The Iran ايران|Irān|audio-f=Fa-f-ايران.ogg , whose official name is Islamic Republic of Iran جمهوریاسلامیايران|Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān| audio-f=Fa-f-جمهوریاسلامیايران.ogg , is a Islamic Republic of Western Asia (or central). Its capital is Teheran (or Tehrān), its Official language the Persan and its Monnaie the rial. The official calendar is the Persan Calendrier. Iran was also known by the name of Perse internationally until 1935.

The country has a surface of: 1648195 km ² and a population of almost 70 million inhabitants. With a rough National product of 570 billion dollars in 2005, it constitutes the second economy of the area. Its Gross domestic product per capita rises with 8400 dollars. Iran is the 4th producer of Pétrole in the world and the 2nd exporter of the Organization of the oil exporting countries (OPEC). It also has the larger second holds in Natural gas, after Russia, and is the 6th producer.

Origin of the name

During the dynasty Achéménide (550 - 330 av. J. - C.), the Iranians called their territories Parsa name of the kingdom of Cyrus Large the, which belonged to the Persian tribe, and which one finds still today in the form of Fars or Leave, corresponding in the name of this province of Iran. However, the totality of the State was then called Aryanam . This word is related at the end Aryen, which means noble . At the time Parthian (248 av. J. - C. - 224 a. J. - C.) Aryanam was modified in Aryan to evolve to Iranshar and Iran at the time Sassanide.

The Greeks used the terms Aryana and Persis to indicate the area which is known today like the Iranian Plateau. The term passed to the Latin to become Persia , then in French Perse , term which still is very much used in the Western countries and which causes a confusion with the province of the Fars.

At the 20th century, an argument between intellectuals bursts to know which should be the correct name of the country. The March 21st 1935, day of Noruz, Reza Shah Pahlavi publishes a decree asking for all the foreign relations country of indicate it under the name of Iran in their official correspondence, in agreement with the fact that Perse is a term used for a country called Iran in Persan. In north, it has common borders with the Arménie (35 km), the Azerbaïdjan (611 km) and the Turkménistan (992 km), and has 740 km of coasts on the Caspian Sea. The Western borders are divided with the Turkey in north and the Iraq in the south, finishing with the Chatt-el-Arab (in Persan: Arvand Rud ). The Persian Gulf and the gulf of Oman form the integrality of its southernmost limit of 1770 km. Iran has a dispute with the United Arab Emirates since the Années 1970 bearing on the islands Tunbs and Abu Moussa, militarily occupied by Iran. In the east the Afghanistan in north and the Pakistan in the south are. The distance between the Azerbaïdjan in the North-West and the Sistan and Baloutchistan in south-east east roughly of 2330 km.

The Iranian landscape is dominated by several assembly lines which separate various basins and plates from/to each other. The Western part - the most populated - is most mountainous, with chains such those of the Zagros and Alborz (Elbourz); it is in the latter that the highest top of Iran is, the Damāvand which culminates to 5607 Mr. the Iranian Plateau is the zone located between the assembly lines located at the east and the west of the country. The Eastern half consists primarily of a series of uninhabited desert basins (like the Dasht-e Kavir) strewn with rare salted lakes.

The mountains surround several broad basins, or plates, on which are located agricultural and urban centers major such as Ispahan or Shiraz. Until the 20th century, when the principal highways and railroads through the mountainous chains were built, these basins tended to be relatively isolated the ones from the others. Typically, a big city dominated a basin, and there were complex economic relations between the city and the hundreds of villages to its periphery. In the heights of the mountainous chains delimiting the basins, of the organized groups in a tribal way practiced the Transhumance, moving their herds of sheep and goats between their traditional pastures of summer and winter.

There is no river system of importance in the country, and historically, transport was done by means of caravans which followed the roads crossing the collars of the mountainous chains. Those prevented also the access to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.

The climate of Iran is mainly arid or semi-arid. The coastal plain Caspian makes exception with a subtropical Climat: the temperatures seldom fall there in lower part from 0°C in winter and the climate remains wet all the year. The estival temperatures seldom go up to the top of the 29 °C, and annual precipitations are of 680 mm in the east and 1700 mm in the west. In the west of the country, the areas inhabited in the valleys of the mounts Zagros know less lenient temperatures, average temperatures in lower part of 0°C and strong snowfalls. The Eastern and central basins are very arid, with less than 200 mm of annual precipitations and of the estival temperatures exceeding the 38°C. The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf have moderated winters, and very hot and very wet summers. Precipitations vary there between 135 and 355 Misters.

Iran is in a zone of the sphere sismiquement very unstable and is regularly touched by earthquakes. The December 26th 2003, an important earthquake struck the area of Bam, in the south of the country, thus destroying the vestiges of the Arg-E Bam (citadel and ancient city).

See also: List of the islands of Iran

Fauna, flora and environment

See also: Fauna of Iran, Flora of Iran, Environment in Iran

The fauna and the flora of Iran, being given the great quantity of Biome S and Biotope S, accommodates many animal species and vegetable. The semi-desert zones accommodate the cat-like ones and gazelles the such lynx of Eurasia, the Chat of Pallas, the Indian gazelle, the Gazelle with goiter or the onager of the desert. Some are threatened of extinction, like the Guépard of Iran ( Acinonyx jubatus venaticus ), from which there remain only 50 to 60 individuals. Other animals are endemic with the Iranian areas, like the Tétraogalle of Persia or the Daim of Persia, which are very rare today. The species of birds are also very numerous in Iran: wild Tube, Falcon kestrel, Golden eagle, bearded Gypaète, Ganga unibande in the steppes, bustard will houbara of Asia in the deserts. In the forests of mountain are Sanglier S, Ours, stag S and Bouquetin S.

The safeguarding of the Environnement in Iran started to be taken into account by the State in the Années 1950, following environmental degradations and of the overexploitation of the natural resources. Iran initially obtained an Iranian association with the wild life in 1956, then of an organization of hunting and fishing in 1967 and finally of a Department of the Environment in 1971. The goal of these organizations was environmental protection.

Since the beginning of the 21e century, the environmental main issues are the following:

  • the air pollution, particularly in the urban areas. This pollution has anthropic causes and is related on the emissions of the vehicles, the operations of refinery and the emanations industrialists.
  • the Deforestation
  • the Turning into a desert
  • reduction in the surface of the marshes because of the Dryness.
  • pollution by the Oil in the Persian Gulf (due to the operations of extraction and degasification).
  • the pollution the water, caused by the industrial wastes and the not controlled waste water rejections.

Most alarming of these problems is perhaps that of the quality of the air, more particularly in the capital with Teheran. The carbon monoxide represents an important part of the 1,5 million tons of polluting products rejected in Teheran in 2002.

Administrative geography

See also: Provinces of Iran

Iran is subdivided into 30 Province S: Provinces استان|Ostān are controlled by a central city, generally more the big city of the province. The governor of province استاندار|Ostāndār is named by the Minister of Interior Department.

Since 2004, the province of the Khorassan is divided into three provinces, increasing the number of the provinces from 28 to 30.

