The Islam is a Religion Monothéiste (belief as an only one God Transcendant ; the Pantheism, Immanence of God, is regarded as being Shirk), chronologically the third large current Monothéiste of the family of the abrahamic religions. Appeared in Arabia at the 7th century, it is distinguished from the Judaïsme and the Christianisme with which it has nevertheless many common elements. The faithful ones are called Moslem .
Islam has a book Sacré, the Coran, whose Dogme ensures that it collected the Révélation God with the Prophète Mahomet via the Archange Gabriel. The other books crowned in the Islam are, by chronological order, the Suhuf-I-Ibrahim (the Feuillets of Abraham ), the Tawrat (the Pentateuque or the Torah), the Zabur (the Livre of the Psalms) and the Injil (the Évangiles or the New Testament).
There is between 1 and 1,8 billion Moslems in the world. They are divided into several currents, in particular the Sunnisme and the Chiisme. It is in Indonesia that the most important Muslim community in the world saw.
the word Islam with a tiny indicates the religion which appeared at the 7th century and whose Prophète founder is Mahomet.
the word Islam with a Majuscule indicates the whole of the Moslem people, the Islamic Civilization as a whole.
the word Moslem indicate what is relating to the religion: people professing Islam and what is relative to its laws and rites.
the word Islamic return to Islam as a religion and a civilization.
Islamization, or Islamism, with the first direction of the term, is the political domination of a territory by Moslems.
Islam: God tender (acceptance of God as creator in the Religions monotheists). By ex: he is current to say (for a Moslem) that the prophets Moïse and Jesus were in the Islam (because they were subjected).
EtymologyThe word Islam translittération Arab word rear RTL الإسلام, transcribed is the islām , which has an equivalent in Syriaque as in Hebrew but not in French. It has, like many terms of this religion, two significances: a general significance suitable for the Arab language, and a more specific religious significance.
In Arabic, Islam mean tender volunteer, or allegiance , insinuation with God . It is about a name of action (in rear Arabic RTL اسمفعل ism fiʿl ), derived from a Semitic root of three consonants, S . L . m ; this root indicates the act to be subjected in a voluntary way, to make allegiance. The “name of agent” (in rear Arabic RTL اسمفاعل ism fāʿil , that which makes the action) derived from this root is rear RTL مُسْلِم muslim “that which is subjected”, at the origin of the French word Moslem . Lastly, the same root S . L . m returns to the concept of “peace”, as one sees it in the greeting salām , equivalent of the Hebrew shalom .
One finds the term muslim in many verses evoking the tender such as for example the end of verse 136 of the sourate 2 in Arabic: Wa Naĥnu Lahu Muslimūna which means “And with Him we subject ourselves”.
For the religion and thus according to the Moslems, Islam indicates the tender so that the Creator of the Worlds, Allah (God), which would be a contraction of Arabic Al-ilāh , “God” (cf Allah ) would have ordered and whose word would have been transmitted by the prophets messengers , in Arabic, nabī rasūl , which one Glose by “with which it is revealed to invite the people to follow laws which were revealed to him and which are specific to the messenger”, and prophets not messengers, in Arabic nabī , glosé by “with which it is revealed to invite the people to follow the law of the messenger who will have preceded it”. It is, in kind, acceptance by the heart, the acts and the word of all that was revealed and transmitted.
Thus, Islam distinguishes:
- the belief : what the heart accepts and that of which it is satisfied;
- and the faith : the degree of attachment to the beliefs and the specific acts dictated by the religion.
The prophet defined the belief (or the faith) by a word which means: “The faith ( Iman ) is that you believe in a God, His angels, His books, His messengers and last day and that you believe in the predestination of the good or the evil”.
In religious jurisprudence, adhering it to Islam mouslim is named (Moslem) and adhering it to the iman mou' min is named (believing), without to make dissociation between the two because the direction of these terms is considered to be similar.
Indeed, the Imam Abou Hanifah (death in 150/767) clarified the Moslem position concerning the relationship between the iman and Islam in these words: “They are like the reverse and the dish of the hand”, i.e. inseparable, and consequently any Moslem ( mouslim ) is regarded as believer ( mou' min ) and vice versa.
The Moslem lawyers said that without a total acceptance of the faith ( iman ) by the heart, the membership of whoever with Islam is invalid. In the same way, any conversion with Islam is valid only by the faith ( iman ) in the heart and added with the verbal pronunciation of both " testimonys of foi" ( Ach-Chahadah ) namely for example " I testify that there is true divinity only God and I testify that Mouhammad is the Prophet of Dieu".
However, there exist several degrees of believers ( mou' minoun ). Indeed the Moslems practitioner perfectly the religious regulations are regarded as " believers complets" whereas the others are known as " believers incomplets" or " weak believer of foi".
The doctrinal base of all the Moslems is that this universe and what it contains have a Creator who is God and whom it has of the attributes of perfection worthy of Him. God has attributes indénombrables, but the theologists frequently quote of them thirteen who are often repeated in Coran, namely:
Existence (Al-Woujoûd): God undoubtedly exists, without how and It is not depend on time.
- Unicity (Al-Wahdaniyyah): God is single, It does not have a associate, single from Itself, His attributes and His acts.
- the Exemption of beginning (Al-Qidam): God is eternal free from beginning, it does not have there a beginning with His existence. There exists before the creatures.
- the Exemption of end (Al-Baqa'): God is eternal free from end, it does not have there end being Him. He does not vanish.
- Not-need (Al-Qiyamou Bi n-Nafs): God does not need any of His creatures and all the creatures need Him. It created any thing by wisdom and not by need.
- Power (Al-Qoudrah): God is Tout-puissant, It creates and destroys all that exists separately Him.
- Will (Al-Iradah): All that occurs in this universe occurs by wanting it of God, and any thing is characterized by God.
