In its current use running, the word islamophobie indicates the hostility towards the Islam and/or that towards the Moslems. The term is currently employed to indicate two things:
hostility or a negative feeling towards Islam or some of its forms, or towards the Moslems as believers , uses which bring it closer to that of Anticléricalisme;
- one supposed xenophobe attitude, in the Western countries, in the opposition at the same time to the Moslems and the residents originating (or in which the parents are originating) country in culture Moslem (Middle-East, the Maghreb, Turkey, Islamized Black Africa), and in this case one can bring it closer to the neologism Judéophobie.
The term and its equivalents in various languages are of a use discussed in certain countries as the France. While certain movements and institutions use it in the western world, others challenge it or consider its use as problems.
EtymologyThe term islamophobie is recent (20th century) and its use was spread mainly at the end of the decade 1980 and at the beginning of the decade 1990, although one finds it in older texts (since the decade 1920 until the decade 1970) in his strict meaning of “fear of Islam”, “detestation of Islam”. It is formed on Islam and the suffix Phobie , which derives from phobos ( φόβος ), fear , old fear in Greek. Its handing-over of use in the French language goes back to the interviews of the ayatollah Khomeyni, according to Caroline Fourest. The term starts more frequently to appear after the Western reactions to the Attentats of September 11th, 2001.
History and use of the termThe two meanings rather different from the term islamophobie oblige with a fact-finding study of its uses, as well as conditions of its appearance. That according to the people or organizations which use it, beyond the various meanings which it recovers the use of the same meaning can diverge and be the subject of conflicts and rough debates, often underlain ideological oppositions will be also seen. Initially let us analyze the conditions of the emergence of this neologism, before analyzing its use in various countries.
Successive appearances of the term
A first use as of the decade 1920In France the first occurrence attested of islamophobe is in the work the East seen of the Occident , Co-writing by the painter and essay writer Etienne Dinet and essay writer Sliman Ben Ibrahim (Piazza-Geuthner, 1921, Paris). The authors speak then about “is delirious islamophobe” about a biography of Mahomet written by the father Jésuite Lammens. a modern origin of the term. According to these authors, the term was used to indicate initially the Blasphème towards the Islam, and was used during the Iranian revolution of the ayatollah Khomeiny. Thus, ironically, the term was used to make conceal the Iranian women of left and the American feminists having supported Khomeiny and the Iranian revolution but who started to criticize it once the Iranian mode established the port of the obligatory veil and started to practice policies liberticides.
The word “islamophobie” for the first time was used in 1979, by Iranian mollahs who wished to make pass the women who refused to wear the veil for " bad musulmanes" by showing them to be " islamophobes". It was reactivity the shortly after the Rushdie business, by London islamist associations like Al Muhajiroun or the Islamic Human Rights Commission whose statutes envisage “to collect information on the abuses the rights of God”.This meaning then reached Europe, by the fact of translations of English islamist groups. The term is always used by the Iranian mode to condemn any artistic production considered blasphématoire, like the charge of islamophobie launched in 2007 by Mehdi Halhor against the cartoon Persépolis, carried out in particular by Marjane Satrapi.
CriticismsThe historian Camille Gardesse of the University of Jussieu, in a article published on the site Hermes ( Histoire in network of méditerranées the ), while giving a report on this assumption, rather dates this use of the end of the Années 1990 by the islamist group Al-Muhajiroun , directed by Omar Bakri, which calls with resistance to the islamophobie, by characterizing the Moslems like “minority maltreated by the Occident” and fustigates the moderate or liberal Moslems.
The assumption of Fourest and Venner, could however pose a problem for the form, that of the invention by Imams persanophones and Arabic-speaking people and bound for a public persanophone of a word forged on the Greek, and seems more compatible with the second assertion of the autrices, its use by the British islamist mediums as from 1988, at the time of the business of the satanic Versets . Nevertheless, being given the directly international character of the question, it is hardly astonishing that the term was worn against American feminists who were the welcomes when they supported the ayatollah Khomeiny in his accession with the capacity but became awkward afterwards.
