of the verbs in - anger, the confrontation of various sources inducing in fact more confusion than she does not withdraw any.
imperfect of the code
In Italian, the preterit says passato remoto , literally: " distant past ".
(1) for many verbs in - era, the ending is - I with the first nobody of the singular, and the radical of the verb changes. ( cadere > caddi ; scrivere > scrissi ; tenere > tenni ; etc)
(2) for many verbs in - era, the ending is - E with the troisière nobody of the singular, and the radical of the verb changes. ( cadere > cadde ; scrivere > scrisse ; tenere > tenne ; etc)
(3) for many verbs in - era, the ending is - ero with the troisière nobody of plural, and the radical of the verb changes. ( cadere > caddero ; scrivere > scrissero ; tenere > tennero ; etc)
passed made up
The made up past is combined in Italian as in French with the verbs being (essere) or to have (proves) according to the case, follow-ups of the last participle of the verb.
pluperfect of the code
In Italian, pluperfect known as trapassato prossimo
In Italian, past anterior says trapassato remoto
The imperfect one of the subjunctive is combined with all the people, unlike French, and except for the first nobody of the singular.
Auxiliary verbsMany verbs are irregular such as for example the verb to be :
Or the verb to have :
As in French, the auxiliary verbs used in the conjugation of made up times are the verb proves “to have” and the verb essere “to be”. However, unlike French, the auxiliary essere is employed with a greater number of verbs which mark a change of state (intransitive mode), in particular vivere “to live”, cambiare “to change”, riuscire “to succeed in” costare “costing”… The verb " avoir" the idea of “possession” (in Italian will generally express, one will thus say " to have a maison" but " to be réussi"). As follows:
Sound system riuscito. “I succeeded. ”
- Sei cambiato. “You changed. ”
- Semi sound system sbagliato. “I was mistaken”
But attention, one will say " Ho sbagliato numero" by thus using the auxiliary " avoir". In the same way, " Ho sbagliato" can be used to say " simply; I am trompé".
With the passive form, Italian employs some times for his expressions the verb venire in the place of essere to indicate a general information or to rather stress the action than on his result. One can then distinguish the participle last from the verbal adjective:
- venire + p. p., accent on the action:
- essere + adj. verbal, accent on the result:
The use of the verb andare as auxiliary indicates a concept of obligation: carried It goes chiusa “the door must be closed”.
- Italian List of grammairiens
- See “'' Enseignement of the Italian ''” on Wikibooks
|Random links:||Kesgrave | Rage (Stephen King) | District council of Guyana | Louis Janmot | Dario Franchitti | Chad Lowe|