- Science (Al “Ilm): God knows all the things before they take place.
- Hearing (Assam”): God hears all that is audible.
- Sight (Al-Basar): God sees all that is visible.
- Life (Al-Hayah): God is alive. Its life does not have resemblance to ours. It is alive and does not die.
- Word (Al-Kalam): God speaks; Its word is not an Arab or different language, and Its word does not have resemblance to the language of the men.
- the absolute Difference with what is created (Al-Moukhalafatou Li l-Hawâdith): God does not have resemblance to the creatures.
And God is free from any imperfection such as tiredness, the change or the need.
One includes/understands of an explicit verse of Coran “Nothing is not such as Him”. And consequently the majority of the Moslem theologists affirm that the not-explicit verses which would give seemingly bodies or a site to God, should not be taken in the literal sense (it would be for them Anthropomorphisme) but have a metaphorical direction. There exists also a minority of followers of literalism like the salafists, who are between the metaphorism and the anthropomorphism, considering that the text must be taken in its own direction while keeping in mind that nothing resembles God.
God exists but Its Reality is different from ours. The Throne is most immense of the creatures from the size, it constitutes the roof of the paradise. The paradise is above the seven skies, it is separate.
The Imam and linguist Taqiyyou D-DIN Have-Soubki said: " The worship, it is the extreme limit of fear and the tender ". The Moslems adore and repent only with God. The simple fact of obeying a superior, of subjecting themselves to an authority or of requesting the assistance of a creature, is thus not regarded as a worship. The Moslems glorifient those which God glorifié, with the example of the Prophets, of the Angels, without never adoring them because by calling upon only God for that.
See also: Names of Allah
According to a Hadith, it is mentioned that God has 99 perfect names ( Al-Asma' or l-Lahou l-Housna ) but the Texts also quotes some of others that these such as for example Al 'Ahad (the Indivisible one) or Ar-Rabb (the Lord) which is mentioned in Qour' year but not in the above mentioned Hadith. It known as that God has an unknown name to the common people, was named " Al-Ismou l-A^dham" , by which God exauce with that which calls upon It.
The Moslems believe in the existence of the Angels, that God created light. In their true aspect, they are fine beings (nonpalpable) equipped with two or several wings. However, without never taking the appearance of a woman, they appear with certain piles, generally under the features of a young person and beautiful man, deprived of genitals.
The Angels carry out in all obedience the orders of God, without never disobeying to Him. Moreover, they are different from the other creatures which test the need to drink, to eat, sleep, to marry, etc
According to the Moslem Texts, the revealed Books are 104, of which most known are:
- the Qour' ân revealed with the Prophet Mahomet
- the Torah ( At-Tawrât ) revealed in Moïse
- the Gospel ( Al-Injîl ) revealed with Jesus ( Issah for the Moslems), wire of Marie ( Maryam ).
- the Psalms ( Az-Zaboûr ) revealed in David.
It is since the Table Preserved, that on order of God, the Angel Jibrîl (Gabriel) reduced Livrés revealed on the Prophets concerned in the language from their people. According to the Moslems, Coran is the last of the revealed books, because Mahomet is for them the last prophet.
Of all these revealed books, only Coran remains completely without any distorsion owing to the fact that there will be no more Prophétique revelation after Mahomet.
Coran (Arab: rear RTL القرآن Al qurān , reading ) is the book more Sacré of the Musulman S. It is the first book to be written in Arab Langue, that it contributed to fix. It gathers the divine words which, according to the Moslem belief, were transmitted to the Prophète Mahomet. This transmission of the Archange Gabriel with Mahomet took place in a fragmentary way by auditive way during one period of twenty-three years. After stormy debates, caliph Al-Mamum in Baghdad, towards 820 proclaims Coran, manifestation of the word of God, by dogma, incréé, eternal and inimitable. The debate will be prolonged until the 9th century. Ibn Hanbal, with the catches with a true Moslem enquiry, having assigned the role of the other writings - Haddith, Sunna - declares finally Coran incréé of the first in the last page. It cannot thus be written, preceded, nor prolonged. Its origin is not human. Its critic is a critic of God. The only study of the text is summarized to learn it by heart, and to put it into practice. It is in the middle of the religious practice of each believer. For the Moslems, Coran is a Saint book which did not undergo deterioration after its revelation, because God promised that this book would last until the end of times.
Coran is divided into a hundred and fourteen named chapters Sourate S , variable lengths. These sourates is themselves made up of named verses âyât (plural of Arabic âyah , “proof”, “Révélation”).
The majority of the Moslems have a large respect for the book and make ablutions, i.e. are washed like making the prayers, before reading Coran. The Coran old men are burned, and not destroyed like old paper. The theological statute of the text the met indeed well off anything else: the text contained in the book is the demonstration even and incréée of only God and sound only service.
The majority of the Moslems memorize at least part of Coran in its original language (the Arab ). This part corresponds to the verses necessary to make the daily prayers. Those which memorized Coran in entirety are known under the name of hāfiz (plural huffāz ). The Moslems think that Coran is perfect only in its original version in Arab language. They think that the translations being of human origin are imperfect and fallible and also because of properly untranslatable polysemous characteristics of Arabic, and finally because the contents would have been inspired just in this language. The translations are thus regarded as comments of Coran, or “interpretations of its significance”, and not like Coran itself. Many modern versions of Coran present the Arab text on a page and the translation on the page facing him.
See also: Coran
The Moslems consider that the sending of the Prophets is a Clemence and a Grace of God for His creatures, because the reason with it only does not make it possible to know all that saves in Beyond. Their principal function is thus to show to people the way, the way (the Charia) which leads to happiness eternal. And to prove their veracity, God supported them by facts out it common, namely the miracles which constitute challenges relentless that nobody can thwart nor to imitate.