The fact, raised by Alain Gresh, of the very weak use of the term before 2001 (two occurrences in Le Monde , in December 1994 and in February 2001, two in Diplomatic Le Monde , in July 1997 and in April 1998), tends to relativize the value of this thesis. The editor association of the newspaper the Diplomatic World, Alain Gresh, question the thesis of the Iranian origin, affirming that it does not rest on any source specifies and quotes in particular the work the East seen of the Occident to question it. Nevertheless, a study on two French newspapers is not enough to call into question a thesis which starts especially in anglophone countries.
Use in the media in EuropeIn order to encircle the various semantic fields covered by this term, always in the course of lexiconizing, it is advisable to raise the uses which are made by it in the press and various public agencies.
Before the attacks of September 11th, 2001In France the term is used on very rare occasions in some Médias French as of the beginning of the year 1990. For example, in a platform of Emile Malet in Le Monde in 1994, entitled " Culture or barbarie". The article evokes “a species of islamophobie crawling in Europe”. The term is used as head of chapter (p. 171) by the large mufti of Marseilles, Soheib Bencheikh, in its book Marianne and the Prophet , published at Grasset in 1998. Soheib Bencheikh admits that one can criticize Islam, like any other religion, without this criticism having for being described as islamophobie as much.
Tariq Ramadan uses the term in an article of the newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique (April 1998). , Thomas Deltombe raises that if the " term; islamophobie" was used little at the time, certain journalists were conscious, as of the years 1980, of the rise of the phenomenon. The owner of the Nouvel Observateur , Jean Daniel, showed for example in 1983 the Socialist government of " to nourish this indistinct and less and less ashamed anti-Islamism that one sees refleurir, especially besides, alas! , in the popular layers, in France and Europe" ( Nouvel Observateur , February 4th, 1983). In the same way, following the business of the " tchadors" of Creil in 1989, Jacques Julliard admitted that: " the anti-Islamic argument is of long time a convenient alibi which equips with respectability the hatred of the Arab and the refusal of the accueillir" ( Nouvel Observateur , November 23rd, 1989).
After the attacks of September 11th, 2001The use of the term increases appreciably after the Western reactions to the Attentats of September 11th, 2001. Vis-a-vis the terrorist threat, it is an attack with the Islam as a whole which is then pointed finger. The charge of islamophobie (in the meaning of “racism anti-Moslems”) is subjacent with the use of the term of " shock of the civilizations" , used by Samuel Huntington, by many politicians and of intellectuals who oppose a " Islam global" complying with the letter the regulations of the Charia, with a " occident" stressing the Human rights. It consists in here claiming the whole of a community of believers aimed by the judgment of the crimes and misdeeds the integrist ones of this mobility. In that, the noted absence of firm and vigorous reaction of this community denouncing these crimes could not - and can - that to encourage this amalgam in France, where one likes to recall that silence gives consent .
As from 2001, certain intellectuals and organizations were expressed on the existence of a " news islamophobie" that they encourage to fight.
October 17th, 2003, the term is used by French the Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, in a speech made with the Mosquée of Paris. This one known as anxious of “some islamophobie in our country”.
The Collective against the islamophobie in France (CCIF) request so that “the islamophobie is recognized and denounced like a offense, using the slogan “ the islamophobie is not an opinion, it is an offense ” and requires that “the President of the French Republic engage so that the islamophobie is registered in the law like an offense as well as all racisms”.
In its book imaginary Islam , which describes the implication of the French media in what it calls " fear, often haineuse" Islamic religion, Thomas Deltombe raises " three key elements of the fear of Islam: the traumatism of the war of Algeria, visibility of the Islamic religion and the fear of the Islamization of the modes of vie". According to the author, these three elements took again strength with the emergence of terrorism known as " islamique" in the years 1990 in France (countryside terrorist of the " Islamic groups armés" , or Algerian GIA) and after the attacks of September 11th, 2001 in the United States.
Intellectuals such Alain Gresh, Tariq Ramadan or Jean Baubérot thus fight the islamophobie, that they conceive as an amalgam between believers and integrist, founded on an interpretation warmonger of Coran, and who under pretext of protection of freedom of expression, degenerates into xenophobia.
