International organization of work
The International organization of work (ILO) is an specialized institution of UNO. It is charged to promote the rights of the workers, to improve their conditions of work and to fight against the Chômage. It integrated the system of UNO the December 14th 1946. Its seat is with Geneva, in Suisse. It has forty offices through the world.
HistoryILO was created on the initiative of the French minister Albert Thomas at the time of the Conférence of peace in April 1919. Its Constitution forms part XIII of the Traité of Versailles.
Its tripartite organization is specific in its kind since it joins together in the same leading authorities of the representatives of the governments, the employers and the workers. The first International Conference of ILO took place with Washington the October 29th 1919: it adopted there the six first international conventions of work which relate to the duration of the work in industry, unemployment, the protection of maternity, the night-work of the women, the minimum age and the night-work of the children in industry.
The international organization of work formed at her origin an agency of the Société of the Nations, and it integrated the system of UNO the December 14th 1946, which made of it the first specialized agency of UNO.
In February 2002, ILO initiates a world Commission on the social dimension of universalization.
Presidents of ILO then the ILO
- Albert Thomas: 1920-1932 France
- Harold Butler: The 1932-1939 United Kingdom
- John Winant: 1939-1941 the United States
- Edward Phelan: 1941-1948 Ireland
- David Morse: 1948-1970 the United States
- Wilfred Jenks: The 1970-1973 United Kingdom
- Francis Blanchard: 1974-1989 France
- Michel Hansenne: 1989-1999 Belgium
- Juan Somavia: 1999 - Chile
CompositionILO is made up of three bodies:
- the International Conference of work , it meets once by year, in the month of June, the head office of ILO. Its role is to define the international Norme S of work. Each State members is represented by 4 people (two for the Gouvernement, for the Travailleur S and another for the Employeur S)
- the Board of directors , it meets generally twice a year, with the head office of ILO. Its role is to lay down the general policy of ILO. It is composed of 25 members representing the governments, 14 for the workers and 14 others for the employers. The 10 most important countries on the level of the development Industrie L are permanent members, the 18 other countries are elected by the Conference for one 3 years duration by taking account of a geographical distribution equitable
- the International office of Work (the ILO), is the permanent secretariat. It is directed by a managing director. Its role is to apply the policy laid down by the Council.
It counts 180 Member States and its current managing director (June 2006) is Juan Somavia.
Conventions and recommendationsThe international standards founded by ILO are legal instruments which define the principles and the rights minima to work. It acts is of conventions, which are juridically constraining treated S international, being able to be ratified by the Member States, that is to say recommendations, which are used as guiding principles being nonconstraining.
Among conventions of ILO, one distinguishes fundamental conventions and priority conventions.
- fundamental conventions, eight, treating questions considered as principles and basic rights with work: trade-union freedom and recognition effective of the right of collective bargain, elimination of any form of forced labor or obligatory, effective abolition of the Work the children and elimination of the discrimination employment profession.
priority conventions: they are qualified conventions of priority instruments whose ILO proposes the ratification near the Member States because they are useful for the operation of the standards of work.
In spite of the obligatory nature of the ratified treaties, one sees the limit since there is no sanction. example, the case of Myanmar (in the past Burma) where regularly transgressions are noted.
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