All the Prophets of God put forward a good behavior and an exemplary control. It is then impossible to allot the lie, the dishonesty or stupidity to them. In the same way, they are necessarily immunized against the mécréance, the great sins and the small sins reflecting a lowness of character, this before and after the Prophétique mission. First is Adam and the last is Mahomet.
According to Islam all the prophets are Moslem and invited all people to enter the religion of Islam. Indeed, the significance of Islam is to believe in single God without anything to associate to him and to accept the message of the Prophet sent for his time.
The Texts explain why Adam inaugurated the Prophétique function, while it is by Mahomet, the last, that it was enclosed. Their number is very large, quote some: Abraham (Ibrâhîm), David (Dâwoûd), Isaac (Ishâq), Ismaël (Ismâ' it), Jacob (Ya' qoûb), Jean-Baptiste (Yahyâ), Jethro (Chou' ayb), Job (Ayyoûb), Jonas (Yoûnous), Joseph (Yoûçouf), Loth (Loût), Brace (Moûçâ), Noah (Noûh), Solomon (Soulaymân), Zacharie (Zakariyyâ), Jesus (Issah).
See also: Mahomet
The religious leader and political Arab Mahomet (rear RTL محمد in Arab)), whose name are sometimes also transcribed by Mohammed, Muhammad, French etc is the founder of Islam and the Muslim community (Oumma). He is regarded as the last prophet of the monotheism by the Moslems and he is recognized like prophet only by this community. The Moslems do not regard it as the founder of a new religion, but think that it is the last of a line of prophets of God (of the Monothéisme) and consider that his mission is to restore the faith original monotheist of Adam, Abraham and other prophets, faith which had been corrupted by the man during time.
During the 23 last years of its life, Mahomet dictates verses, which it receives from God via the angel Gabriel ( Jibril ), with faithful the increasingly many ones convinced by this new message. The contents of these revelations will be compiled less than 20 years after the death of Mahomet in a work, the Coran, deliver holy Moslems.
See also: Hadith
The hadiths are the words or acts of Mahomet considered as examples to follow by the Moslems. The schools of jurisprudence Madhhab regard the collections of hadiths as important instruments making it possible to determine the Sunnah, the Moslem “tradition”. The hadith was in the beginning an oral tradition which brought back the actions and habits of Muhammad. However, starting from the first Fitna , at the 7th century, those which received the hadiths started to question the sources of the words. Their credibility is generally proportional to the credit of the witnesses who brought them back. This chain of witnesses is called Isnad . It is generally allowed that it is during the reign of the Caliph Umar II, at the 8th century, that the written transcriptions of large collections of hadiths started, which were stabilized at the next century. These collections of hadiths, still today, are taken as references in the subjects in connection with the Fiqh or the history. The authentic hadiths are admitted by the whole of the Moslems sunnites.
A great majority of sunnites regard the hadiths as supplements and clarifications essential with the Coran. In Islamic jurisprudence, Coran contains the germ of many awaited rules of behavior of a Moslem. However, of many subjects, monks or laymen, are not framed by Koranic rules. The Moslems thus believe that by examining the lifestyle, or sunnah, of Mahomet and his/her companions, they will be able to discover the behaviors to be imitated and those to avoid. The Moslem thinkers find useful to know how Mahomet or its companions explained the revelations, or on which Mahomet occasion received them. Sometimes, that will clarify a passage which would differently seem obscure. Context completely which can upset the direction which one can give to a verse. The hadiths are also a historical and biographical source.
They are regarded as a source of religious inspiration, whereas certain Moslems consider that only Coran is sufficient. The Shiite have indeed more reserves in their connection because they show that Mahomet did not speak about the things which are fundamental in the Shiite sect, with the result that they worked out their own works. Inter alia, they do not test any embarrassment with the reproduction of human faces, like those of personalities worships such Ali and Hussein, while at the same time this is formally proscribed by the prophet in several hadiths.
The Moslems believe that a certain number of events occur after the death of which most important are:
the Day of the Judgment: It will occur after the end of the world, and it will last: 50000 years. God will judge people without intermediary. The stages will be:
- physical Resurrection: It marks the beginning of the Day of the Judgment. People will be ressuscities by God, naked, to be judged.
- the Gathering: All people will be gathered in a place to be made judge.
- the Exposure of the acts: Each one will have its acts, goods or bad, which will be exposed.
- the Remuneration: According to their acts, people will be rewarded or punished.
- the Balance: The acts will be compared, good against bad.
- the Bridge: It connects the new Earth to the accesses of the Paradise and it will be drawn up above the Hell in which all the non-believers will fall like certain disobeying Moslems.
- the Basin: Each community will have its basin whose the believers will drink before entering to the Paradise.
- Intercession: With the permission of God, the Prophets, as of others will intercede for the believers who deserve the punishment.
- the Hell: It is a place in which the non-believers will be punished eternally, like for one period certain disobeying believers.
- the Paradise: It is a residence of eternal happiness reserved to the people believers as a God, like with the sincere people.
- Vision of the Lord: The believers will see God, without concept of distance and without there being a doubt about this vision.
Predestination belongs to the essential foundations of Islam. It consists in believing that all that occurs in this world - qu' it acts of our acts voluntary or involuntary is predestined by God. The will of God is always carried out according to its eternal sapience . Thus, any thing - good or bad that God knew that it will exist will realize at the appropriate time. And that whose God did not want the existence, will not be carried out. Consequently, if all people mobilize themselves to make us benefit from a benefit or to cause us an evil which was not prescribed to us, they do not reach that point.
God prescribed all in the Preserved Table ( Al-Lawhou Al-Mahfoûdh ) as Coran learns it: “It is Us (God) who ressuscitons deaths. We make register what they did and consequences of their works. And We counted any thing in a clear Table.”