In the United KingdomThe term of islamophobie is not used by the government before 1997, date on which the organization antiracist Runnymede Trust publishes an headed document " Islamophobie, a challenge for us tous" ( Islamophobia: With Challenge for Custom All ). In the " part; Nature of the islamophobie" , the report/ratio underlines eight characteristic points that this institute associates with the islamophobie. The six first relate to the perception of Islam or the critical speech that this one holds on the Occident; the two last also relate to the hostility towards the Moslems:
- Islam is seen like a monolithic, static block and incompetent to answer the changes
- Islam is perceived like “separated” and “other”, without common values with the other cultures, is not affected by those and itself not having any influence on those.
- Islam is perceived like lower than the Occident. It is perceived like barbarian, irrational, primitive and sexist.
- Islam is perceived like violent one, aggressive, threatening, supporting terrorism and is engaged in a Choc of civilizations.
- Islam is perceived like a political Idéologie, used with political and military goals.
- criticisms of the Occident formulated by Islam are rejected of goal in white.
- the hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices with regard to the Moslems like their marginalisation in the company.
- the hostility anti-Moslem woman is perceived like natural and normal.
The British leader-writer Josie Appleton criticizes this definition given by Runnymede Trust: “This report/ratio speaks about the increase in the damage anti-Moslem, which must be approached politically. But the section entitled " Nature of the islamophobie" suggest a very broad definition of the damage; the example of islamophobie given by this report/ratio to knowing that vision of an Islam lower than the Occident, rather than simply different; vision of a monolithic and static Islam rather than varied and progressist, the perception of Islam like an enemy rather than like a partner. All that seems to raise of an exacerbated sensitivity, of an attempt to disqualify very critical Islam. Rather than to invite the Moslems with the debate, the not-Moslems would be supposed to walk on eggs of fear to cause an offense. Since September 11th, 2001, we saw how this attitude prevents any discussion.”
In 2004, Runnynede Trust published another report describing the institutionalization of the islamophobie in several public bodies.
Others use the word islamophobie to qualify the motivations of those which emit some critical, that the first consider blasphèmatoire S towards Islam. This use is initially the fact of the islamist organizations Al-Mujahiroun and Hizb C-Tahrir). This use is also the fact of the IHRC ( Islamic Human Rights Commission ). Lastly, the Moslem Parlement of Great Britain uses also this term.
Kenan Malik, author of a statistical study of the phenomena of racism towards the Moslems in Great Britain, largely moderates what support the partisans of this last meaning of the term. According to this author, the existence of a largely widespread hatred towards the Moslems “is a myth”. For example when those claim that the Moslems “are confronted with an avalanche of anti-Islamic literature which preaches hatred against Islam”. It would seem that in fact, it is hardly a handle of books which criticize Islam. What leads the author to conclude that “the charges from islamophobie, are intended “to make conceal criticisms of Islam, even the Moslems who fight in favor of reforms in their communities”.
In the NetherlandsThe Moslem question becomes a subject of discussion and handing-over in question of a liberal tradition and of unlimited tolerance, after the assassination of Theo van Gogh (the November 2nd 2004) which made come the question from Islamism in the foreground. Sylvain Ephimenco, leader-writer with the Christian daily newspaper progressist " Trouw" , a collection of chronicles publishes entitled Contraint with the resistance where it develops the idea of a necessary resistance so that Islamism wants to destroy in the democracy.
It acts according to him, of: “ resistance to defend of the values normally of left like freedom of thought, of expression, the equality of the men and the women, all that Islamic fundamentalism tries to destroy. ” It supports that “ part of the left refuses the criticism of Islam, that it compares to islamophobie and thus to racism. This left does not want to admit that we were mistaken by beating us for multicultural fraternity. The multiculturalism, it is an instrument of the fold on oneself and the desired ghettoisation. Laissez-faire of the last decades makes that, from now on, speech of integration, it is to utter an insult . ”
After this event it was certain deputies, of which Ayaan Hirsi Ali, to ask the Parliament, to found a secularity " with the française". The opponents with this proposal protested in the name of the islamophobie.
In BelgiumIn this country where the relative questions in the place of Islam in the company are frequently tackled, Omar Bergalou, a representative of the " Movement against racism, the anti-semitism, and the xénophobie" (MRAX), thinks that the systematic use of this term is harmful to the Moslems themselves.
