International space station
See also: ISS
The International space station ( International Space Station , ISS) is a built Space station and assembly in collaboration between several countries. It is in orbit around the Ground at an altitude of approximately 386 Kilomètre S.
Note: of many English terms devoted by the scientific use could only suffer from an approximate translation. They will thus appear in this language, follow-ups of an explanatory text.
The originNASA starts the first reflections on a project of space station on terrestrial orbit as of the beginning of the Années 1960. According to the concept of then, it would be permanently occupied by a crew from ten to twenty astronauts and already, many applications are envisaged: laboratories, astronomical observatory, assembly workshops, deposits of parts and material, service station, node and bases transport and relay.
By 1963 with 1966, the plans of an orbit station were inspired directly by the material implemented for the missions Apollo. Thus on May 14th, 1973, Skylab was launched by a rocket Saturn V whose only two stages were active, the third constituting the body of the station. But Skylab was to constitute only the demonstration of feasibility of a project much more ambitious.
In April 1983, the President Ronald Reagan request that a project of space station by NASA is drawn up, then on January 25th, 1984, at the time of sound annual speech on the state of the Union, announces the decision to undertake construction within an international framework of it. Its cost is then estimated at eight billion dollar S. NASA creates a research department the July 27th.
January 31st, 1985, the European space agency (ESA) joins the project, then is followed by the Canada the April 16th and the Japan the May 9th of the same year. But on January 28th, 1986, the Space shuttle Challenger explodes in flight, which will involve a considerable delay of all the projects of NASA and a complete recasting of the space program. It is the August 20th which the new plans will be defined, they are then evaluated to 10,9 billion dollars.
In 1987, various successive studies, undertaken by NASA and the American Council of research, will initially raise the estimate of the cost of the station to 13 billion dollars, 24,5 billion dollars then.
July 16th, 1988, President Ronald Reagan baptizes the station of the name of Freedom (Freedom).
In 1993, the administration Clinton invites the Russia to join the project which it entirely revises and redefines while following a concept derived from the plans of Freedom and Russian station Mir 2 which was to succeed Mir. The project is renamed Alpha . In February, President Bill Clinton requires NASA which the cost of the station is divided by two; the agency must propose a new design for the month of June.
Since 1993, the Americans consider it necessary to benefit from the long experience of Russia, now allied with the project, in the field of the long stays on board space stations, with an aim of avoiding reproducing certain strategic or technological errors likely to cause heavy useless expenditure. The December 16th, NASA and the Rousskoye Kosmitcheskoye Agentsvo (RKA, the Russian space agency) give their assent for 10 flights of shuttle towards Mir, and on June 23rd, 1994, NASA will agree to pay of it the cost, 400 million dollars.
We are on June 13rd, 1995, and the cost of exploitation of the station is now estimated at 93,9 billion dollars, including 50,5 billion dollars only for the flights of shuttles. Several accostings were thus achieved between 1995 and 1998 during which eleven American astronauts could add up 975 days of presence on board the worthy station Mir. With nine recoveries, the American space shuttles fastened and supplied Mir with men, vivres and material.
October 14th, 1997, it is with the turn of the Brésil to join the team, and with Washington in 1998, these are 16 nations which take part in the project: the United States, 11 States of the European Union, Canada, Japan, Brazil, Russia. Construction can begin. But the arrival of Russia also implied a total recasting of the logistic organization of the station, its installations and resources, its division, and of course, of its cost of exploitation. In the tread, the name Alpha , which the Russians do not like because they estimate that it is them which created the true first orbit station, is simply called International space station, or International space station (ISS).
In October 2005, following the failure of the return on mission of the American space shuttles, NASA announced that only 18 flights would take place before the end of the program. These 18 flights include/understand in particular the sending of the European module '' Columbus '' and of the Japanese experiment module (JEM). Two important modules: the platform of solar power Russian and the Japanese centrifugal machine will not be sent.
Acquisitions of a holding
the United StatesNASA is the initiator of the project, and for this reason the responsibility for its good progress falls on to him. It has for principal contracting the group Boeing Space & Communications, and its material participation includes/understands the principal structure (beams), four pairs of solar panels, three modules forming the node of connection including the hoppers of mooring for the spaceships and the other elements, and the respirable air receivers which will supply the buildings of dwelling as well as the spacesuits as well American as Russian. NASA provides also the module of dwelling, the American laboratory and the module of connection to the centrifugal machine. Logistics under the responsibility of NASA includes the electric output, the communications and the data processing, thermal control, the control of the environment of the life and the maintenance of the health of the crew. The Gyroscope S of the ISS are also under its responsibility.