Each province ( Ostān ) is divided into departments ( Shahrestān ), themselves divided into cantons ( Bakhsh ), which gather ten cities ( Shahr ). The villages ( dehestān ) are the smallest administrative unit; they are attached to the cities. The administrative structure of Iran changes very regularly. In 2005, Iran counted 324 departments, 865 cantons, 982 cities and 2378 villages.

History

See also: History of Iran

Iran has one of the continuous ages oldest of the world. The Histoire of Iran covers thousands of years, since ancient civilizations of the Iranian plate, the civilization of Mannéens in Azerbaïdjan, Shahr-i Sokhteh (“burned City”) in Sistan, and old the Civilization of Jiroft, followed kingdom of Élam, empire Achéménide, Parthes, Sassanides until current the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Prehistory and Antiquity

Iran has one of the continuous ages among oldest of the world. Vestiges of human occupation going back to the Paléolithique inferior were found there with the Balouchistan, of which some - among oldest - have an age estimated at: 800000 years. In the North-West of the country, in the area of the Caspian Sea, of the vestiges dating from attests appearance of a saving in production of goods to the Mesolithic . Sites Neolithic S attest that the practice of agriculture goes back to 6 and 7000 years in the valley of Gorgan, with Tureng Tepe, Yarim Tepe, and in the center of the country with Sialk II (close to Kashan).

Objects of copper and painted ceramics going back to the age of copper (4000 years ago), were found in Susiane (province of the Khuzestan) and with Sialk. Archaeological research hardly starts to make known very old civilizations as the Civilization of Jiroft which builds cities it there has 5000 years, that is to say well before Egyptian and Greek civilizations.

The beginning of sees appearing a form of writing, probably derived from the system sumérien, with Suse. The Empire Élamite (preceded by the Civilization proto-élamite) establishes a new regional capacity in the south-west of Iran, and competes with the empires close to Babylonia and Assyrie. It is during the second millenium before our era that on the Iranian plate various Iranian Peuples arrives, coming from Central Asia. In the middle of, the Mèdes, groups of tribes established in the north and the North-West of the country, establish their capacity on the area. At the end of this same century, Mèdes and the Babylonians release themselves definitively from the Assyrian yoke by taking Ninive in 612 av. J. - C.. It is at the same period that the first sources appear mentioning Cyrus I {{er}}, king of Anshan, grandson of Achéménès, founder of the first Empire Perse, that of the Achéménides.

Achéménides

See also: Achéménides

Lit despots, Achéménides build immense a empire extending from the India to the Egypt, organized in satrapies connected between them by an immense highway network. The Cylindre of Cyrus is the first hard copy of a declaration of the Human rights, going back to Cyrus II. The dynasty achéménide establishes capitals with Pasargades, Persépolis, Suse and Ecbatane. Their reign is marked by the medic Guerres the opponent with the Greek . The Persian empire declines after the reign of Xerxès I {{er}} and falls in 330 av. J. - C., conquered by Alexandre Large the.

Séleucides

See also: Séleucides

The generals of Alexandre establish the dynasty of the Séleucides, which crumbles in its turn in 60 av. J. - C., the last remainder of the empire, in Syria being transformed into Roman province by Pompée. The Parthian empire (also called Arsacide), founded by Arsace and Tiridate in 250 av. J. - C., succeeds to them until in 224, when the king Artaban IV east demolishes by one of his vassal Persians. A new dynasty is born: the Sassanides, which give rise to the second Persian empire (226 - 651).

Sassanides

See also: Sassanides

Sassanides were the first to call their empire Iranshahr or Eranshahr ايرانشهر|Ground of the Aryan ones . It is about one of the most important periods of the history of Iran: Persian civilization is achieved in many fields, and influences the Roman world considerably, the two empires being perpetually in war. The cultural influence reaches Western, Africa, China and India, and continuous Europe during the period islamique, .

Islamic period

See also: Islamic Conquest of Persia

The conquest of Iran begins in 637, with Abû Bakr. After having occupied Ctésiphon, capital of the empire, the Moslems beat the army sassanide with Nahavand in 641 - 642. Iran is then quickly conquered. Conversion with Islam is progressive until the 9th century. Iran was Islamized, but forever arabized, contrary to the other areas conquered by the caliphate. The Persan ones even succeeded in being distinguished within the Islam, and the cultural, political contribution and even monk of Iranian to Islam are of fundamental importance. The capacity of the caliphs decreases gradually, and several regional dynasties emergent in Iran between 820 and 1005, of which the Samanides. The latter compete with Baghdad, and create important hearths of intellectual life. In addition to the classical Arabic culture, they support the blossoming of the literature Persian and grant their protection to thinkers. In 962, the dynasty Ghaznévides settles with Ghazna and reigns of the Khorasan to the Panjâb. It is under the patronage of Mahmûd de Ghaznî that Ferdowsi writes into Persan the Shâh Nâmâ (meaning " The book of Rois"), poem epic which collects the stories of the Persian mythology.

A Turkish group, the Seldjoukides, arrives in the area at the 11th century. Destruction many Qanat S (a powerful system of irrigation traditional) destroyed the network of habitat. The cities are destroyed and replaced by isolated Oasis, demography falls and the country tribalise. Small local dynasties set up after the end of the first Mongolian period in 1335.

But quickly, the country is again invaded: Tamerlan (or Timur, of Turkish or Mongolian origin), conquers the totality of Iran, and in about it 1381 becomes the emperor. The empire Timouride lasts until in 1507: the Chaybanides take Samarkand while the Safavides reconquer a good part of the Iranian territory starting from the Iranian Azerbaïdjan.

Installation of the modern Iranian State

See also: Safavides, Qajar

Iran converts with the Chiisme duodécimain at the 16th century, under the impulse of Ismail I {{er}}, first Safavide sovereign. This conversion results from a will to continue vis-a-vis the domination of the Othoman sunnites and to create a specific Iranian identity. Conversion is obligatory, under penalty of death.

The apogee of Safavides is reached under Shah Abbas I {{er}} Large the. The country is pacified, its wide territory and its centralized administration. Its reign is also a golden age for the trade and arts (reception of tradesmen and foreign artists, development of the production of carpet, construction of Ispahan, etc).

An invasion of Iran by Afghan tribes puts a term at the dynasty of Safavides. Afghan supremacy is rather short. Tahmasp Quli, a chief of Afshar tribe, drives out the Afghans and seizes the power in 1736 under the name of Nâdir Shâh. All the Iranian territory is taken again, since the Georgia and the Arménie until the Afghanistan. Military campaigns are even carried out until Delhi in 1739. Nâdir Shâh is assassinated in 1747 by other chiefs Afshars. The country is then the prey of tribal fights for the conquest of the capacity: Afshar, Afghan, Qajars and Zands fights. Karim Khan Zand succeeds in almost reunifying all the country in 1750. He refuses to take the title of Shah and prefers to name Vakil rear-Ra' aayaa (“the Regent of the peasants”). Its death in 1779 is still followed fights. It is finally Aga Mohammad Shah Qajar which seizes the power in 1794, establishing a dynasty which lasts until in 1925.

