The Iraq , or Iraq ( Al `Irāq rear RTL العراق), officially the Republic of Iraq ( Al Jumhūrīyah Al `Irāqīyah rear RTL الجمهوريةالعراقية), is a country mainly Musulman the Middle East, located at the North of the Arabic Péninsule. Iraq is sometimes called rear-Rafidain Bilad (i.e country of the two rivers, Mésopotamie, in reference to the Tiger and Euphrate). Baghdad is the capital.
Current Iraq covers most of the Mésopotamie, one of the cradles of civilization. It is also on the banks of the Tiger, passing by Baghdad, that the writing was born, 5.000 years ago. At the time Sassanide, the territory of Iraq is integrated into the Khvarvaran, the Western province of the Persian Empire.
Since the come to power of Saddam Hussein in 1979, Iraq knew three fatal wars, of bloody repressions of which that of the Kurdish S and the Chiite S and more than 10 years of Embargo. Its laic mode founded on the Parti Baath was abolished by the invasion of the coalition carried out by the United States of 2003. This invasion caused a Civil war which combines resistance to the occupant, Terrorisme and fights between the parts Sunnite and Chiite of the population.
The government is currently directed by Nouri Al-Maliki, with the head of a coalition Shiite. In an effort to distribute the roles between the three principal communities, the executive is divided between three people: the president (largely honorary, Kurdish), the Prime Minister (Shiite), and chair it Parliament (sunnite). Each one of these heads is flanked of two assistant, pertaining to the two other communities. This distribution is sometimes criticized: if it makes it possible to post a distribution of the capacity, it is shown of confessionnionaliser still more the political debate.
Iraq holds the second (or third: more and more often, Iran affirms to have the second place) greater reserves of Pétrole, and he is member of OPEC.
C-W communicationIn French two C-Ws communication are correct for this country:
- Iraq , used by the ISO (on the basis of Arab C-W communication), UNO, ILO and INSEE; for France, Iraq “is also recommended” by the Arrêté of November 4th, 1993 relating to the terminology of the names of States and capitals;
- Iraq , used by the embassies of Iraq in France and in the French-speaking countries, the French Academy, the IGN, the Swiss diplomacy.
- the European commission tries to harmonize towards the C-W communication Iraq .
See also: History of Iraq
Iraq is the cradle of the civilization sumérienne (thousand-year-old IIIe before Jesus-Christ), at which one finds the first steps of the writing and a hydraulic high degree of installation. The history of Iraq starts with the city-States of Mésopotamie, in particular Suse and Babylon. The area is then dominated by the Hittites, then by the Assyrie NS, and by the Mèdes.
The valleys of the Tiger and the Euphrate belong then to a succession of empires: empires Achéménide (which bring the zoroastrism, religion still present in certain provinces), Greeks (through the conquests of Alexandre the Large one), Sassanides, Moslems (Omeyyades, Abbassides). At the time pre-Islamic, this area bears the name of Khvarvaran, which is one of the provinces of the Sassanide empire. The name Iraq drift of the Persan term Erak , which means " bas-Iran".
During the First World War, Iraq is conquered by the Britanniques and is declared independent of the Ottoman Empire on October 1st 1919. The April 25th 1920, the Société of the Nations (ancestor of UNO) entrusts a mandate to the the United Kingdom to manage the Mésopotamie.
Iraq is independent the October 3rd 1932, in the form of a monarchy under British supervision. The republican coup d'etat of 1941 actively constant by the Third Reich causes the intervention of the British who restore monarchy. One counts more than one thousand of died in the engagements.
The September 22nd 1980 this one declares the war with the Iran about the Chatt-el-Arab (delta of the Tiger and Euphrate). It is the first war of the Gulf. This war without result is completed in 1988.
During the summer 1990 Iraq invades the Kuwait, which causes the second war of the Gulf, a insurrection generalized, then twelve years of embargo decided by UNO, and with the catastrophic consequences (of 500 000 to 1,5 million dead).