Canadian Space agency deals with the realization of the robot-like arm MSS (for Mobile servicing system ), a single device intended to provide a help in the assembly and the maintenance of the station. Canada provides also the Space vision system (SVS), a system of cameras which was already tested on the arm manipulator of the American space shuttle intended to assist the astronauts in charge of his use.
ESA work with the ISS, in particular by providing the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF or simply called Columbus), module which can receive 10 instrument pallets, of which the half European, and the Automated transfer vehicle (ATV). ESA is also responsible for the arm European manipulator, which will be used since the scientific and logistic platforms Russian, as well as management systems of data of the module of service. Without forgetting the launchers ARIANE 5, which will be used for the supply of the ISS while carburizing and material.
Russian federal Space agency provides a third approximately mass of the ISS, with the participation of its principal contractors: Rocket space corporation-Energia, and Krunitchev space center. A livable module of service, which will be the first element occupied by a crew; a module of universal mooring which will allow the accosting of vessels as well American (American Space shuttle) that Russian (Soyuz); several modules of research. Russia is also largely implied in the supply of the station like for its maintenance in orbit, by using in particular vessel-cargo liners Progress. The module of control Zarya was the first element to be put into orbit.
ESA, ASI provides three general-purpose logistic modules. Conceived to be able to integrate the compartment of the shuttle states-unienne, they comprise pressurized compartments and will bring various instruments and experiments on board ISS. The design of the European module Columbus is inspired largely by these three elements. The ASI provides also the nodes 2 and 3 of the station.
AnatomyApproximately, one can say that the International space station is a gigantic mechanic of some 108 Mètre S length on 74 meters broad and a mass of some 415 ton S when it is finished on orbit. With a livable volume of more than 1200 m ³, it will exceed in complexity, and by far, all that was conceived so far. It will be able to permanently accommodate seven astronauts, who will follow one another and take turns according to the requirements of the missions. Its energy will be provided by the largest solar panels which were ever built, of a power of 110 kw.
The European Union
See also: European Laboratory Columbus
The European part of the station is represented primarily by the module laboratory European, named Columbus Orbital Facility (COF), or more generally Columbus . Extremely general-purpose, this multi-purpose laboratory can be adapted to various missions by the exchange of standardized frames on board, just like the airliners with modular cabins can be reconfigured for various uses. Columbus will be the privileged work place of the astronauts and enquiring European.
This pressurized module will be connected permanently to the station, of which it will form integral part, and it will receive all the essential resources from them. Its uses are multiple, and relate inter alia to the science of materials, the physics of the fluids, the life sciences, the fundamental physics and of many other technologies. It will contain also the majority of the European pressurized payloads.
See also: automatic Vehicle of European transfer
Although there does not remain permanently not fixed at the ISS, Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is not less one element of most important.
The ATV is an automatic vessel space cargo liner of 20 tons developed by the ESA whose mission is to provide the functions of supply cargo liner and tug boat for the ISS. It will be launched by a ARIANE 5 especially arranged for a direct injection in low Orbite.
ATV is appeared as a cylinder 4,85 meters in diameter on ten meters length. It consists of 3 modules: a module of propulsion carrying up to six tons of fuel, a module of avionics which integrates all the electronic circuits as well as the systems of thermal regularization, energy production and telecommunications and a module cargo liner of forty cubic meters. The module cargo liner includes/understands a pressurized part accessible to the astronauts from the ISS and the tanks for the water and the air and the fuel which are delivered to the ISS. The end before module pressurized cargo liner is equipped with the wearing of mooring with the ISS. This wearing of mooring is also used as access for the astronauts who can go and come between this pressurized module and the remainder from the ISS.
The payloads conveyed by the ATV are divided into two categories: the fluids (air, water, fuel) and those which require to be transported under controlled atmosphere. The full capacity of carrying of the ATV is of nine tons freight which can be distributed differently with each flight with to the maximum: : 4700 kg of fuel burned by the function of towing, 860 kg of fuel pumped in the tanks of the ISS: 4500 kg of material for the astronauts, 100 kg of air or oxygen and 800 kg of water.
The ATV, been driven by its four large engines of propulsion and a great capacity of Propellent S, will be also used like space Remorqueur to carry out the modifications of attitude and orbit of the station, and in particular the reboosts , i.e. raisings of orbit intended to compensate for wear of it.
At the end of its six months mission at the Station, the module cargo liner will be charged with the old materials become unusable on board station as well as waste. Then the ATV will be separated from the ISS and will carry out a re-entry controlled in the terrestrial atmosphere where it will burn.
The first flight of the ATV (vehicle baptized Jules Verne) is envisaged at the beginning of 2008.
See also: Arm European remote manipulator
The arm European manipulator (ERA for European robotic ARM ) is built on a completely original and single concept which makes of it a machine of exception very different from the arm principal manipulator of the station or of its counterpart of the American space shuttle.