Five pillars of Islam
See also: Pillars of Islam
The five Piliers of Islam constitute obligatory fundamental precepts for the Moslems sunnites. The other currents of Islam accept these precepts and others add some.
The five pillars in the sunnism are the base on which the Moslem sunnite builds his life to conform to the revelation.
Shahada (profession of faith)
See also: Chahada
This Confession of Moslem faith is very short: rear RTL لآاِلَهَاِلاَّللهمحمدرسولالله ( Lâ ilâha illa-llâh, (wa) muḥammad one rasûlu-llâhi ), being able to result in I testify that there are not a true divinity if not God (Allah) and that Mahomet is its messenger.
It consists for the Believing, in all full knowledge of the facts and not under the constraint, to accept and proclaim two things:
- any act of worship should be directed only towards Allah;
- Mahomet is the messenger of Allah, which in fact a model for the believer.
See also: Salat (Islam)
In addition to the Prayer with the request or surrogatoire ( nâfilah ), each Moslem is held to carry out five obligatory daily Prière S ( faridah ). It is called namāz in countries of the Indian or Persian language.
The prayer must be carried out in a state of purity: if it is not the case, it is necessary to practice the Ablution S.
The prayer is carried out turned towards the Kaaba (located at the Mecque, town of Saudi Arabia); orant (the prior) must express the intention which led it to the prayer explicitly ( niyah ).
Zakat (purifying tax)
See also: Zakat
It is a purifying legal tax calculated in the Islamic countries on the incomes of the hearth and intended for the poor. The Zakat should not be confused with alms.
It corresponds to 2,5% (or 1/40) of the saving of the Musulman if this saving exceeds a certain amount evaluated with 85 grams of gold is currently with approximately 1100 euros and if it undergoes an annual revolution. Attention, the Islamic saving being calculated in grams of gold and not in contemporary currency, the number above is variable years by years.
The Moslem is held to calculate each lunar year (Calendrier hégirien) this amount and to give it to the people poorest of his community while starting with his family (except for those that it has in load) and his neighbors.
See also: Saoum
It is the fast carried out during the lunar Mois of the Ramadan. This fast is prescribed by the Coran, it consists in abstaining from eating, of drinking, to smoke and to have sexual relationships since the paddle until laying down it sun:
Eat and drink until one can distinguish at dawn a white wire from a black. Fast, then, until the night| Coran (II; 185)
The Ramadan is one period of meditation and the fast an occasion to share the situation of the poor ones. The sick person or who must undertake a great voyage can not respect the young person, it must then discharge a debt after the Ramadan.
Hadj (pilgrimage in Mecque)
See also: Hadj
The pilgrimage in Mecque must be carried out at least once in its life for which has of it the average materials and the physical capacity. It is between the 8 and the 13 of the lunar month of Dhou Al Hijja that the Great Pilgrimage with Mecque takes place, 5th Pilier of Islam.
See also: Halal, Haram
The Islamic law provides a whole of rules governing what the Moslems eat. These rules specify what is halāl , i.e. legal. These rules are in Coran, which also describes what is illegal or harām . There also exists of other rules coming to be added to those which were emitted in Fatwa S by Mujtahid S; but they are followed only by their own disciples and not the whole of the Moslems.
The Islamic law prohibited with the Moslems to consume alcohol, drinking or to eat Blood and its derivative products, and to eat the meat of carnivorous or omnivorous animals like the Pig, the Monkey, the Dog or the Cat (the piscivorous fish are not regarded as carnivores). So that the meat of a terrestrial animal is halal, one needs that the animal is cut down in an adequate way by a Moslem or Gens of the book, while mentioning the name of God (Arab Allah in ). The animal should not thus be killed by scalding it or by electrocution and the carcass must be bled before being consumed. Various rules apply to fish. In general, the fish with scale are always halāl, although certain fatwas declare fish deprived of scales (like the Poisson-chat) and the shells like harām. The rules of prohibition concerning the animals can be circumvented when a Moslem is likely to die of hunger and that no food halāl is available.
The Islamic ritual slaughter is called Dhabiĥa . According to certain fatwas, the animal can be cut down only by one Moslem. However, other fatwas consider that according to the verse 5:5 of the Coran, demolition can be made by Gens of the book. The meat Kasher is regarded as halāl, but the reciprocal one is not true.
Symbols and representationsThe Moslems do not sacrilize icons. According to an authentic hadith of the prophet, the curse of God falls down on any person producing (by the drawing, sculpture…) a being equipped with heart including the animals, because that is regarded by them as energy against the spirit of the Monothéisme. Some more or less strict Aniconisme thus exist in Islam (see the article Représentation illustrated in arts of Islam). Thus, the Moslems make use rather of verses of the Coran penmanships such as for example in the palate of the Alhambra, the geometrical forms (arabesque S) or of representation of the Ka' Ba to decorate the Mosquée S, the houses and the public places.
One often associates the symbol of the crescent and star with Islam. It acts in the beginning of the symbol of the Byzantine Empire, taken again with its fall by the Ottoman Empire.
However, the color Vert E is regarded as an Islamic symbol. Time of Mahomet, the first flags held up by the Moslem warriors were green. The origin of this color is simple. The Arab being people of the Deserted , the Paradis for them was described like green, where sources of water would run in abundance, where the faithful ones will wear green silk clothes there (Coran 18:31). Before Islam, the legend of Al-Chadir (the green Man), testifies to the importance of this color for these people. Lastly, Mahomet would have declared that the green was its preferred color and often wore clothes and a Turban of this color. Formerly, only the caliphs were authorized to carry a turban of this color. One finds the symbolic system of the green like symbol of the Panarabisme today.
CaliphateThe Caliph S (Arab: rear RTL خليفة) designates the successors of Mahomet. The carrier of the title has as a role to keep the unit of the Islâm and any Moslem owes him obedience, within the framework of the Sharia: it is leading Oumma , the community of the Moslems.
