Island of Oléron
- the Sluice of Antioche in the north (which separates it from the Ile de Ré),
- the Pertuis of Maumusson in the south (which separates it from the Presqu'île of Arvert),
- roads of the Basques and the island of Aix in the North-East and the east (which separates it from the continent).
It is called Oléron “the Luminous one” because of sound strong rate of sunning throughout the year.
The island of oleron is largest of the metropolitan French islands after the Corsica , with its 34 km length on 15 km broad (in the greatest width). Its culminating point, to 34 m, in fact an island enough punt, like its neighbor the Ile de Ré. It has a surface of 175 km ² and 19.000 inhabitants permanent.
It is connected since the March 19th 1966 to the continent by a bridge road length of 3 027 m (the longest bridge of France behind that of the Ile de Ré - 3.840 m), inaugurated the June 21st 1966; it is free since 1991. Built out of prestressed concrete, it rests on 45 piles of rectangular section, its apron is to 23 m above the level of the open seas, it is broad 10,60 m, with a roadway of seven meters for the cars, two cycle tracks and two pavements.
North in the south the principal communes are: Saint-Denis, Saint-Georges, medieval borough including/understanding of many architectural testimonys of Aliénor of Aquitaine and one of the most beautiful Romance churches of France, Saint-Pierre (the capital of the island), borough trading and town of market, the Castle which owes its name with the fortress of the 17th century conceived by Vauban and the Large-Village-Beach. There are also other villages, like Chaucre , '' Brée '', Boyardville , Saint-Trojan-the-Baths , Menounière and Cotinière (localities on the commune of Saint-Pierre)…
Cotinière is a charming fishing port located on the west coast of the island, 75 trawlers return there each day for shouted 5:00 and 16:00. It is one of the most important fishing ports of the department and 12th of France.
On the island, one cultivates early products and the Vigne from where one draws the Pineau from Charentes, liqueur wine, white or rosy aperitif (with the taste iodized because of its particular geographical location).
On the east coast, since the forest of Saumonards (beside Boyardville ) to two kilometers as the crow flies, one sees very well the Fort Boyard, old extremely maritime. Begun in 1804 under Napoleon i to protect the mouth from the Charente, it will be completed in 1859 under Napoleon III. Since the beginning of the years 1990, it is used for the television game which bears the same name.
With the northern point of the island, on the commune of Saint-Denis-in Oléron, is drawn up celebrates it Phare of Chassiron.
In the south of the island, Saint-Trojan-the-Baths is famous for its forest. Its tourist train, its vast beach of the west coast make of it certainly the most balneal place of the island. The place also marks the beginning of the vast coast of sandy accumulation which extends then towards the south along the littoral landais to the first buttresses of the Basque Country, hardly stopped by the Pertuis of Maumusson and the mouth of the Cape Ferret. The climate of the island of Oléron, its sand beaches end, its many cycle tracks, its Estran for fishing with foot, make of it an appreciated destination of the holiday makers in summer.
A little historyAliénor of Aquitaine, sometimes called Eléonore de Guyenne, remained with the Castle-with Oléron in its castle in 1199. It reigned there some time, making write a series of known maritime rules under the name of Rôles of Oléron before withdrawing itself with the Abbaye of Fontevraud where it died in 1204.
March 20th, 1586, the island city is taken by Agrippa of Aubigné.
In February 1625, the Protestant Soubise seizes the island after having occupied the Ile de Ré. A few months later, the duke of Own way organizes an unloading in order to take again the island, supported by the fleets Dutchwoman and English.
The writer Pierre Loti is buried since 1923 in the garden of the house of his grandparents, according to the tradition of his ancestors Huguenot S. This house is located at Saint-Pierre, but according to the wills of the author, one does not visit it, contrary to his house rochefortaise which was transformed into museum.
The island was one of the last pockets of resistance German during the Second world war, and was released at the time of a maritime unloading of almost 8000 men ordered by the brigadier general Rene Marchand between on April 30th and on May 1st, 1945 during the Jupiter operation.
AdministrationThe island is divided into eight communes gathered in two cantons (Castle-of Oléron and Saint-Pierre-with Oléron) and in the Communauté of communes of Island-in Oléron:
- the Brée-the-Baths
- Castle-in Oléron
- Dolus-in Oléron
- the Large-Village-Beach
- Saint-Denis-in Oléron
- Saint-Georges-in Oléron
- Saint-Pierre-in Oléron
Maurice Fox, novelist.
- Pierre Parcelled out, writer.
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