The March 20th 2003 Iraq is attacked by a coalition allied of the the United States and the United Kingdom and supported by several tens of country of which the Japan, the South Korea, the Poland, the Spain and the Italy. The mode of Saddam Hussein is reversed 3 weeks after the entry of the troops of the coalition in the country. This third war of the Gulf is completed on May 1st. The country is then occupied by the coalition.
The June 28th 2004, the capacity was given between the hands of a temporary government, directed by Iyad Allaoui. This transfer relates to as well the civil authority as military. The troops of the coalition must require the authorization of the Iraqi government with any military operation.
The January 30th 2005 took place the first elections really democratic since 1953, in a climate of terror. The Shiites and Kurdish of Iraq despite everything massively went to the ballot boxes in spite of the terrorist threats. The April 6th 2005, Iraq was chosen for the first time of its history a Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani.
Three years after the official end of the war, the government of Iraq is fragile. Violences are daily, in a context of Civil war between the Shiites and the sunnites, the capacity in place and the islamist groups.
See also: Political of Iraq
The attacks carried out by the the United States and the the United Kingdom supported by several tens of country involved the inversion of the government of Saddam Hussein and the presence of the primarily American, Polish and British armies.
general elections of January 30th, 2005.
The day of the vote was marked by attacks having killed 36 people including 30 civilians. But these violences did not prevent Iraqi from going to the ballot boxes: rate of participation is established with 58 % (8 456 266 voters). The unified Iraqi Alliance, list Chiite supported by the large ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani gains 4 075 000 of voice (48,1 %), Kurdish Alliance 2 175 000 (25,7 %), the list of the first outgoing minister Iyad Allaoui 1 168 000 (13,8 %) and lists it outgoing president Ghazi Al-Yaouar, a sunnite, arrives in fourth position with 150 680 votes, is 1,7 % of the votes cast.
The Commission of drafting of the Constitution, which wrote the fundamental Loi of Iraq before the August 15th 2005, brings together 55 members including 25 sunnites. She is proposed with the approval of the people on October 15th, 2005: 61% of the citizens took part in this democratic consultation, in spite of the attempts at intimidation which made four died in all the country. The results are known on October 24th, 2005: the Constitution is accepted by 78% of Iraqi and two provinces sunnites (Salah AD-DIN and Al-Anbâr) rejected it. The Independent electoral commission located at Baghdad affirms that the international rules of the democracy were complied with.
elections of December 15th, 2005.
The Parliament approved on June 8th, 2006 the nomination of the ministers for Defense, the Interior and the national security, outstanding since the taking up the duties on April 20th, 2006 of the government of the Prime Minister Nouri Al-Maliki. The general Abdul-Qadre Mohammed Jassim, a sunnite, takes the head of the ministry for Defense. The Shiites Jawad Al-Bolani and Chirwan Al-Waili respectively take the wallet of the ministry for the Interior and the National security.
ProvincesThis list of subdivisions was drawn up in 1976.
See also: Geography of Iraq
Surface: 437.072 km ² (of which 4 910 km ² of water)
- Borders: 3.650 km
See also: Economy of Iraq
Rate of elimination of illiteracy of the adults (% 2000-2004):
- Total: 39
- Men: 55
- Women: 23
18,4 billion $ of Gross domestic product and an income per capita of 780 $ in 2002
- 25,7 billion $ GDP in 2004,949 $ per capita
- 29,3 billion $ GDP in 2005
- ~ 47 billion in 2006 GDP, 1635 $ by hab.
- a projection of 71 billion $ GDP in 2008 with an income of 2319 $ by hab.
The number of Entreprise S deprived in Iraq passed from 8 000 in 2003 with 35 000 in 2006. An average of 60 companies is created each week.