Mahomet died without indicating of successor and leaving a system to choose one of them, but several acts pushed the unanimity of the Moslems of the time has to conclude that he preferred Abu Bakr (of sound living even when he was sick, he asked him, and with anybody other, to direct the prayer). Consequently, the caliphate was established. The Caliph (Arab: rear RTL خليفة, meaning “successor” or “representing”) has as a role to keep the unit of the Islâm and any Moslem owes him obedience: it is leading Oumma , the community of the Moslems. The title Khalifat rasul Allah , meaning “successor of the messenger of God” became the running head.
The Shiites recognize only the fourth caliph, being Ali, father of all the immams. The Shiites estimate that the following caliph, Yazid Ier was guilty death of Hussein, and by there any succession of caliphs his legitimacy would have lost.
Certain caliphs were often called Amīr Al-Mu' rear minīn RTL أميرالمؤمنين “Commander of the believers”. The title was shortened and Latinized in “emir”.
None the first caliphs said to have received divine revelations, as it was the case for Mahomet, anxious to remain in the right way and fearing Allah. Mahomet being the last prophet, none the caliphs said to be a nabī , “prophet” or a rasul “messenger divine”. The revelations made through Mahomet quickly were codified and written in the Coran, which was accepted like supreme authority, thus limiting what the Caliph could direct. However, the first caliphs were the spiritual leaders and temporal of Islam, and insisted on the fact that obedience with the caliph in all things was the mark of a good Moslem. The role became however strictly temporal with the rise of the Ouléma S, and the distance of certain caliphs of the pure practice of the religion.
After the first four caliphs (Abou Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali ibn Abi Talib), the title was asserted in a way discussed by the Omeyyades, the Abbassides and the Othoman, like by other lines in Spain, North Africa and Egypt. The majority of the Moslem leaders carried simply the title of Sultan or Emir, and prétaient allegiance with a Caliph who often had little authority. The title does not exist any more since the republic of Turkey abolished the Othoman caliphate in 1924.
Whereas the caliphate was a subject of discord between Moslem leaders, this subject was evoked little since 1924. Many Moslems would wish the re-establishment of the caliphate, but restrictions as well as the political activity of many Moslem countries, combined with the practical obstacles with the unification of more than fifty State-nations in only one institution limited the efforts to make revive the caliphate.
The Islamic law
See also: Sharia, Moslem Right
The Sharia is the Islamic law. The Coran is the primary source of Islamic jurisprudence ( Fiqh ). The Sunnah is not a text in oneself like Coran, but means the whole of the acts and words of the prophet. The place of the Hadith S achieves the unanimity in the Islamic law. All the thinker admit to contradict their personal judgments if an authentic hadith goes against this judgment. Two works compile the authentic hadiths: the " sahis" of Bukhari and that of Muslim, but also of recent gigantic work of Imam Al-Albani. The Ijma and the Qiyas (analogical reasoning) are generally regarded as the tertiary and quaternary sources of Sharia, but this is disputed by certain thinkers according to whom only the hadiths and the coran cause law, like some hanbalites.
The Islamic law covers all the aspects of the life, since the very general subjects of government and foreign relations until the subjects of the daily life. The Islamic laws which were registered expressly in Coran are called Hudud and deal specifically with the five crimes of flight, attack, intoxication, adultery and distort charge of adultery, the murder being classified with the top of these five crimes and right to the lower part of the Associationisme. For each one of these crimes, a punishment called hadd is planned. Coran details also the laws relating to the heritage, the marriage, the compensations for wounds and murder, as well as rules governing the festivals, charity and the prayer. However, these regulations and these prohibitions can be very broad, therefore their application in practice can vary. The Moslem thinkers, Ouléma S, worked out systems of law based on these broad rules, also resting for that on the hadiths and their interpretations.
With the expansion of Islam in countries like the Iran, the Indonesia or in Europe, all the Moslems cannot include/understand Arabic Coran. When Moslems are divided on a particular subject, they will ask assistance a Mufti (Islamic judge), which can give them councils on the Sharia and the Hadith S.
Sources of legislation sunnite
- the Moslems affirm that Coran was revealed by God (called Allāh in Arabic) with his prophet Mahomet ( Muhammad ), that it is thus the first source of legislation in Islam and that God preserves it against any modification or deterioration.
- the sunna (which is the whole of the dires and made of the prophet) is the second source of legislation in the sunnism. The sunna was gathered and classified by the scientists sunnites in several works like sahih Al boukhari (rear RTL صحيحالبخاري), sahih Mouslim (rear RTL صحيحمسلم) etc;
- the third source of legislation in the sunnism is the unanimity of the Moslems Al Ijmaa rear RTL الإجماع. That while referring to a quotation of Mahomet which says that the Moslems do not achieve the unanimity on something of forgery.
- the fourth source is the analogy - Al-qiyâs (rear RTL القياس, literally “measurement”) - which makes it possible to draw the judgment from a thing for which there is no legislation starting from the judgment of a similar thing.
It should be noted that some of these sources of legislation were implemented after the death of Mahomet and are regarded as illicit ( Haram ) by other groups of Islam organized in Madhhab or rite .
ClergyThere is no Clergé in the sunnism. The Imam is not a Prêtre but well a member of the Muslim community which leads the prayer: it is “that which is put in front of guiding the prayer” and is not inevitably a theologist: in Arabic, the Imam wants to say “chief” or “guide”, and in the sunnism it is enough that the chief is Moslem, wise, knowing the pillars of Islam and learned how most of Coran by heart to be with the head of a community, of a State. The Muezzin , that which calls upon the prayer, is not a priest either.