At each end of this symmetrical manipulator of 10 meters a body identical prehensor is. Its alternate use as a foot and hand makes it possible the arm to move of a point of anchoring to another with the manner of a caterpillar measuring worm. These bodies are designed to seize and slacken payloads equipped with a standard device of fixing, to measure forces and couples, like transmitting electrical signals, data or video of the payloads that they seized. These bodies préhenseurs are as equipped with a tool of integrated service as one could compare with a universal screwdriver. It can also receive a platform comprising toe-clips and handrails and transport astronauts at the time of exits extravéhiculaires.
The ERA will be implemented starting from an energy and rail anchor assembled on a small mobile platform able to move along rails skirting the structure of the scientific Russian platform. While moving of a point of anchoring with another, distributed on other elements of the station, the ERA widens its zone of intervention considerably.
The United StatesIn their capacity as initiators of the project, the United States will play the main role in its development and it is without surprise which one can note that the major part of the ISS belongs to them.
The scientific laboratory American DestinyDestiny is a module pressurized, livable, designed to accommodate the payloads and the experiments having to put up with an terrestrial atmosphere. Its capacity is of 24 flexible racks, of which 13 are especially conceived to receive experiments requiring a complete interfacing with the station and its resources.
This element was put into orbit on February 7th, 2001.
Among the first elements with being installed in this American laboratory, one can quote in particular:
Material Science Research Facility DesignThis rack includes/understands an central element which coordinates the collection and the data processing, as well as the recording and the redistribution of video images, like two whole of control of the temperature and the environment of the samples to be treated in various experiments.
Microgravity Glovebox ScienceIt is about a box of handling to Gant S used for the handling of samples by avoiding any contamination, such as one finds some in any laboratory of terrestrial biology.
Fluids and Facility CombustionThis triple rack, designed by the Lewis research center of NASA, is conceived for the study of the physics of the fluids (liquid, gases and mixtures) and of combustion in Apesanteur. It includes/understands a combustion chamber, metering units of gases and liquids, like various very elaborate systems of lighting, polarization, catch of sights and all their automatisms including video recording in digital form.
Biotechnology facilityThis rack comprises six interchangeable and flexible subsets according to the experiments in progress. Its elements will be used in many occasions, which they are cellular cultures, of crystal growth, studies of proteins, biochemical separations, Microencapsulation. Each one of its subsets is autonomous énergétiquement and can be fed under various atmospheres (Oxygène, Azote, Carbon dioxide and Argon). It comprises its own computing system and a device independent of catches of sights.
Window Observational Research FacilityThis a little particular element comprises a port-hole practiced in the wall of the module laboratory equipped with optical glass of quality. It can receive various instruments dedicated to the observation of terrestrial surface and will be used in particular for the study of the continents or the atmospheric phenomena.
X-Ray Cristallography FacilityDouble rack devoted to the study of the crystals in weightlessness. The growth, the multiplication of the crystals can be studied inside the tanks of conditioning of this device, which has a ultra-sophisticated system of robotized handling controlled by the crew, a computer or by technicians on the ground. All the systems of catches of sights and analyzes, as well chemical as spectrometric in visible light or x-rays, are included in this element.
Minus Eighty dismantle Celsius Laboratory Freezer for the ISSThe Minus Eighty dismantle Celsius Laboratory Freezer for the ISS (MELFI) was built by the European space agency (ESA) under the direction of NASA. It includes/understands three units of flight ensuring the transport of samples between the ground and the space station being able to as well take seat in the compartment of the shuttle as in the scientific laboratory. These racks comprise four autonomous units of Réfrigération being able to ensure of the temperatures controlled of -80°C, -26°C and +4°C.
The centrifugal machineThe Centrifuge Accommodation Modulates (CAMWOOD) is presented under the same gauge as the scientific laboratory, of which it shares the same interface and the same resources. The CAMWOOD is built by the Japanese Space agency (NASDA) under contract with NASA. Its function, as its name indicates it, is to study the effect of various levels of Gravité (of 0,01g with 2g) on the structure and the function of plants or animals obtained in microgravity.
It is composed of a centrifugal machine consisting of a rotor 2,5 meters in diameter, comprising many sites of experiments and its own control system. This rotor, careened, is laid out in end of element.
In June 2005, at the time of a meeting of the chiefs of the space agencies, his installation is abandoned.
The hopper of exitElement with whole share, this one is fixed at Node-1 already in orbit. As its name reveals it, its function is to allow the passage between the interior, pressurized, of the station, and the space vacuum. It is studied to receive two astronauts equipped as well with the American diving-suit Extravehicular mobility links (MOVED) as Russian diving-suit Orlon EVA.