Under the reigns of Fath Ali Shah, Mohammad Shah, and Nasseredin Shah, the country finds order, stability and unit. The merchants ( bāzāris ) and the Ouléma S (religious leaders) become important members of the Iranian Société. However, the central authority is rather weak, the relatively corrupted leading class and the people exploited by his leaders. The colonial powers Russian and British benefit from this situation: thanks to their military and technological superiority, they dominate the trade of Iran and interfere in the internal businesses of the country.

Constitutional revolution and modernization of Iran

See also: constitutional Revolution of Iran, white Revolution

The first Iranian attempts at modernization start under Nasseredin Shah. The tax system is reformed, central control on the administration is reinforced, the trade and industry is developed. The influence of the Shiite clergy and the foreign powers is reduced. The rise of popular anger and a request for reform leads the country to the constitutional revolution of 1906. Iran becomes the first means-Eastern country to make a revolution and to obtain a constitution.

The First World War sees growing the influence of the British, already interested by the oil discovery in the Khuzestan in 1908. They try to impose the anglo-Persan agreement in 1919, which is refused by the Parliament.

Little time after, a coup d'etat makes change the capacity of hand, with the profit of an officer, Reza Khan, which becomes later four years Reza Shah Pahlavi. By means of a centralized and strong government, it modernizes Iran: development of heavy industries, major projects of infrastructures, construction of a national railroad, creation of a public system of state education, reforms justice (until controlled there by the Shiite clergy), creation of the Iranian civil code, improvement of hygiene and the health system. The special rights granted the abroads during the time Qajar are cancelled to decrease the dependence with respect to Great Britain and Russia. The March 21st 1935, the International community is officially summoned not to use more the name Perse but Iran (local name since Sassanides). Prohibition of the port of the veil for the women and obligation to wear a dress “to Western” for the men are issued the same year.

Anxious of its bringings together with the Germany, the British force Reza Shah to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in 1941. Reza Shah is sent in exile and dies in 1944. The occupation of the country was of vital importance for the Allies. Having declared the war in Germany in 1943, Iran approaches the western powers. The same year, the Conférence of Teheran sees Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin to reaffirm their engagement on the independence of Iran, which quickly becomes member of the United Nations.

In December 1945, profiting from the support of the Soviet Union, the Government of the people of Azerbaïdjan and the République of Mahabad declare their independence in the areas of the Iranian Azerbaïdjan and the Iranian Kurdistan. Parts of the Khorasan, Gorgan, Mazandaran and Gilan are occupied by the Soviet troops: the Crisis irano-Soviet, first of the Cold war, finishes in December 1946 with the collapse of the republican governments having lost the support of the USSR.

In 1953, the Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh nationalizes oil. It is then far away from the capacity following a plot orchestrated by the British secret services and American, the Opération Ajax . After its fall, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi sets up an autocratic mode and dictatorial founded on the American support. In 1955, Iran belongs to the Pacte of Baghdad and is then in the American camp during the Cold war. Mohammad Reza Shah modernizes industry and the company thanks to the very important incomes of oil and with a reform program named the white Révolution. Iran enters during one fulgurating boom and from accelerated modernization but the company, upset in its roots, suffers from the lack of freedom.

Iranian revolution and Islamic Republic

See also: Iranian Revolution, Provisional government of Iran

After popular months of protests and demonstrations against its mode, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi leaves Iran the January 16th 1979. The 1979, Rouhollah Khomeini returns to Iran after a 15 years exile. After the proclamation of the neutrality of the armed forces in the revolution, Khomeini declares the end of monarchy the February 11th and sets up a provisional government. There was a great jubilation in Iran around the dismissal of the Shah, but there existed also much of dissensions on the future of Iran. Whereas Khomeini was the political figure most popular, there was revolutionary dozen groups, each one having its own sight relating to the future of Iran. There were factions liberal, Marxist, anarchistic and laic, as well as a broad panorama of religious groups seeking to model the future of Iran, the Iraq invades Iran. The official policy of the United States seeks to isolate Iran. The United States and their allies provide weapons and technology to Saddam Hussein, which aims to seize the oil fields of the Khuzestan. Ironically, of the members of the Reagan administration secretly sell weapons and spare parts in Iran in what is known under the name of Affaire Iran-Countered. Iran agrees to respect the cease-fire required by resolution 598 of the safety advice of UNO the July 20th 1987. The August 15th 1990, Saddam Hussein agrees to return to the agreements of Algiers of 1975: return to a status quo handle .

After the death of Khomeini the June 3rd 1989, the assembly of the experts chooses the outgoing president, Ali Khamenei like Guide of the revolution. The constitution is modified following its come to power.

During the War of the Gulf in 1991, the country remains neutral (it makes it possible however Iraqi aviation to be posed in Iran and to the Iraqi refugees to penetrate its territory).

The revolution followed by the war with Iraq weighed much on the economy of the country, which leads the pragmatic ones like Hachemi Rafsandjani to becoming president in 1989 then 1993. The failure of the economic policies and the modernization of the Iranian state sees the election of Mohammad Khatami, a moderated monk, in 1997. This one must carry out the country between the requirements of a company applicant of reforms and of a very preserving clergy which wishes to keep the seizure on the capacity. This shift reaches its paroxysm in July 1999, where massive protests against the government take place in the streets of Teheran. Khatami is re-elected in June 2001 but, after that, the preserving elements of the Iranian government work to destabilize the reforming movement, banishing the liberal newspapers and disqualifying the candidates with the parliamentary elections and presidential.

The failure of Khatami to reform the government causes an apathy growing among youth. The mayor ultra-conservative of Teheran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is elected president in 2005 (more than 1000 candidatures are invalidated by the Conseil of the Guards). One then observes a hardening of the nationalist speech by the president, who thus aims at sitting the legitimacy of the Iranian Nuclear program and the decisions of politics foreign in spite of the American opposition.

See also: List of the leaders of Iran

People and his culture

Demography

See also: Demography of Iran

The Iranian Démographie was completely upset during the 20th century. The population is estimated at 70 million in 2006 whereas it was of 10 million at the beginning of this century. However, it appears that Iran recently controlled its very extremely Fertility rate thanks to a family planning effective, passing from 5 children through woman in age to procreate at the end of the years 1970 at 1,82 today. However, the population continues to grow at high rate/rhythm (1% per annum) , : indeed, from the small proportion of elderly - 5% of the population are 65 years old and more - weak a Death rate results (5,5 ‰); the strong proportion of people in age to procreate explains the constant Birth rate (17 ‰). The Migratory balance is weak (- 0,5 ‰).

The rate of elimination of illiteracy is of 80% at the most 15 years.

Synthetic data

Migration

The geographical position of Iran, its demography and its economic situation make at the same time a country of origin of them, transit and destinations for the migrants. Although the country accommodates one of the largest populations of refugees in the world, it is also a country of emigration and immigration.

Iran counts nearly a million refugees, the majority originating in Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2001, the number of Afghan refugees in Iran was of 3.809.600, and the number of Iraqi refugees of 530.100. This surge of refugees takes place since the whole beginning of the year 1980, caused by the wars which took place at the borders of Iran (in Afghanistan as from 1980), or by decisions taken by the adjoining countries (the decision of Saddam Hussein to expel Iraqi of Iranian origin towards Iran between 1980 and 1981).