Islam recognizes various religious qualification levels among its faithful: The explanation of Coran names tafsîr . And the ijtihâd is the research solution news starting from the texts of reference to answer the problems of the Muslim populations on their religious affairs (rear RTL عِبادات, practical pertaining to worship , pl. de RTL rear عِبادة) or social (rear RTL مُعامَلة, “behaviors”, pl. de RTL rear مُعامَلات) in a social condition, new policy or economic.
- Al-mujtahid Al-mutlaq , able “to fight” in absence of text, as the root of mujtahid indicates it, to draw a Casuistique from it, to bring closer to the texts treating of the similar subjects and to draw the synthesis from it, to work out the legal principles without reference to a particular school. These competences are recognized exceptional and extremely rare;
- Al-mujtahid Al-mutlaq Al-muntasib , the same one but within the framework of a interpretative school;
- Al-mujtahid wire-madh' hab , within the framework of a school interpretative, able to work out legal answers on new questions;
- Al 'âlim Al-mutabahhir , the popularizer of large old who must know Coran and Sunna;
- Al 'âmîy , that which knows only the broad outlines of Islam.
The orthodoxe Chiisme of the sect ' usuli (clergy of the ayatollah) recognizes, a contrario , a Clergé with several hierarchical levels, while the sunnism rejects this idea of a central clergy playing the part of obliged intermediary. By many aspects, Islam, for its sunnite part, is a decentralized religion.
In Europe and in certain Moslem countries, the Gouvernement S claim an alignment of the formation of the Imams on the formation of the ministers of the other religions, i.e. three or four years of study at least.
See also: Moslem Calendar
Year 1 of this calendar began first during the day from the Hégire, the 1st Mouharram (the 15 or the July 16th 622 of the Christian era, according to the theologists authors; the first time is known as “astronomical”, the “civil” second). This calendar was adopted ten years after this event. It is indicated that a date is given in this calendar by adding the mention (Moslem calendar) , (calendar hégirien) , (Moslem era) or (era of Hégire) ; or in summary, (H) or (AH) (of the Latin anno Hegirae ). This calendar is characterized by some 12 months lunar years which are shorter than the solar years. One lunar year counts 11 days less than one solar year.
Each month starts with the first visible crescent of the Moon starting from the new moon: according to the place from where the observation is carried out, the month can start more or less early.
The direct relationship of the man with God by Coran and the religious liberty will bring a multiplication of the religious tendencies. The absence of clergy allows the existence of various legal standards, and various religious schools. With died of the prophet, important religious differences and the fulgurating Arab conquest cause political competitions. Many questions about the freedom of the man, the sin, the faith, etc lead to the constitution of Moslem theologies which try to give answers to the questions and the problems nondetailed by the divine texts, and to face the challenges of the human life.
The believers divide themselves in three principal branches.
See also: Sunnisme
the Sunnisme of Sunna , “the tradition”. They are people of Ahlou s-Sounnah wa l-Jamaah.
The sunnism organizes itself into different legal schools . There are four today of them, but there were others in the past of it. These schools accept the ones the others, thus organizing a relative pluralism as regards legal standards but have a common faith. It is, in the order of their appearance:
- the Hanafisme (from Abû Hanifâ, 700-767);
- the Malékisme (of Malîk Ibn Anas which lived between 712 and 796);
- the Shafi' ism, or shafeism, or Chaafisme, (of Al-Shafi' I 768-820);
- the Hanbalisme (from Ibn Hanbal, 781-856);
One says Ahlou s-Sounnah in opposition to the various stray groups claiming Islam.
See also: Shiism
the Shiism, itself divided into various branches, whose the three principal ones are:
- the Shiism Duodécimain (90 % of the Shiites) that one can separate in two great groups, the “orthodoxe ones”, the such usuli (clergy of ayatollah, most widespread), akhbari, shayki, and the “hétérodoxes” extremists, the such Alaouites or “Nusayri” of Syria, the alévis of Turkey, Ahl-e Haqq of Iran and Iraq, Shabak, Kakai, Kirklar etc;
- the Shiism septimain (or Ismaélien);
- the Zaydisme of the Yemen;
- the Druze S of Syria/Israel/Lebanon;
- the Kharidjisme (much less widespread than the sunnism and the Shiism);
The sunnites or Ahl Have-Sounnah wal-Jamâ `ah represent approximately 90 % of the Moslems, Shiites approximately 10 %. Kharidjism less 1 %.
One can also quote for memory a fourth current, which died out with the Middle Ages, the Motazilisme. This rationalist interpretative school, in conflict with the incipient Sunnisme, appeared at the end of the Califat Omeyyade, in the middle of the 8th century, and was éradiqué at the 11th century by the Sunnisme, in particular by the Acharites (disciples of Al-Ach' ari 873 - 935). This school, whose texts were redécouverts at the 19th century, knows a small resurgence since this date among certain intellectuals, but without notable popular base.
The Wahhabisme, indicating the doctrines of the Salafisme a version particularly Rigoriste is pressed on the school hanbalite and is asserted like Orthodoxie. For this reason, the Salafisme considers that the other schools sunnites must in the long term unify while joining with their interpretation. It is a rupture with the pluralist tradition of interpretations of the sunnism, which involves sometimes conflicts with these schools.
A popular theology also developed in the marabout ism, which practices the worship of the Saint S, polytheism explaining the fact that this current is rejected by the unanimity of the sunnites. Indeed, this kind of worship is liable to the capital punishment according to the Charia.
Holy placesThe principal holy places of Islam are:
- the Ka' Ba (“the Cube”) of Mecque ( Makkah ) in Saudi Arabia. According to the tradition, it is the first place of worship, built by Adam ( Adam ) on Earth, then rebuilt by Ibrahim (Abraham). Until the advent of Islam, it was dedicated to the Arab god Houbal, which was venerated by rites of convolution around the black stone. Any Moslem must make there a pilgrimage at least once in his life if it of with the physical and financial capacity;
- Médine ( Almadinah ), city where Mahomet emigrated after being fled of Mecque, is the second Holy City of Islam;
- Jerusalem ( Al-Qods ), is the third Holy City. It is the place towards which the Mahomet prophet would have accomplished the night voyage and the rise.