See also: Cupola (ISS)
Cupola is a picture window of form convex and circular, composed of a mosaic of seven port-holes, that is to say a smaller and trapezoidal central port-hole of circular form surrounded by six others. The unit, fixed on Node-1 on the side opposed to the hopper of exit, provides a panoramic sight towards the arm Canadian manipulator and will be largely employed at the time of various operations.
The beam and solar panels
See also: Beam ISS
It is incontestably about the most spectacular part of the International space station.
Assembled in several stages, these gigantic electric generators are largest which were never built. They will provide on average up to 110 kw to the station.
Laid out in two groups, Starboard S (starboard) and Port side P (port) including/understanding each one a unit of eight panels; each one of them does not measure less 40×13 meters. With each group of panels one or more wasteful radiators with heat are associated.
The unit is laid out on both sides of a beam of more than 100 meters length, fixed in its center at the top of the Node-1 Unity by an intermediate element.
Harmony or Node 2
See also: Harmony (module)
The nodes are modules to which come to hang up again other modules.
See also: Node 3 (ISS)
The node 3 will offer many systems of survival (2010).
RussiaThe participation of Russia in the realization of the International space station is far from being symbolic system, even if it is far from being defined, at least completely. Indeed, if one examines a representation of the ISS, one realizes that the Russian part is connected more with a station in the station than with a simple appendix…
Without question, the electric generator will be the most visible mark. Composed of eight solar panels fixed at the end of their own mast of almost 20 meters finding anchoring on the module of service Zvezda , it ensures the energy autonomy of all the section.
With the module of service, on the hopper opposed to the mast and directed towards nadir it (i.e. towards the Ground) a module of multiple accosting, very similar will moor to that which was used on Mir. And to this element will come to set two modules laboratories, a module of dwelling and a hopper of universal mooring in particular which can receive the vessels of supply Progress. The unit will be prolonged by a vessel Soyuz which can act as boat of rescue in waiting of the development of a more suitable means of evacuation.
But the actual position of the Russian economy prevents from pushing the definition further from the project.
JapanThe Japanese experiment module (JEM) Kibo is the showpiece of the Japan on the International space station. Provided by the Japanese Space agency (NASDA), it comprises ten standardized sites on board, of which five will be occupied by racks of Japanese payload and five others by material of NASA. All the sites are compatible with the international standards with regard to the energy connections and the supply various gases or liquids.
The JEM includes the Experiment logistic module - Pressurized section (ELM PS), also pressurized cylinder providing additional sites for certain experiments claiming, inter alia, a different atmosphere or an atmospheric pressure. This element is fixed perpendicular to the JEM.
The Experiment logistic module - Exposed section (ELM ES) is a pallet prolonging the principal element, intended to receive the instruments and experiments having to be exposed with the space vacuum. A hopper facilitates the access of them.
The Japanese module also has its own arm manipulator, which has the advantage of limiting the number of human interventions outside.
Japan also provides a vehicle of transfer HTV.
CanadaCanada, extremely with its experiment on board the American Space shuttle, gives the responsability itself to provide the arm principal manipulator of the space station. Length of almost 20 meters, it is able to move loads of 125 tons and will be largely used in the phase of construction of the station. Two years after its installation, a hand (Dextral) much more precise will be adapted there, authorizing work requiring a great dexterity.
The Canadian Space agency will build also a mobile platform of inspection and maintenance, small entirely autonomous uninhabited vehicle remote-controlled from the station and which will be able to traverse the whole of the structure by relaying images and given as well towards the control center on board as on Ground.
ItalyAlthough belonging to the European space agency (ESA), the Italian Space agency (ASI) chose to add a participation personal and independent in construction of the International space station. The Italian Multi-Purpose Laboratory Modules (MPLMs) is an element built on the model of European Colombus and will shelter 16 standardized sites ready to receive Italian, European or American loads. Its launching will be ensured by the space shuttle.
The ASI also builds the Node-2 and Node-3 on behalf of NASA.
BrazilThe Instituto de Nacional Pesquisas Espaciais is in charge of the development and construction with a system with mobile carrying pallets with instruments which will be fixed on the principal beam of the ISS, and on which could be installed various loads having to remain exposed with the space vacuum.
Physical characteristicsIn the month of September 2006, the space station had a mass of: 206,043 kg (: 454,240 pounds) and a livable volume of: 425,000 L (: 15,000 cubic feet). It measured by taking account of the solar panels 73 m (240 feet) and 45 m (146 feet) of the laboratory Destiny with the module Zvezda .
Spaceships and crews visiting the ISSFor a complete chronological list of all the spaceships which visited the ISS, to refer to the Liste of the manned flights towards the ISS.
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