The official policy of the government aims at repatriating these refugees and nearly 2 million were it, for a good portion in co-operation with the Office of the High Commission of the United Nations for the refugees. , , ,

The Iranian Diaspora is estimated at approximately 4 million people who emigrated in North America, Western Europe and South America, the majority after the revolution of 1979. Current migratory balance is negative, and corresponds at the beginning of approximately: 40000 people per annum. However, it should be noted that the precise data on the phenomena of migration in Iran are not all available

Current religions

See also: Shiism duodécimain, Religious minorities in Iran

Shiite Islam duodécimain is the official religion of Iran to which 90% of the population belong. Iran is, with Iraq and Bahrain, one of the countries of the Muslim world to have more half of its population mainly Shiite. Iran has on its territory two holy sites of the Shiism: Mashhad, where the Imam Reza and Qom is buried, where is buried Fatimah My' sumeh, sister of Reza. Qom is moreover one of the Shiite theological centers most influential of the world, competing with Nadjaf in Iraq. Qom counts many Shiite seminars, like the Howzeh ye Elmiyeh Qom and is also the seat of many clerical associations. It is starting from the seminars and religious universities of Qom that the consolidation of the capacity of the clergy in Iran took place since the opening of the Howzeh ye Elmiye Qom in 1922.

Sunnites (the majority branch in the Moslem rest of the world) account for 10% of the Iranian population. The other minorities include the Juifs, the Baha' is, the Chrétiens, the Zoroastriens, the Sabéens (or Mandéens) or others. Three “revealed religions” other than Islam are regarded as officially recognized by the constitution and lay out of their representatives at the Parliament (Majles): Christian , Jewish and the Zoroastriens. The Moslems sunnites, minority in Iran, do not have reserved seats. The minority sabéenne which count only a few hundreds the faithful ones, and more: 300000 Baha' is, persecuted hard under all the Iranian modes, were never recognized like religious minorities. Since the advent of the Islamic Republic in 1979, the baha' is of Iran, are regarded as “not protected infidels, (...) of the not-people, and have neither rights, nor protection”, indicates the International federation of the human rights (FIDH) in his ratio of 2003 on religious discriminations in Iran.

According to article 14 of the Iranian constitution and in accordance with the Coran God does not prohibit to you to treat with kindness and uprightness those which did not fight against you because of your religion and which did not expel you of your residences , the government must thus respect the human rights of the not-Moslems, as long as they do not conspire against the Islam or the Islamic Republic of Iran, . The representatives of the recognized religious minorities confirmed that the teaching of their religion assured and was respected as well in the public schools as in the schools specific to the minorities

Company

Festivals and bank holidays

Education system

See also: Education in Iran

A program nonobligatory pre-primary education one duration one year is given for the five year old children. Primary education ( dabestan ) starts at the six years age and lasts five years. Basic secondary education, also known under the name of cycle of orientation ( will dawra' i-rahnama' II tahsili ), includes the sixth at the eighth year. The cycle of orientation is used to determine the aptitudes to follow studies general or professional/technical on the level of the higher secondary education ( dabirestan ), which consists of a three years cycle and is neither obligatory nor free. The higher secondary studies are subdivided in three dies: theoretical, technical/professional and practical, themselves subdivided in various specialities. Higher education is ensured by the technological universities, universities, the universities of medicine, the establishments of vocational training, the colleges and the training centres of the professors, and private establishments. The requirements for the access to higher education are to have completed the secondary studies higher and the programme of one year of preparation than the university and to make a success of the national examination of entry at the University. The higher learning delivers several diplomas: Fogh-Diplom or Kardani (equivalent with a Rank of high-level technicien) for two years of higher learning, Karshenasi (also known under the name of license), sanctioning 4 years of higher learning. Two years after the license, the Fogh License (control). An examination of entry then makes it possible to the students to begin a program doctoral, . Iran currently has 54 universities of State, and 42 medical schools of State. There exist also 289 private universities. approximately 6% of the establishments of higher secondary education are private establishments. The State first of all took into account the health insurance and the retirement pensions were initially reserved for the public sector, and the law of 1975 extended the law on the Social Security to the private sector.

After the revolution of 1979, several foundations are created to help the most stripped (called mostaz' so ) and to improve their living conditions in the forms of financial aids or pensions. The Committee of help of the Imam Khomeini (CSIK), the foundation of the martyrs or the foundation of the 15 khordad are examples of these foundations which have financial means important (State grants, exemption of taxes and gifts religious).

In 1986, social protection is extended to the free lances, who voluntarily owe cotiser between 12 and 18% their incomes according to desired protection.

Social protection covers the employees between 18 and 65 years, and the financing is shared between the employee (7% of the wages), the employer (20 to 23% of the wage bill) and the State (which supplements the contribution of the employer to a total value of 3% of the wage bill).

The social security makes it possible to ensure the employees against unemployment, the disease, old age (retirement pension), the occupational accidents. The Organization of the social security, managed by the Ministry social protection, delivers also family benefits and of maternity under certain conditions. Iran multiplied by ten its publications between 1996 and 2004 and was classified first in term of growth rate, followed by the China

The phenomenon Drugs in Iran

Iran was a producer country and consuming opium during centuries. The control of drugs was taken into account for a long time: the first ordinances aiming at controlling the use of drugs were emitted 4 centuries ago at the time Safavide. In 1920, the country put approximately 100 tons of Opium per annum on the interior market and outside. In 1949, the consumers of drugs accounted for 11% of the population; the regular consumers of opium were 1,3 million, and 500 smokings of opium existed then in the capital, Teheran.

Whereas the production in Iran strongly dropped since 1979 (the new mode then sets up very restrictive policies with respect to the drug problem), the character of “country of transit” became more important. That is due to the long common border with the Afghanistan, which became the first producer of opium in the world. Moreover, the transit connects the production zones of Central Asia to the areas of supply which are the Russia, the Persian Gulf, the Turkey or the Europe. The seizures of opium made in Iran thus account for 25% of the world seizures of opium. The main roads of the traffic pass by the Khorassan and the Sistan and Balouchestan, of the mountainous regions and inhospitable, before continuing towards Teheran, then towards Turkey, from where drug leaves for Europe by the “road Balkans”. It is generally estimated that 40% of drugs which forward by Iran remain in the country to serve local consumption

To drink coffee or with opium in the coffees was a cultural practice tolerated in the years 1950. The number of the consumers of drug dropped until the years 1970, within the framework of programmes of weaning or maintenance of the suffering use for those of chronic diseases; 1,2 million according to the Iranian government.

The migration inside the social country, urbanization, delinquency and problems increased, leaving room with the development and the expansion of the problems involved in drugs.

Arts and craft industry

See also: Culture of Iran

Iran has a long story Art istic, musical, poetic, philosophical, of Tradition S and Idéologie S. Beaucoup of Iranians think that their culture is only and single reason having allowed their civilization to survive thousands of years of disturbances.

The search of social justice and equity is an important part of the characteristics of the Iranian culture. The respect of old and hospitality the abroads are also integral part of this Iranian label.