The Shiite recognize two other holy places, in Iraq:
- Nadjaf, in Iraq, is the third of the Holy Cities of Islam for the Shiites, after Mecque and Medine.
- Kerbala is the fourth Holy City, behind Najaf. It was the place of the martyrdom of Hussein (small son of the Mahomet prophet and wire of Ali, third Imâm , like his/her companions, come to Kerbala to defend imamât it i.e. the succession by the Imam Ali son-in-law of the prophet and Hussein her son (Hassan, its older brother having been killed). This martyrdom is the myth founder of the Shiism. Every year the commemoration of this massacre takes place, in Kerbala.
See also: Holy Cities of Islam
Islam and other religions monotheists
- Islam recognizes the majority of the founding fathers of the Judaïsme (which it qualifies prophets), without to limit itself to it, and generally establishes the prophets like means for God of recalling the men towards the faith in him and a behavior of uprightness;
Jesus is regarded there as a prophet (and called Issa ), whose return is awaited at the end of times. There is a controversy among the Moslems as for the existence of the Antéchrist. This last is not mentioned in Coran, but some Hadith S speak about him and owing to the fact that Jesus will fight it and destroy the crosses at the end of times. These hadiths is not more credible and some think that they were brought by converted Christians or Jews ? .
See also: Jesus in Islam
See also: Christologie#Islam, Christologie of Islam
- the attitude of Islam compared to these two former “religions of the Book” at the same time consists to respect them, recognize a certain truth to them, and to regard them as having been corrupted with the wire of time by passions of men (injustice, excess, etc) (Sourate 17,30…). The last prophet and messenger of God, would be Mahomet, being called to restore the message in his paramount truth. Islam is defined then as being the conclusion of the religions monotheists.
- the Apostasie of Islam towards another religion is often prohibited by the Moslem theocratic modes, even if nothing like it is not written in Coran. In Coran, it is stipulated that there is no constraint in religion. However, some Hadiths of Mahomet could explain that. See the article detailed on the apostasy in Islam:
See also: Apostasy in Islam, Apostasy in Islam
Relation of Islam to the other religions
See also: Relation of Islam to the other religions
See also: History of Islam, Origins of Islam, History of the Moslem conquest
Islam appeared in Arabia at the 7th century under the impulse of the prophet Mahomet. One century after its death, an Islamic empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west towards the Central Asia in the east. That Ci did not remain unified a long time; the new mode quickly finished in civil war (see Fitna) and later affected by second Fitna. Then, there were rival dynasties claiming the Califat, or the control of the Muslim world, and much of Islamic empires were controlled by a Caliph unable to unify the Islamic world. In spite of this parcelling out of Islam as a political community, the empires of the Abbasid caliphs of , the Empire moghol and the Seldjoukides were among largest and most powerful in the world. The Arab produced good number of Islamic centers, of scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and famous philosophers during the golden age of Islam (see Islamic Sciences and technology). Technology opens out; an investment supported in the infrastructures, such as systems of irrigation and channels; and especially, the importance of reading the Coran produisuirent a relatively high level of the instruction among the population.
Later, at the 18th century and 19th century, several Islamic areas fell under the European imperial powers. After the First World War, the remainders of the Ottoman Empire were divided in the form of Protectorat S Europeans.
Although affected by various Ideologies, such as the Communism, during a good part of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the preponderance of Islam on political questions increased during the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21e century. The rapid growth, the interests Western in Islamic areas, the international conflicts and the Globalisation influenced the importance of Islam in the moulding of the world of the 21e century.
Syncretisms or other movementsTo supplement the presentation of the Islamic religion, one cannot elude the popular practices of Islam. Often resulting from syncretisms with the preislamic religions, they are still very present in the traditional rural companies, which mix Animisme, worship of the ancestors, and revealed religion, are expressed primarily, with regard to Islam, through “Moslem brotherhoods”.
These movements or brotherhoods are coarsely connected with the Christian religious orders not cloisters. Some are condemned by the Islam which finds them anti-orthodoxe and réinstauratrices of the antiquated vestiges of supersticieuses beliefs.
The Marabout SThe word “marabout” comes from the Arab murâbit , which designates an alive man in a ribât , a strengthened convent. These very mystical monks play at the same time the parts of preacher, wizard, teacher and political leader. They are invested supernatural capacities; their practice of Coran, in civilizations where the writing was brought by Islam, indeed equips them with a crowned capacity. They found a ground of predilection in Africa where, as of XVIe century, the converted sovereigns claim marabouts with the Arab authorities.
Living gifts of believers, the marabouts trained at the Koranic school teach traditional Islam, not without him to add popular and supersticieuses practices, to see magic, sometimes joining beliefs traditional animists of Africa.
The reputation of their miraculous capacities then connects them more with wizards that with Imams. The worship of the saints which characterizes from now on maraboutisme widened the direction of the word “marabout”, which ended up designating the saint living or dead, the monument who shelters his tomb, the successors of the saint, etc
They are considered not-Moslems by orthodoxe Islam.
SufismThe term “soufi” appears for the first time in second half of VIIIe century of the hégire to designate ascetics.
The soufis are Moslem mystics who request, fast, wear rough clothing (Arabic sûf , means “bore-hole”, “wool”, because the first Moslem ascetics were thus designated because of wool clothing which it carried; (they can carry the muruga , coat made of rapiécés pieces symbolizing the fagr , i.e. the illusion of the world).
The Sufism can be regarded as esoteric doctrines of Islam and a mystical and ascetic movement having influenced dissidences Shiite.
