(Page to be reorganized with Information theory) The information , with the common direction of the term, is the means for a Individu of knowing his environment. It is related to the perception and can be picturesque by the Journalisme, the radio, the Written press, the Télévision and, recently Internet.
Basically, information is related to a project. It can be built, like a Programme, or car built, like the matter. What makes information the third element of the fundamental Triptyque Énergie/Matière/Information .
PerceptionOne qualifies information very given relevant that the central nervous system is able to interpret to build a representation of the world and to interact correctly with him. Information, in this direction, is based on sensory stimuli conveyed by the Nerf S, which lead to various forms of Perception. (qswkdfckbvljsbvljslv < - This is thus not a priori information)
According to G. - B. Davis, information represents the data transformed in a significant form for the person who receives them: it has a value for its decisions and its actions
JournalismA information is here the formatted written or oral of a fact or a dated event and (in theory), honest. The Objectivity being a concept which exists only in mathematics. The treating journalism of subjects, it is subjective by nature, but can be nevertheless honest by professional rigor. The information thus put in scene then constitutes the editorial base of a Journal. One generally opposes it to the Publicité, whose character trading and manipulator are not any doubt, although the latter can convey data elements (with the direction where all in the life can be information).
Information and universalizationThe development of the Net and the Mondialisation revolutionize the Perception that the men have information and change the representation of the world radically, become " Hypermonde ". The hypermonde is consubstantial mondialized market and Hyper-information.
Indeed, during the first time of the Data-processing (years 1950 for the United States at the years 1970), the computer applications were limited to the large companies. The companies were connected little between them, except via the banking networks.
For a few years, the development of Internet and emails, public or deprived, have made it possible to open with any person equipped with a Ordinateur connected to the Réseau, the accessible informations by Internet network. Moreover, the companies are often organized in network with their partners (extranet), which enables them to communicate with their recipients.
It results from it that the Perception of the Contexte of the company by the leaders and the Employé S changes radically.
In the context of the public administration, we regard as “information” all Donnée relevant whose collection, treatment, interpretation and use contribute to the realization of a Mission Gouvernementale, regional, and departmental.
Information of Autorité has to be managed in Registres of metadata.
The public authorities are responsible for the process of attribution of electronic Certificats, using the common Criteria.
Information theoryAccording to the Information theory, data contain information when those are only not very compressible and that they are complex. Indeed, the contained information in message made up of only one letter repeating a great number of times such as “AAAAAAAAA…” is almost null (one speaks then about weak néguentropie).
Kolmogorov tried to define the contents of information of a data by the size of the more little program making it possible to manufacture it. Thus, pi would have an average complexity in spite of its infinite number of figures, the program making it possible to build of it the continuation (infinite) of numbers holding on only one page.
The design more répendue of information is related to the couple message + receiving, the last having of the implicit developing the message (and, in fact, any message incomprehensible without these implicit is supposed; thus a message in Chinese for which does not include/understand Chinese).
Thus, the sentence " Médor is a chien" more information contains than " Médor is a quadrupède" , although the second contains more letters. The difference is to be put at the account knowledge of a implicit Dictionnaire and belonging to the context , which enables us to know that a dog is necessarily - except amputation - a quadruped, the reverse not being true.
Hyper-informationWith the emergence of the Numerical , Networks and Convergence of technologies, information changed nature radically. This change supported the emergence of a plentiful technological universe but it also revealed new territories of the cognitive conscience. Information is from now on in a complex system which seems to obey its own rules of evolution and its own finalities. The integration of the individuals, the social system and the informational system became total, giving rise to the Hyper-information.
Decision theoryThe Decision theory regards as information only what is likely to involve or modify a decision. In the contrary case, it is about simple a Bruit. It is often thought that the information can be defined like a reducing data of uncertainty. In many cases, however, with the universalization and the development of the global area networks, information right can call into question an already made decision. There exist also false information, skewed or presented in manner such as the recipients tend to make bad decisions.
It is thus vital to make sure of the relevance of information, and to organize circuits of information such as information available are well treated to be distributed to the good people, at the good moment. It is the object of the economic Intelligence. A good method of economic intelligence must take into account information resulting from the Contexte of the company.
SystemicInformation (or Néguentropie) is a factor of organization which is opposed to the natural tendency to the disorder and chaos (or Entropie). a living organism, like the human body, can remain organized only by information which binds it. Any rupture of information (nervous, chemical, etc) involve the degeneration of a part or the unit.
That is due to the fact that information , the matter and energy are indissociable. To know the proportion of each one of them makes it possible to define the degree of complexity of a structure and, therefore, its systemic level . Because the level of a system above all is determined by its components, themselves being systems made up on another level, each level being defined by the type of energy which is implemented. The systemic met thus ahead the overlap of structures, each one being driven by a dynamics, therefore a specific energy . Ultimately, information puts in communication the elements of a dynamic system.
An living being offers a descriptive good example of the operation of a system. On a total scale, it is a chemical and gravitational dynamics. The cells are organized around dynamic chemical and inside each one of them, of the electromagnetic and ionic exchanges maintain cohesion. One could continue the reasoning until the molecular scales, atomic and particulate. But we leave the framework of the alive one there.
Each stage of construction is thus an energy, material and informative specificity. As long as balance is maintained, the information, which is within this framework anything else only of the matter, is conveyed by the means of a specific energy dynamics of the level in question.
Information is inversely proportional to its probability there. In light, to state the obviousness does not bring much of information, whereas to disseminate unexpected information is more useful.
HistoryThe project to found a “information science and specific documentation” continued under the impulse of actors like Pierre Larousse (1817-1875), Melvil Dewey (1851-1931), Paul Otlet (1868-1944), Jean Meyriat (1921 -). The starting point was to dissociate information, construction social and intellectual, of the whole of the material objects which, while circulating, condition it without defining it. One must to the specialists in this science have posed that information does not circulate (it is not an object) but which it redefines unceasingly (it is a relation and an action). This project is bound, as of the end of the 19th century, with the development of a research with industrial aiming and with the dream of a planetary knowledge. But rather than all to assimilate by idea of “information system” (more recent idea whose success is due to the data-processing developments), these authors distinguish methodically between the support, the document, information and the knowledge: effort of distinction which should be redécouvrir today. (Yves Jeanneret)
- Intelligence of the open sources (OSINT)
- human Intelligence (HUMINT)
- Information theory
- Sensitive information
- classified Information
- Safety of information
- Technical of writing
- teaching Card on journalistic information
Be-X-old: Інфармацыя Simple: Information
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