Literature

See also: Literature Persian

RTL F کهایرانبهشتاستیابوستان
RTL F همیبویمشکآیدازدوستان

That somebody thinks of Iran like Eden or Jardin,
the odor of the musk of the friend, of the companion, abounds here low.
- Firdawsi

RTL F همهعالمتناستوایراندل
RTL F نیستگویندهزینقیاسخجل

Iran is the heart and the universe the body,
Of this word, the poet does not feel humility nor remorse.
- Nizami

The remaining work written in languages Persians (like the Old man-Persan or the means-Persan ) as goes up far as in 650 av. J. - C., date of the inscriptions oldest Achéménides found. The essence of the literature Persian, however, goes back to the period of the conquest of Iran by Islam around 650 of our era. After the Abbassides arrived at the capacity (750), the Persan ones became the scribes and the bureaucrats of the Islamique empire and also, more and more, its writers and poets. The Persan ones wrote at the same time in Arabic and Persan; the Persan one then prevailed in the successive literary circles. The Persian poets such as Saadi, Hafez and Rûmi are read in the whole world and had one great influence on the literature in many countries. The contemporary literature Persian is perhaps less known.

The literature Persian is in particular re-elected for his poetry, which can be epic, historical, philosophical, in love…

The principal Persan writers are Ferdowsi, author of the Shâh Nâmâ, the great Iranian epopee, Nizami, author of the Khamsa (or “Five Poems”), Rûmi with Mesvâni and the Chant of the birds , Its' adi, Hafez, Omar Khayyam, Attar with the Mémorial of the Saints , the conference of the birds and the book of the secrecies

Among the contemporary writers, one can also quote Sadegh Hedayat, Ali Shariati, Fereydoun Moshiri, Furough Farrokhzad.

Cinema

See also: Iranian Cinema

The cinema is old only five years when it arrives to Persia at the beginning of the 20th century. The first Iranian realizer was surely Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi, the official photographer of Mozaffaredin Shah, the Shah of Iran (1896 - 1907). After a visit with Paris in July 1900, Akkas Bashi obtained a camera and filmed the visit of the Shah in Belgium.

The Iranian Cinéma according to the revolution meets an important success on the international forums for its distinct style, its topics, its authors, his idea of nationality and the manifestation of the culture. Many Iranian realizers of world class emerged, like Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. The regular presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals like the Cannes festival, the Mostra of Venice or the Festival of Berlin drew the attention of the whole world to chiefs of work. The Iranian films were regularly nominated or gained prestigious prices such as the Lion of Gold of the Mostra of Venice, the Palme of Gold of the Cannes festival or the Ours of money or gold of the Berlinale. In 2006, 6 Iranian films, of 6 different styles, represented the Iranian Cinéma with the festival of film of Berlin. That was regarded by the critics as a remarkable event for the cinema iranien.,

Music

See also: Music of Iran

The music of Iran has a history several times thousand-year-old going up with the Neolithic , such as can attest it the archaeological excavations with Élam, in the south-west of Iran. It is necessary to distinguish science from the music, or musicology ( Elm-e Musiqi ) which, as a branch of mathematics, always was very well considered in the country, and the musical performance ( Tarab, Navakhteh, Tasneef, Taraneh or more recently Muzik ) which often had a conflict relationship to the religious authorities.

The Iranian classical music ( Musiqi Asil ) is based on the acoustic theories and esthetics exposed by Farabi and Shirazi in the first centuries of the Islam. This musical genre preserves the melody formulas allotted to the musicians of the Courses imperial of Khosro Parviz at the period Sassanide. These modes are known under the name of Dastgah and represent a repertory ( radif ) in which the other Iranian musical genres draw their ideas and their inspiration.

The sacred music is not a homogeneous kind. The plays ( tazieh ) representing the passion of the Hussein Imam have their origin in the martial music. Similarly, the music of the brotherhoods soufie S, by the use of mystical instruments Daf and Tambur and the practice of ritual ceremonies ( zikr and jam ), has a freedom of larger composition and rythmiquement is sophisticated than the classical music.

The popular music and folk cheek a big role in the daily life of rural Iranian, like the folksongs of the Kurdistan and the Khorasan, but also of the townsmen because it inspires the popular and traditional music.

Iran developed its own pop music in the years 1970, using indigenous forms and instruments and adding electric guitar and other imported characteristics; the most popular musician of this time was a singer, Gougoush. The pop music was however banished after the revolution of 1979 which launched a rebirth in the Persian classical music mermettant the émergeance national and international celebrities like Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Hossein Alizadeh, Shahram Nazeri and Mohammad Reza Shadjarian. However, much of very preserving Iranian did not see an good eye even the simplest melodies and words. Thus it was prohibits the women from singing in public; they can always play of an instrument For this old nation, the dance can be under consideration like an important and social phenomenon and/or a religious ritual. However, of the political restrictions on the Iranian and traditional dances took place after the revolution of 1979, the dance and the music has a time badly seen, even prohibited during a time, but this thousand-year-old history always remains, sometimes within a more private framework.

The dance can intervene in many very different contexts like - for example - the social events, the rites of passage, exorcisms and the ceremonies.

It is today an artistic mode of expression by freedom that in particular the choice of the bright colors and the reasons employed authorizes. The trade secrets passed from Génération in generation. The craftsmen used the Insecte S, the Plante S, the root S, the bark S and other matters like source of inspiration.

Cook

See also: Iranian Kitchen

The kitchen of Iran is varied, each province having its own dishes as well as its styles and culinary, distinct traditions according to the areas. It is not spiced. The grasses are used much, just as the fruits such as plum S, grenade S, Raisin S, Coing S or others. The majority of the Iranian dishes are a combination of Riz with Viande (Poulet, lamb) or Poisson and much of garlic, Oignon, Légume S, Noix and sweet herbs.

In its book the new food of the life , Najmieh Batmanglij writes that kitchen of Iran has much in common with other kitchens of the the Middle East, but is often regarded as the most sophisticated and most imaginative of all, as coloured and complex as a Persian carpet.

Sport

See also: Sport in Iran

The Iranian traditional sport is the Varzesh-e Pahlavani (“sport of the heroes”), an martial art going up at the time Parthian or sassanide. This sport consists of a series of techniques of Culturisme accompanied by Lutte. Moreover, this sport attaches a great importance to the chivalrous spirit, the courtesy and bravery. Varzesh-e Pahlavani is normally practiced in Zurkhaneh where various accessories are used for the drive (e.g. Mīl, Kabbadeh, Sang and Takhteh Shena ). The practitioners of this sport are called Pahlavan (literally " athlète").

Iran gains its first Olympic medal with the money medal in Lutte obtained with Helsinki in 1952 by Gholamreza Takhti. It gains thereafter a gold medal with Melbourne in 1956 then the money again with Rome. The country is distinguished regularly in international competitions in Lutte and Haltérophilie. Hossein Reza Zadeh is currently (2006) holder of the world records of Haltérophilie in the category of more than 105 kg, he is first Iranian to have gained two Olympic gold medals . Nassim Hassanpour represented Iran in shooting with the gun with 10m with the Olympic Games of Sydney in 2004. It was youngest and only representing female of the Iranian delegation.