She experiences her maximum development in Baghdad between 750 and 950.
The Soufisme is thus a mystical form of the Islam, followed by certain Moslems (those which are then called soufists). The soufis generally consider that to follow the law or Islamic jurisprudence ( Fiqh ) is only the first step on the way of the perfect tender. They concentrate on internal or more spiritual aspects of Islam, like the perfectibility of the faith or the tender of the ego ( nafs ). The majority of the orders soufis, or tariqas , approach either the sunnism, or of the Shiism. One finds them Islamic in everyone, of the Senegal until the Indonesia. Their beliefs even make the object of criticism, often formulated by the Salafistes by the remainder of the Sunnites, which consider that some their practices are against the letter of the Islamic law.
See also: Sufism
Al-qâdiriyya and Al-tidjâniyya
In Black Africa, there exist two large brotherhoods, Al-qâdiriyya , founded in 1166, especially activate the Middle East with the India, and Al-tidjâniyya , founded with the the Maghreb at the end of the XVIIIe century by Ahmed Tiijânî (death in 1815) and widespread in sub-Saharan Africa.
The first professes intransigent doctrines, made adhesion without restriction on the Koranic precepts.
The second, more tolerant, develops a morals: “not to lie, not to fly”, etc
The naqshbadiyaThe naqshbadiya , founded in XIVe century, is still well established in autonomous Republic of Daghestan and with the Turkménistan. Founded by Muhammad Baha' Al-ddîn Naqshband, it relates to approximately 10% of the Moslems practitioner in these areas and 300.000 people in Soviet ex-Union.
The brotherhood has also members in the areas such as the China or the Afghanistan. She was illustrated by her resistance to years of Athéisme of State.
During initiation ( talqîn ), the disciple commits himself by oath following the way ( Al-tarîqa ) which will lead it to God. A diploma is given to him. A weekly ritual ceremony, additional prayers, days before, fasts, pilgrimages constitute the practice. The members pour up to 30% of their wages at the community.
Founded at the beginning of the XIXe century, is active in Libya and in the Saharan areas.
The mouridismto make
The American Black Muslims , or Bilâyyûn
Founded in Détroit in 1931, under the name of Allah Temple off Islam, by Wallace D. Ward (v.1877-1934), association, reserved for the Blacks, rests in the beginning on beliefs sometimes far away from orthodoxe Islam, even if it respects the five prayers quotiennes and prohibition to consume pig or alcohol. Today, however, the movement which took the name of World Community off Islam in the West (W.C.I.W.), then that of American Muslim Mission (A.M.M.), approached a more traditional Islam. Moreover, the majority of the racial restrictions were abolished.
See also: Black Muslims
Mirzâ Ghulâm Ahmad (v. 1839-1908), a Moslem born in Qâdiyân in Panjâb, founds the organized religious community, the ahmadiyya . It makes peace with the English and stops other very Prosélytisme while being presented in the form of a reappearance of the Messiah (Jesus for the Chrétien S, Avatâr of Vishnou for the Hindou S). With its death, its followers elect a caliph and live in independent community. Today still, very dynamic, Ahmadîs are approximately 500.000, of which the half with the Pakistan and the remainder in India, with the Nigeria, the Surinam, the the United States, etc They were declared not Moslems and were persecuted in Afghanistan, with the Pakistan, and in Saudi Arabia.
Founded in 1927, in India, by Muhammad Ilyas, a Moslem scholar, the Jama' At Al-tablîgh is a cosmopolitan association directed today by Arab S. It is fixed for objective to bring back to a strict practice Islam the stray Moslems: “Islam will extend where extend the day and the night, and God will not leave a house without this religion not entering there. ”
The Pacific and apolitical, this current preacher is based on groups of missionaries of different nationalities to make door-to-door ( Al-jawla , the “round”) and to spread the ideas of the tablîgh (the “proclamation”). The principles are extremely simple: the profession of faith, the prayer, the knowledge of God, the sincere intention and the respect of the Moslem. Voyages several days to several weeks ( khoulouj ) are also organized with an aim of spreading the Islamic religion.
The Muslim brothers
See also: Muslim brothers
The group of the Muslim brothers was founded in 1928 by Hassan el Banna in Egypt. It is given to fight against the Western laic influence and the blind imitation of the European model: its goal is to pass by the policy to found an Islamic regime in any country where they would be established.
Situation of contemporary Islam
Islam is the most widespread religion after the Christianisme. According to the sources it comprises now between 0,9 and 1,4 billion believers, is between 14 % and 21 % of the world population in 2007. The diffusion of Islam out of the traditional Arab world is explained by the growth of the migratory flux starting from the countries of religion and Moslem culture, like by actions of Prosélytisme.
Islam is the only religion whose name appears in official designation several independent States, in the form of “Islamic Republic…”. However, these States are not the only ones where the overlap of the civilian and the monk in conformity so that want the Charia.
It often occurs a confusion between Arabs and Moslems because of two factors: the Arab origin of Islam and importance of the Arab language in this religion. There is 300 million Arabs, whose majorities are Moslem. One counts approximately 20 million Christians among the Arabs. With final, 25 % of the Moslems live in the Arab world, a fifth are located in sub-Saharan Africa, and the largest Muslim population of the world is in Indonesia. There are important Muslim populations with the Nigeria, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, in Iran, China but also in Europe, in old the Soviet Union, and in South America. There is approximately seven million Moslems to the the United States. In France the estimates vary between 5 and 8 million according to the sources, mainly resulting from immigration, French conversions since Catholicism, is of lower number.
There exist many tensions between sunnites and Shiites: the first hearth of confrontations is the Iraq since the American intervention in 2003. With the Pakistan, violences between the Shiites (minority) and the sunnites made 4.000 died between 1990 and 2007.
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