The Pétrole is the main resource of this country, the production in November 2006 was in spite of the insecurity of 2,05 million barrel per day making of this country the sixth larger producers within OPEC. Its reserves were estimated in 2004 at 115 billion Baril S, figures suspect according to some specialists (see oil Pic). It is placed thus in 3rd position after the Saudi Arabia and the Iran in term of reserves.
The income of the oil exportations and the foreign concessions brought back 41 billion dollars in 2006. Its population adopts modern technologies of communication quickly (4,5 million subscribers to the Téléphone - fixed and mobile - in August 2005 against 833 000 before the invasion; 147 000 subscribers with Internet in March 2005 against 4 500 in 2002; 7,1 million Cellphone at the end of 2006).
There is always an enormous gap between the request and the electrical production (5000 Megawats produced for 9200 asked in 2006) with the immense increase in the latter since 2003.
The Chômage relates to in 2006 of 13,4 to 18% of the population and under employment touch 30 another %, that pushes some to join the armed groups.
The Inflation should move back according to the American economists, it passed from 32% in 2006 to 17% in 2007 and 10% in 2008. against 120% in 2001.
The social laws of the mode of Saddam Hussein were not amended. The General confederation of the trade unions lost its role of single trade union in (small) the private sector, but was replaced in this role by the Iraqi Fédération of the trade unions, only recognized by the State. This federation is also present in the public sector, although the trade unions are always legally prohibited there. The free main trade union is the Fédération of the working councils and trade unions in Iraq. There exist also autonomous trade union branches, in particular in the teachers and in the oil sector.
See also: Demography of Iraq
Population: 26 074 906 inhabitants (July 2005) * Arabs (75~ 80%) (sunnites: 18%, Shiites: 50~ 55%, Christian minority)
- Kurdish (22~ 25%, sunnites in majority, minority yézidie)
- Turcomans (2~ 3%) (sunnites in majority)
Religions: 97 % of the population is Moslem, of which 55 % of Shiite rite, 42% of rite sunnite. 3 % of Christians, mainly orthodoxe lives in the country, primarily in Baghdad and in some cities of the north of the country.
The number of Iraqis having left their country following the war of Iraq (since 2003) is estimated at two million at the beginning of 2007 (1,8 million at the end of 2006), with a tendency to acceleration these last months.
See also: Culture of Iraq
The Iraqi Culture is founded on a great number of juxtapositions following the contributions of various civilizations which occupied Iraq (Assyrian Sumérien born, born, Perse S, Greek S, etc) as well as a mosaic of Christian religions, Moslem, etc
Iraq was during its history an exceptional crossroads where many civilizations met. That brought many superpositions of cultural layers in this State. Its culture is thus strongly impregnated of this cultural mosaic. Nabuchodonosor brought to the Monothéisme on a religious bottom monotheist. One finds zoroastrist S, traces of the Persian presence. The Arabs brought the Islamic religion, etc
In the current context of conflict in Iraq, the media tend to show Iraq cleaved according to the religion (Shiite, sunnites) or of the cultural oppositions (Iraqi, Kurdish S).
The Iraqi company has various levels of cleavages cultural, political, religious, and clannish of a very great complexity.
CodesIraq has as codes:
- IQ, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- IRQ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- IRQ, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- IRQ, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- IRQ, the Code list country of the CIO,
- IZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO , code alpha-2,
- GOLD, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- YI, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- War of the Gulf (1990 - 1991)
- Operation Storm of the desert ( Operation Serves Storm )
- Guerre in Iraq (2003)
- Opération Libération of Iraq ( Operation Iraqi Freedom )
- Élection of the National Assembly of Iraq (2005)
Site of the Iraqi government
- Card detailed on Iraq, Encyclopédie Inserted
- Iraq map collection
- Iraq Index: Compilations by the Brookings institute of statistics economic, sedentary, of opinion polls
- Office in charge of the program Iraq '' Pétrole against food ''
- Report/ratio of the ICRC on the civilian victims of violence (April 2007)
- Image of cultural Iraq which includes satellite images
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