The football team took part in two final stages of World cup and was recently qualified for its third, in 2006. Players like Ali Daei, Vahid Hashemian, Ali Karimi, Andranik Teymourian and Javad Nekounam play or played abroad in clubs of the first division Europeans such as the Bayern of Munich, VfL Bochum, Hamburg SV, Osasuna Pampelune or with the Bolton Wanderers Football Club. The Ski is also a very snuffed sport of the Iranian easy classes, practiced in number of winter sports resorts like Dizin, located near Teheran, or Sepidan, in the Fars.

In 2002, the most practiced sports are the Football, the Culturisme, the Volley-ball, the martial arts, the Natation, the sports of mountain (Alpinisme, Ski, Randonnée) and the fight. The Tennis, the Golf, the Basketball, the Gymnastic and the Varzesh-e Pahlavani are practiced in less proportions.

State and policy

See also: Political of Iran

Distribution of the capacities

Iran, since the introduction of the Islamic Republic, presents a very singular institutional system. Iran is the only Shiite State officially in the Muslim world. The Islamic Republic of Iran is also the only country of the world to being a theocracy; i.e. the capacity, supposed to emanate from God, lies in the hands of the clergy. This theocracy rises from the concept of Velayat-e faqih , theorized in the Années 1960 by the Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini, first “Guide of the Revolution”. However, there exists also a representative dimension in this system, since popular sovereignty is recognized and that an electoral process allows the election of the president of the republic, the deputies and the members of the Assemblée of the experts. This electoral system takes as a starting point the people's democracies, political pluralism does not exist; the candidates belong to the various islamist factions.

The political system of the Islamic République is based on the Constitution of 1979 called Qānun-e Asasi (“Fundamental law”). The system includes/understands several bodies controlling closely connected, whose majority are named by the guide (only the president, members of the Parliament, and the members of the assembly of the experts are elected by the vote for all). The necessary minimum age to vote is fixed at 15 years.

Executive power

See also: Rahbar

The Guide of the revolution (also called “Supreme guide”) is responsible for the supervision of the “general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran”. The guide of the revolution is elected by the Assemblée of the experts for one unlimited duration. The guide of the revolution is commander-in-chief of the armed forces; it controls the military information and the operations related to safety; he only has the capacity to declare the war. It is also the only obligatorily religious person of the institutions of State. It can dislocate the president of the republic of his functions, after the supreme court recognized this last culprit of violation of his constitutional duties, or after a vote of the Parliament testifying to its incapacity on the basis of principle 89 of the constitution. The assembly of the experts is responsible for the supervision of the supreme guide within the framework of the execution of her legal duties. The current supreme guide is the Ayatollah Ali Hossein Khamenei (indicated in 1989).

See also: President of Iran

The Constitution defines the president like more the high ranking authority of the State after the guide of the revolution. The current President of the Republic is Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (elected in June 2005).

Legislative power

See also: Majlis of Iran

The Majles (), whose complete name is “Islamic Consultative Assembly” مجلسشورایاسلامى|Majles-e Shora-ye Eslami , is the single assembly of the Iranian system monocaméral. She counts 290 members elected for a four years mandate. Majles outlines the legislation, ratifies the international treated S and approves the national budget. Any candidate with the legislature must be authorized to present itself by the Conseil of the guards. In 2006,5 seats are reserved for the religious minorities.

See also: Parliament of the experts

The Parliament of the experts, which sits one week per annum, account 86 members of the “virtuous and cultivated” clergy elected by the vote for all for a eight years mandate. As for the elections presidential and legislative, it is the Conseil of the Guards which determines the eligibility of the candidates. The assembly elects the Supreme guide and with the constitutional authority to withdraw the capacity at any time to him. One however never saw case where this assembly opposed the decisions of the supreme guide.

See also: the Council of the Guards

The the Council of the Guards account 12 lawyers of which 6 are named by the Supreme guide. Other half is recommended by the leader of the judicial power (itself named by the Guide of the revolution) and officially named by the Parliament. The council interprets the constitution and can use of its right of Veto against Majles: if he considers a law incompatible with the constitution or the principles of Islam, he returns it to the Parliament for re-examination. In the discussed exercise of its authority, the council refers to a strict interpretation of the constitution in order to affix its veto with the candidates at the Parliament.

See also: the Council of understanding of the superior interest of the mode

The the Council of understanding, composed of six religious members of the the Council of the Guards of the Constitution, of the chiefs of the legislative powers, legal and executive, of the minister concerned with the day order to which ten of other personalities is added. It with the authority to make the mediation of the problems between the Parliament and the council of the guards, and is used as advisory body to the supreme guide; by thus doing one of the bodies of being able most powerful of the country.

Judicial power

See also: Iranian Legal system

The guide of the revolution names the chief of the judicial power (currently Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi), which in its turn names the leader of the supreme court and the prosecutor as a chief. There exist various types of courts including the public courts which are in load of the cases civil and criminal, and the revolutionary tribunals which treat various cases, of which crimes against the national security. The decisions of the revolutionary tribunals are final and the call is not possible. The clerical special court is in load of the crimes committed by the members of the Clergé, although it was also responsible for implying case of Laïc S. the clerical special court functions independently of the regular legal system and account returns only to the guide of the revolution. The decisions of this court are final and one cannot appeal there. Several monks reformists for example were considered and condemned under various pretexts by the special court of the clergy, as the example of Hojjat-ol-Eslam Abdollah Nouri shows it, editor of the newspaper Khordad . This reforming, critical monk of repression, is accused insults with Khomeini and of publication of religious articles then condemned to five years of imprisonment

Local authorities: councils of cities and villages

See also: the Councils of cities and villages in Iran

The local councils are elected by a public vote for some four years mandates in all the cities and villages of Iran. According to article 7 of the Iranian constitution, these local councils, with the Parliament, are “the administrative decision-making bodies and of the State” islamist, since all the other traditional parties are prohibited. There exist two tendencies at the islamist ones: conservatives and reformers. Both want to make last the Iranian system, but they are not agreement on the means to be used. The conservatives oppose any change, and are for the hard line into force at the beginnings of the revolution. The reformers are for a certain political liberalization. The election of Mohammad Khatami, a reformer, in 1997, showed the will of change of the Iranians. Nevertheless, the difficulties caused by the conservatives to make validate the laws of the reformers prevented the least change and made it possible to the conservatives to return on the political scene. The loss of credibility involved a strong rate of abstention to the municipal elections in 2003, the return of preserving deputies to the Majles in 2004, until the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005.