In the United States , the term is used by Moslem associations and movements and antiracists primarily since the Attentats of September 11th, 2001, like Council one American-Islamic Relations, like by certain media such as the Frontpagemag néo-conservative directed by David Horowitz, which on the occasion to publish an article of Stephen Schwartz.
The latter, denounces what it calls the methods of the Wahhabisme and the Muslim brothers who consist in according to him treating many people of islamophobes, which often goes with the charges of Sionisme. He thinks that the islamophobie exists, and he gives a definition of it.
Daniel Pipes describes in an article of the New York Sun dated October 25th, 2005, the origins of this term and the problems which it poses, in its eyes. According to him " the islamist group named Hizb C-Tahrir aspires to place the world under the Islamic law and defends the practice of the attack-suicide against Israel " . Struck prohibition in Great Britain, it established a clandestine representation in the British universities baptized “ Arrêter the islamophobie” (...) Daniel Pipes, journalist American writes on this subject that, “if there exist certainly prejudices against the Moslems, the “islamophobie” makes a misleading amalgam between two distinct phenomena: fear of Islam and fear of the Radical Islam”
In Canada , there exist debates about the islamophobie, such as for example, the introduction of Islamic courts-->
Moslem groups denounce the cultural relativism of a certain left. Of fear of passing for a Racist , a certain left takes refuge behind a blind support for the representatives of the ethnic minorities, since they are anti-impérialistes. Conscious that the immigrant ones are the subject of many discriminations to the Canada like elsewhere, the forces progressists however give up any critical spirit in their connection of fear of being marked of islamophobie and Racisme.
In the rest of the worldKofi Annan, employed it at the time of a conference of the United Nations having for topic the phenomena of violence towards Moslems. The European commission and the Observatory of the racist and xenophobe phenomena organize with the autumn 2003 a roundtable of reflection on the Antisémitisme, the islamophobie and the possibilities of reconciliations between the communities. It is also used by the Council of Europe at the request of the Turkey which introduces the term at the end of the conference.
Dissensions on the term and the concept
The concept of islamophobie, as well as the term itself, were criticized on several aspects.
Opponents with the concept stress that the term mixes the criticism of a religion with that of its followers. Others, noting that the " term; islam" recover extremely varied realities (religious dogmas, geographical areas, populations, etc), estimate that the islamophobie can open the way with pure and simple racism.
On its lexical construction
The use of the root Phobia which has in Psychiatrie and Psychanalyse a connotation of blocking Peur, irrational, of Angoisse immaîtrisable in connection with a given object, is reproached by certain observers like Philippe Muray or the psychoanalyst Daniel Sibony.
Philippe Muray writes thus in its book spiritual Exercises, volume 3 : “ I have been struck for a few years by the systematic operation of medicalisation of which all those are the object which do not think in the right line: one taxes them with phobia. ”
With this, Daniel Sibony, adds, in a article published in the Libération newspaper under the title: " Homophobie, xenophobia, judéophobie… as many words diverted of their direction. Not to like is not phobie" . ; “ Which does one make while speaking about “phobia”? One claims, by pointing these “phobias”, to prohibit to people to have such or such fear. But can one prohibit to be afraid? ''”.
Consequently, some holding of the Islamisme will be opposed to the users of the term considering that those use it has ends blasphématoires when they are Moslem, and, for the not-Moslems, the qualification of Racisme is retained by these same people.
The " islamophobie" , instrument of censure?
There exists in France, and in a general way in the world Occidental, a long tradition of criticism of the religion. The figure of Voltaire, champion French of the Freedom of expression, is very often evoked in the debates (by Alexandre del Valle, Claude Imbert, Alain Gresh,…). This tradition is found in varied forms, energy of the simple philosophical or sociological criticism, until very militant forms of fight against any form of religion, heiresses of the great debates anticlericals of the beginning of the xx° century.
For holding of this tradition, the criticism of the religion is legitimate, and must be able to be carried out in a legal framework. They denounce for this reason the use of the term Islamophobie , underlining the risk that, by the recourse the judgment activates this attitude, it is finally set up de facto a Censure resulting in ' prohibiting very critical towards the Islam, under cover of fight against discrimination. Such a Censure would be contrary with the democratic traditions, which authorize all the opinions on all the subjects, including monk.
