Italian Communist party
The Italian Communist party (NCV) was a Political party Italy N, resulting from a scission of the left wing of the Italian Socialist party with the congress of Leghorn the January 21st 1921. The new formation, directed by Amadeo Bordiga and, later (as of 1925) by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, takes the name of Communist party of Italy (Italian section of the International Communist).
Until the medium of the Années 1920 the party is located on the positions of the communist Left. Between 1925 and 1926, the communist left is isolated in a bureaucratic way. Then, in 1930, Pietro Tresso, one of the founders, victim of the Stalinisme, one of the three was excluded who gave rise to the “ Nouvelle Italian opposition ”, from obédiance Trotskiste.
It should however be noted that he takes part in various governments of national union to leaving the Second world war like to the drafting of the Italian Constitution, cooperating in both cases with the Christian Democrat.
The Italian Communist party knows a significant evolution following the report/ratio Khrouchtchev (XXe congress of the Communist party of Soviet Union, February 1956), which marks the beginning of the Déstalinisation in the USSR. Under the impulse of its General secretary, Palmiro Togliatti, the NCV criticizes the repression of the insurrection in Hungary of November 1956 by the Red Army (the army Soviet) and taken its distances with the PCUS. The NCV is then the first PC of Western Europe to affirm the validity of a national way (specific) to be communist. Palmiro Togliatti then theorizes the doctrines known as of the " polycentrisme". This specificity " before guardiste" (within the international communist Movement) will be accentuated throughout the years which follow, until the name change in " Democratic party of the gauche" (PDS) in January 1991, i.e. before even the dispartion of the USSR and the dissolution of the PCUS.
From the Attack of Piazza Fontana, in December 1969, Italy returns in the Années of lead, more or less finished with the Attentat of the station of Bologna in 1980. Enrico Berlinguer, the secretary of the NCV, then tries to set up the " historical Compromise " with the Christian Democrat (cd.), but the assassination of its representative Aldo Moro in May 1978 by the Red seconds Brigades puts an end to the experiment of bringing together between the two great parties of the peninsula. In 2000, a parliamentary report of the coalition of center-left Olivier conclua that the Stratégie of the tension had been " supported by the the United States to prevent the NCV and, to a lesser extent, PSI, to reach the capacity exécutif".
With the French Communist party (PCF), the NCV was one of the two great Western-European Communist parties, member of the Kominform. In the years 1970, it launches the idea of Eurocommunisme, breaking definitively with Moscow. Enrico Berlinguer contributes to the centring of the NCV by gradually posting its divergences with the policy of the the USSR.
In spite of the official divergences, for the only period of 1971 with 1990, the NCV will secretly have received forty seven million dollars on behalf of the Soviet government. In comparison, the French Communist party will have received 50 million, and the Communist party of the United States of America 42 million.
- the Democratic party of the left (PDS) of Social democrat , very majority tendency ;
- communist Recasting (PRC) resulting from the left wing of the party, minority.
Another party, the Partito dei Comunisti Italiani (PdCI), was born from a later scission of Partito della Rifondazione Comunista (communist Refondation).
Its secretaries were, alphabetically: Enrico Berlinguer, Amadeo Bordiga, Antonio Gramsci, Luigi Longo, Alessandro Natta, Achilles Occhetto and Palmiro Togliatti.
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