The most significant categories of the population for the political authorities of the Republic of Iran are the young people, the women and the intellectuals. The young people do not give up therefore their search of social freedom: freedom of choice vestimentary, of meeting between sexes opposed in the public places, of access to the cultural and artistic production of the whole world. Although their legal status is lower, as show it in particular the obligation of the port of the veil and measurements relating to co-education, the women take part in all the aspects of the political life, social, economic, scientific and artistic. There exist today two feminist movements in Iran: an islamist feminist current, claiming religious values and tradition, and another claiming secularity It is interesting to note that they changed their vision between the beginnings of the Islamic Republic and today, a quarter century afterwards. Abdul Karim Soroush, an Iranian philosopher first of all in favor of the revolution, is regarded today as a F degarandishan (“those which think differently”); it developed a critical approach of the Islam: it distinguishes a version from the religion which has its word to say only in the sphere of crowned and another which has its word to say on all, including the social life and policy. Groups exist nevertheless apart from the control of the state, which make it possible to organize demonstrations, to sign pétitions, . Many facts, of which certain recent, indicate non-observance by the Iranian government of the civil laws, political freedom of expression and the right of the workers. The General meeting and the commission of the Human rights of UNO are declared worried by the great number of capital executions, cases of torture and treatments or punishments inhuman or degrading, standards applied with regard to the administration of justice, the absence of guarantees of a regular procedure, discriminatory treatment of certain groups of citizens . The report/ratio declares moreover than it is not possible for the individuals transgenres to currently choose not to undergo surgery - if one grants the right to them to change sex, it is awaited that it does it immediately. Those which do not want to be made operate (as those which are disguised or cannot define their sex) are regarded as being of their biological kind, and, as such, can be subjected to harassing for the fact of being homosexual and are thus prone to the same laws prohibiting the homosexual acts .

Since its election in 2005, the presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is marked by the priority given to the international policy. The capacity is worried more geostrategic position of the country than of the interior problems. The effectiveness of the international action on the Human rights is affected. The dialog with the European Union, broken in 2004, is not taken again in spite of a retry in 2005. The ACAT notes however that, in spite of contradictory declarations, the position of Iran could evolve/move on the question of the application of the capital punishment to the minors. On the other hand, Amnesty International fears that the number of executions of minors since 2005 is underestimated. Association had seen in the electoral promises of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (improvement of the social rights and economic) an occasion sensitize Iran with the topic of the human rights. It notes on the contrary that the months passed and… repression, limitation of the right to the expression and association, arbitrary arrests, torture and to decorate the whole, massive return to the capital punishment, are again with the chart .

Bernard Hourcade, iranologist with CNRS draws up an optimistic portrait of the political and social evolution of Iran. He notes a modernization of the country in the sectors cultural, social, economic, political, of the international relations, and the international university exchanges. Many old a pasdarans which occupies today of the stations - keys went to study abroad. He notes that the concepts of République, Démocratie or freedoms anchor more and more in the Iranian Société and create the conditions of a deep change; change in which political Islam has a new place. According to him, in spite of repression, Iran is a country where people discuss, speak, express themselves, protest. Whatever their efforts, the clerical authorities which control justice and the police force are not any more able to control the access to information nor the expression of the claims. The acts of repression for the example, in particular against the journalists, are all the more violent ones and systematic, but denounced with force and effectiveness, even by members of the government . So oppositions still block the electoral processes, or the promulgation of laws, the country changed and took the practice of independence and freedom of speech, before that of the acts.

Media

See also: Media in Iran

The media exist since the appearance of the first newspaper paper in 1835. They gather several official news agencies today, of very many newspapers and magazines, the official and free television channels (emitting since the foreigner), of the radio stations. The explosion of the phenomenon of the Blog S is also observed in the country, insofar as these media make it possible to be expressed freely and anonymously.

The constitution of Iran grants freedom of the press as a long time as are respected the Islamic principles. One requires each publicator of newspaper or magazine to have a valid license of publication. Any perceived publication as anti-Islamic is not seen allotting this license. In practice, the criterion defining the anti-Islamic character includes all the supports which present an antigovernment feeling. The blocking and the restriction of Internet are made possible by the Iranian law of the press of 1986, which controls the access to information. The law requires today that FAI install mechanisms of filtering. The sorrows planned for the violations of the laws on the access and information circulation can be very severe.

After the come to power of Khatami in 1997 and the emergence of a reforming movement (the reformists, carried out by Khatami, wanted to facilitate the information of the public), the conservatives operated the press and the movements moved on the fabric. It is at the same period that started to grow strongly the number of Blog S into Persan. Indeed, the blogs represent a window for the young people who want to express themselves in a way freer than in the Iranian Société. According to not-official statistics, there would be more: 100000 regularly put to date in February 2005.

The censure persists with the government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In October 2006, the Iranian government made pass a decree forcing the FAI to limit speeds of remote loading to 128Kbps for all the individual customers and the Cybercafé S.

Foreign politics

See also: International relations of Iran

In Iran, the revolutionary mode set up by the Ayatollah Khomeini initiated radical changes in the foreign politics which was followed by the Shah, particularly by reversing the orientation of the country with respect to the Occident. After the idealism initial post-revolutionist, a hard foreign politics and the War Iran-Iraq, the country initiated a more rational foreign politics, based on economic objectives. However, this one is occasionally occulted by ideological rhetoric. In the recent years, Iran made main efforts to improve its relations with its neighbors, particularly with the Saudi Arabia. The regional goals of Iran are to try not to be dominated by establishing their role of leader in the area, to circumscribe the American influence and other external powers and to build commercial relations of quality. In general terms, the foreign politics of Iran is based on three principal ideas:

  1. It takes position against the United States and Israel: the first as a military power which threatens it in the Persian Gulf and the second as enemy indicated Islamic propaganda post-revolution (within the framework of the support for the rebuilding of a State Palestinian).
  2. : See also: Relations Iran-State-Plain and Relations Iran-Israel
  3. It wants to eliminate the external influence in the area. Iran is seen like a regional power, whereas world powers such as the United States or the Great Britain do not wish it. She thus seeks to reduce their presence in the Persian Gulf as much as possible.
  4. : See also: Franco-Iranian Relations and Relations Iran-Germany
  5. It strongly develops the diplomatic contacts with the other countries in the process of development in an effort to build political commercial relations and supports, now that the country lost its American support of before the revolution.
  6. : See also: Relations Iran-India, Relations Iran-China and Relations Iran-Russia

In spite of its guiding lines, the bilateral relations are frequently confused and contradictory, because of the permanent oscillation of Iran between pragmatic and ideological aspects.

The country would plan to enter the south-Asian Association for the regional co-operation.

Export of the revolution

The concept of the export of the Islamic revolution drift in a particular way to see the world. This sight perceives the Islamic revolution like the way for the Moslems and the not-Moslems to release themselves from oppression from the tyrants who serve the interests of the international Impérialisme.

There exist several currents of thought as for the means to implement to export the Islamic revolution. In general, those which are for the export of the revolution only through education and the example dominated the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, whereas those in favor of an assistance activates with the revolutionary groups were not used for such stations. Nevertheless, because these supports for the approach activist are also influential political directors, they could influence certain fields of the foreign relations. That is particularly true about the policy towards the Lebanon. In 1982, Iran deploys 1500 guards of the revolution to Baalbek with the Lebanon, to organize, provide and involve the Hezbollah. Iran decreased its assistance with the Lebanese movement but continues all the same to arm Hezbollah and encourages it to maintain a capacity military significant

Iranian nuclear program

See also: Iranian Nuclear program

The Iranian Nuclear program became a political discussion at the same time in Iran and in the Western countries. A considerable ditch emerges between the political sights of Iranian and those of the occident. The Iranian public sees the nuclear power like a means of diversifying the energy sources and of affirming its international political role. The Western governments think that the civil nuclear program has hidden intentions, of which the possible introduction of nuclear weapons , . Iran ratified the NPT in 1970, which urges it not to manufacture nuclear weapons and not to try to get some. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) believes that the recent Iranian not-co-operation makes impossible the control of inspections in order to make sure that technology is not diverted for a military use, as a report/ratio of its managing director declares it on August 31st, 2006. However the agency indicates that no military activity is shown and that talks are in hand for a more complete and permanent inspection.