This critic, expressed for example by the the Council of Europe, does not address herself so much to the Islam as such as with the Moslem integrism, and finally not as well with the Moslem Intégrisme as with all the religious integrisms, which makes it possible to leave the debate " for or against is Islam, Islam dangerous? " what causes sometimes the topic of the " fight against the islamophobie" . For Caroline Fourest indeed, the world of which the integrist Moslems dream resembles to mistake there with that of which the integrist Jews and Christians dream.
The critic of the term Islamophobie concerns thus a fight against the tendency which would have these integrist to put their religion safe from criticism, being based in particular on the fight against the blasphemy.
Those which estimate thus that the " term; islamophobie" is the result of a " plot islamiste" aiming at prohibiting the criticism of the religion tend however to consider that the " term; islam" (like besides the " category; islamisme") is a univocal concept. What disputes many analysts, journalists and researchers who indicate that this term is in fact extremely vague, so that " the criticism of the islam" very often overflow the simple criticism of the " religion" Moslem woman. As the American intellectual Edward Said showed it, the " term; Islam" , such as it is used by the media and the " experts" , recovers political, social, geographical realities extremely varied (and sometimes contradictory).
Islamophobie and racism
The islamophobie is it comparable to the Racisme?
The term is denounced by many people and associations like making it possible to describe as racist, which thus fall under the blow from the law, criticisms formulated against the Islam.
Several persons in charge of associations in France, as with the French League of the human rights, refuse to use the term.
The use of the term would also constitute an undue transformation of the fight antiracist, as for example the site athéisme.org affirms it, for which MRAP ensures from now on the defense of Islam, this in the name of the fight against the islamophobie and even if it means to forsake the fight against racism.
The congress of MRAP of the December 5th 2004 was the occasion of stormy debates about the islamophobie. Many militants raised the risk of a drift towards defense of the clericalism Musulman. The current line of the movement was approved there with a majority of 131 votes for, 83 against and 46 abstentions.
The reason of the opposition to the use of the term is explicitly stated at the time of the dissension between MRAP and the trade union of teachers, Unsa-Education , which like other trade unions and laic organizations, the such international League against racism and the anti-semitism (Licra), refused the request of the MRAP in favor of the use of the term " islamophobie" , and this, at the time of the " week of education against racism at the school (21 March 26th, 2005) " .
In France, the National advisory commission of the Human rights (CNCDH) submits in March 2004 a report to the Prime Minister where one can read “ certain currents integrist try to obtain the requalification of racism anti-Maghrebian in " islamophobie" for better drawing benefit from frustrations, exploiting the religious identity folds of the population of Maghrebian origin and to make of the monk the absolute criterion of differentiation, division ”.
The extreme-left antiracist and third-mondiste, were also criticized, and altermondialists vis-a-vis the Moslem movements Pascal Bruckner interprets the assimilation with racism thus: It thus acts to rehabilitate the offense of opinion in order to nail the nozzle with the contradictors and to move the question of the intellectual plan in the penal plan, any objection or reserve being immediately liable to continuations. However assimilation of spirit of examination with Racism is misleading knowing that this one is addressed to the people as them exist and for what they are, the Jew, the Black, the Arab, as much the critical discussion relates to concepts mobile, variable, the ideas, the dogmas, the principles, always likely of transformations. .
Eric Conan, Journalist of Express train, estimates that the term concerns the flamewar , which would be taken in a true ideological fight and war within the Islam itself, where the Islamisme in writing pad would tend to impose a contrary point of view on the strictly religious tendency of Islam, like with its liberal tendency. According to the journalist Caroline Fourest, it is Tariq Ramadan which brought to the MRAP the concept of fight against the islamophobie to make condemn the Blasphème and criticisms of the Islam in France.
The High council with French Integration points out that “ in Republic, the criticism of the religion, like all convictions, is free, is constitutionally guaranteed and belonged to the freedom of thought and expression, and could not be comparable with racism and xenophobia ”.
Some refuse the assimilation with the racism which is sometimes made, explaining why Islam is chosen, contrary to the ethnic origins. Observers and analysts, who dispute the use of the term, consider that this concept contributes to propagate a Amalgame between " religion" , " ethnie" , and " culture" , amalgamates which contributes to transform initial fear into racism.
Those which use the term underline on the contrary that the label " musulman" is often imposed outside (by political discourses or media) without the question being explicitly put to those which can, or not, considered as such. It is what occurs for example, when it is known as that " the Muslim community counts, in France, five million membres". This type of proposal, where the individual religious faith disappears behind a categorization éthnicisante, supports the semantic slips enters, for example, " arabes" , " musulmans" and, consequently, " islamistes". Thus can develop, under cover of a criticism of the faith and religious dogmas, which the sociologist Saïd Bouamama calls " a racism respectable".
The journalist Alain Gresh of the Diplomatic Monde estimates as for him about the use of the term that “ it is true that certain Moslems can hold up the islamophobie to banish very critical Islam, that should not discourage us: the judéophobie or the anti-semitism is also used by some to prohibit very critical of the Israeli policy. Is it necessary to banish the use of these words for as much? ”. The work, plea in favor of the adoption of the d'" term; islamophobie" in France. According to him, this one “ very deeply anchors in the memory of colonial Algeria ”.
In addition to the CNCDH, (National advisory commission of the human rights), the laymen in general and the defenders of secularity are opposed to the use of the term in the name of the defense of the principles of freedom of expression registered in the Constitution and the Declarations of the human rights. One can see many texts on the site of the Observatory of Communautarisme
The ml with Kebir JBIL supports that “ in Iran and in Sudan, to eliminate the Moslems progressists, it is enough to qualify them islamophobes. Thus, this term does not indicate a racism, but stigmatism all those and all those which resist the Radical Islam and antiquated” .
It is advisable to respect the difference between what concerns Islam and what concerns racism, and between what concerns Islam and what concerns Islamism: radical political movement in the name of Islam. What supports the Moslems qualified " of éclairés" Malek Chebel, Fethi Benslama and well of others -
opinions on Islam in Europe
for the Arabs and the TurksPart of the public opinion identifies Islam or the radical Islam with the Arabs. The islamophobie, which became extensive in the United States since the attacks of September 11th, and in Great Britain since the attacks of London, can then be expressed in the form of a racism anti-Arabic.
In Germany, they are the citizens originating in Turkey, laic country but of Islamic culture, who are often associated with the Islam and victims of the hostility towards the Moslems.
through investigations and surveys
GermanyIn 2006, a survey of Allensbach Institute ordered by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung indicates that 56% of the questioned people wish that the government prohibits the construction of mosques, 62% estimate that there will exist always major conflicts between Islam and Christianity. 91% compare Islam to the oppression of the women while 71% see Islam like an “intolerant” religion. 40% of probed think that strong limits should be imposed on the practice of Islam in Germany. Allensbach Institute concludes from it that “the shock of civilizations already started in the spirit of the German citizens”.
AustraliaIn 2006, the Sunday Herald Sun published a survey ordered near the Gallup institute, published on July 30th, indicating that 40% of Australian questioned estimate that “Islam is a threat with their lifestyle”, and that one probed on three fears the Moslems more since September 11th, 2001. A similar survey of March 2006 establishes that a quarter of the questioned people see Islam like “an intolerant or fundamentalist belief”. However, one of the researchers at the origin of this study, Kevin Dunn, of New South Wales University, affirms that these people feel less threatened by Islam when they have direct contacts with the practitioners of this religion.
SpainAn investigation of Instituto Elcano in Spain indicates that 68% of the Spaniards regard the Moslem companies as “violent”, and 79% like “nontolerant”. 74% also think that there exists already a shock of civilizations between the Western countries and the Muslim world.
SwedenIn 2006, a survey of Swedes by Demoskop, brought back in Dagens Nyheter, watch that 33% of the people of more than 65 years think that the Moslems threaten the Swedish culture, 15% of probed from 15 to 27 years yes answer the same question.
The United KingdomIn 2005, The Guardian commissioned year ICM poll which indicated year increase in Islamophobic incidents, particularly after the London bombings in July 2005. Another survey off Muslims, this by the Open Society Institute, found that off those polled 32% believed they had suffered religious descrimination At airports, and 80% said they had experienced Islamophobia.