Military power

See also: Iranian Army

The Iranian armed forces were modernized and were organized after the First World War, especially after the takeover of Reza Shah in 1921. Under the reign of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Iranian army was involved and equipped by foreign armies. The American military mission in Iran was for example most important of the world in 1978. The sales of American weapons in Iran rose to 11,2 billion dollars between 1950 and 1979, whereas in parallel, the ayatollah Khomeini created by decree the body of the guards of the Islamic revolution ( pasdaran ) on May 5th, 1979, with for objective defending the interests of the Islamic revolution.

The Iranian armed forces are organized in the following way:

  • the regular army, divided into three weapons:
    • Army ( artesh ), cash: 350000 men (of which: 200000 conscripts) in 2004
    • Navy ( Niru Daryāi ), counting approximately: 18000 men in 2001
  • the Body of the guards of the Islamic revolution ( Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enghelāb-e Islami ), which took again the organization in three weapons of the regular army and account more: 125000 men.

The Iranian armed forces can also count on the body called Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (literally “Force of Mobilization of resistance”), a fast popular rapid deployment force made up of volunteers (comparable with a civil militia). Basij were initially created to allow the sending of forces on the face at the time of the Iran-Iraq war; today, their role is to make respect the Islamic precepts. They also count anti-riot special units and a strong presence in the universities and among the students. Their number is difficult to estimate, between 11 million according to their commander, and: 400000 to a million according to other sources.

The constitution of Iran of 1979 indicates the guide of the revolution as supreme commander of the armed forces.

The Iranian military power was strongly reduced by the Guerre Iran-Iraq and the embargo to which the Islamic Republic is subjected (in spite of deliveries of American weapons thanks to Israeli , Europeans or Latin-American intermediaries with the beginning of the year 1980

According to Rand corporation, the military budget of Iran is limited (approximately 5 billion dollars in 2003) and is limited to defense more than to the offensive.

Economy

See also: Economy of Iran, List of Iranian companies

Iran is a Developing country marked by strong a intervention of the State and undergoing handicapping commercial sanctions, echoing the marginalisation of the country within the international community. Its economy is strongly marked by the prevalence of the sector oil and gas, but also profits from certain agricultural and maritime assets .

During level of poverty, a growth rate of 6,9% because of the doubling of the population

Richness and population

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of Iran is estimated at 570 billion American dollars with purchasing power parity (PPP), 180 billion according to official foreign exchange rates. The share of agriculture in the national production is relatively reduced for a country in the process of development, considering she only explains any a little more than 10%; the Industry and the services contribute, with similar shares, for new the tenth remainder of the national revenue.

These economic imbalances are also found in the distribution of the richnesses. Whereas it contributes only to the tenth of the national production, agriculture occupies one the third of the population employed, against 20% with industry and 45% with the services., three Iranians out of ten live in lower part of the Poverty line.

Various branches of industry

Iranian agriculture is relatively diversified thanks to the multiplicity of the climates inside a country which can produce many Céréale S, Riz, a large variety of Fruit S, Coton… Its Productivité remains relatively weak. Whereas a third of the Iranian territory is arable, only tenth is exploited, and less than one third of the cultivated grounds benefits from a powerful system of Irrigation. The productivity is also restricted by the small size of the exploitations, most of the time lower than ten hectares. The opposition between owners and farm laborers as from the years 1970 discouraged the investments a long time and thus braked the productivity gains. The engagement of the government in agriculture however allowed, during the years 1990, to approach the food objective of self-sufficiency by increasing the surface irrigated In this field of the energy, the will of Iran to develop its civil nuclear industry runs up against suspicions of the international community as for its military objectives.

The remainder of industry knows an honest growth from approximately 3% per annum. It is dominated by some sectors like the Textile, mining industries, the construction materials, the Automobile, the Artisanat, the Agroalimentaire, and the Arme lies.

Part of the population is committed in an informal economy. Since the beginning of the 21e century, the real dynamism of the economy proceeds more and more of its abstract dimension (smuggling and the fraud imply from now on the whole of the provinces). The subsidized sector of the trade of bodies for transplant is in full expansion because of poverty pushing of the thousands of young Iranian to sell their bodies (primarily kidneys) with one of the 137 specialized government agencies. a kidney is negotiated approximately 2400 €.

Official state intervention

According to the Constitution of Iran, the economy is divided into three sectors:

  • the public sector , which gather all basic big industries, the foreign trade, the mine S, the Banque, the Assurance S, the energy, the Barrage S and the networks of Aqueduc S, the radio and the Télévision, the Poste S, Télégraphe and Téléphone, the Aviation, the maritime lines, the Route S and the railroads;
  • the co-operative sector , which gathers the companies and co-operative establishments of production and distribution created in accordance with the Islamic principles;
  • the private sector , which gathers the activities of agriculture, of the breeding, industry, the Commerce and the services complementary to the two other sectors.

Although following the Islamic revolution, the question of the Nationalization S and the official intervention was the object of a traditional debate left - right where the conservatives defended the private property, the war against Iraq caused a Dirigisme growing. In the long term, it gave to the State a quasi total control of all the economic activities. In fact, the large companies of the country are directed by the Public administration, as well as the oil activity via the Ministry for oil and the Iranian national Oil company. The activity of the private sector is generally limited to the artisanal small structures, the such workshops and the firm S agricultural. The co-operative sector consists of religious foundations, or Bonyad S. Mis in place right after the Iranian revolution, sometimes on the basis of royal foundation existing before, the bonyads were used to redistribute the incomes of oil to the poor and the families of the martyrs (deaths at the time of the Guerre Iran-Iraq). Today, the bonyads are consortia of companies which are exempted of Taxe S and which return account directly to the Guide of the revolution.

In spite of their legality, the Syndicat S are absent in Iran. The workers are generally represented by institutions themselves dependant on the State and which are never opposed to its decisions. The existence and the practice of the Right to strike do not prevent its sometimes violent repression by the police force. However, the opening to the outside investments is sometimes slowed down by the economic nationalism of the deputies of Majles.

Because of importance of oil industry and dependence external of the country for many products, the rate of opening (imports plus exports expressed as a percentage of the GDP) of Iran is however relatively high (54%, are a rate comparable with that of Germany). Its principal business partners are Germany, the United Arab Emirates and China, followed by European countries (France is the third supplier of Iran).

The situation of Iran with respect to outside is thus that of a dependence to its oil exportations and a handicap caused by the international sanctions. In the short run, the current tensions on the nuclear question can, according to the diplomatic play, all at the same time to cause the lightening or the aggravation of these sanctions. In 2006, the incomes of gas and oil were the principal engine of the economy and the precarious social stability of the country. The Iranian economy still does not develop, and the oil incomes represent a life buoy for a country having a managed and ineffective economy.

Appendices

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