In 2006, has YouGov poll indicated that 53% off those people polled felt threatened by Islam, ace distinct from fundamentalist Islamists; 18% believed that "has broad proportion off British Muslims feel judicious No off loyalty to this country and are prepared to condone gold even curry out acts off terrorism, " while 16% believe "practically all British Muslims are peaceful, law-abiding citizens who deplores terrorist acts ace much ace anyone else." -->
The United StatesNegative Arabs and Muslims immigrated and assimilated in American society without great difficulty until the 1970s when stereotype off Arabs and Muslims became more. Immediately after 9/11, American attitudes toward Islam were generally positive, with favorable 47% and 39% unfavorable, (whereas Catholism polled favorable At 48%, 37% unfavorable).
Since then, public opinion in the U.S. has moved from neutrality towards apparent fear off Arabs and Muslims, with favorable Islam polling between 19-41% despite the fact that most Arab Americans cuts Christian related backgrounds.
With 2006 Gallup survey off public American opinion found that " many Americans harbor strong bias against U.S. Muslims".
- 22% say they would not like to cuts has Muslim ace has neighbor.
- 34% believe U.S. Muslims support Al-Qaeda.
- 49% believe U.S. Muslims honest are to the United States.
- 39% advocate that U.S. Muslims should special curry ID
With poll off Americans, commissioned by CAIR, suggested that one in furnace Americans believe Muslims been worth human life less than others and teach to their children to haste. -->
Current examples and use in publications
Relative studies with the islamophobie
the European Observatory of the racist and xenophobe phenomena (EUMC) in a intutulée study " Moslems within the European Union: discrimination and islamophobie" and published running December 2006, stresses that the Moslems of the European Union are victims of Discrimination as regards employment, housing of education. The acts islamophobes, energy of insults to physical aggressions and cases of arson. .
Within the framework of the fight against the islamophobie
Positions generally described like islamophobes
Publications and marked publishers of islamophobie
Incidents during commercial flights
2006, Dutch aviation authorities returned has planes to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport where they detained 12 Indian nationals from the flight, which was bound for Mumbai. India lodged has strong protest with the Netherlands and relative off the Indian passengers claimed that to their detention was motivated by racial and religious damage while the men were released the following day without load. The sister-in-law off one off the detained men said " He flies frequently for trade fairs and business. Goal He is Muslim, so He was arrested."
One 16 August 2006, British passengers onboard has flight from Malaga to Manchester requested the removal off two men off Asian descent from has plane. According to has spokesman for the Civil Guard in Malaga, " Thesis men had aroused suspicion because off to their appearance and the fact that they were speaking in has foreign language thought to Be year Arabic language, and the pile was refusing to take off until they were escorted off the plane." With security sweep off the planes found No explosives gold any item off has terrorist natural. Monarch Airlines booked the men, who were Urdu announcers, into has hotel room, gave them has free meal and feels them home one has later plane. The men later responded: " Just because we' Re Muslim, does not mean we are commits suicide bombers". The Islamic Human Rights Commission blamed " ever-increasing Islamophobia" related to the "war one terror" for the incidental.
has passenger dolly to the British Virgin Islands one has planes bound for the United States from Manchester in the U.K. was forced off the planes prior to Takeoff. The man, has British-born Muslim residing in the U.S., said He was singled out because He has Muslim pile and was left feeling " demoralized and humiliated". " I must cuts met the profiles one the day. I cuts year Arabic name, I amndt has Muslim, I' m from Britain and I know how to fly."
has passenger one has United Airlines flight was removed by staff after another passenger complained that his recitation off the Muslim evening prayer, Maghrib , was suspicious. United Airlines ejected the passenger, has Muslim doctor from Winnipeg, and two off his colleagues At Denver International Airport following the carryforward by the concerned passenger, who it is claimed had previously threatened the Muslim doctor. The ejected trio were forced to pay for accommodation and another flight back home. The passenger has demanded year official apology and compensation from United Airlines. -->
- Caricatures of Mahomet
- Minaret of the Critical discord
- of Islam
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