The influence aims to modify the behavior of a target without recourse to the constraint or coercion. In this case, the targeted individuals act of their full liking, consciously or not, whereas in the case of the constraint they act consciously against their liking.
The influence is also one of the 11 factors of economic Intelligence, in the model of the AFDIE.
The influence is the way of leading the others to wish what one wants oneself, without using of constraint or reward.
That often supposes strategies: they cause the imitation of a model, or seek persuasion thanks to an effective rhetoric, acting sometimes on the mental categories of the influenced (in the " formatant") or they organize the co-operation of actors for an united action on the opinion of influenced. What corresponds to the capacity to emit images, to diffuse persuasive messages and to organize the synergy of networks. Maybe, for example the policy of prestige of a country, a media campaign or the action of a lobby on the elected officials.
There exist organizations dedicated to the influence: lobbies, the think tanks, companies of thought, ONG…: if they do not exert (or little) of direct capacity, they are powerful by their capacity to convince, make share their point of view, their values, their objectives or their ideals….
Influenced the influence tests as if it had done to nothing but reveal him what it wished secretly, as if the relation were spontaneous, symmetrical and levelling. But that can dissimulate the character sometimes manipulator and occult influence.
It is usual to oppose the influence to the Autorité in interior policy. Second open, asymmetrical, is based on the belief in the legitimacy of that (or of the institution) which orders and aims at obtaining an interiorized obedience.
In foreign politics, one rather opposes the influence to the Puissance (resources, armies, grounds, population…). By the influence (the Americans say readily the " software power") a State can lead another of them to share its sights, even its values or its ideology, to imitate its institutions, its manners or its economy, to develop its image, to appreciate its culture or its products… and that joined the influence in economic Intelligence, where it can be a relay of the economic power, for example to gain markets.
The influence in economic and strategic intelligence
Several definitions of the economic Intelligence even consider that the influence - as an indirect action on the environment through perceptions of the other actors - constitutes of it the third shutter with the acquisition of information by the day before and the protection its own informational inheritance.
The model of the AFDIE defines the influence as “the process which, on the initiative of an organization, aims at modifying favorably the Interaction S of this one with its Environnement. ”
The model of the AFDIE identifies four criteria:
- To know the total Environment,
- To define and lead the Strategy of influence,
- To control the means of protection and of response,
- To have a Communication crisis and to preserve the cohesion of the company.
The example of the protocol of London on the not-translation of the European patents shows that the influence is exerted in several fields at the same time:
- the language,
- information technologies (there exist computing systems very sophisticated to manage the patents).
Techniques of influence
The influence can employ legal and honest means.
Characteristics of the influence
The influence is not a natural practice in France, for historical reasons. The Lobbying, its Anglo-Saxon equivalent, on the other hand is almost institutionalized, so much with the the United Kingdom (from which the term comes from lobbying), that with the the United States.
Since the Second world war, and the beginnings of the European Construction, the practice of the Lobbying developed in the European Institutions, and in particular in the Lobbys which intervene in the advisory committees of the European commission.
Several factors facilitate certain excessive effects of the Anglo-Saxon Lobbying in Europe:
- by the legal upheavals induced by the appearance of the concerns environnemenales in the European treaties (starting from the Treated of Maastricht, then in the Treated of Amsterdam under the expression of Sustainable development) and in the Community legislation, placing the national rights in lower position in the Hierarchy of the standards, and making difficult symbiosis enters the Community legislation and the National rights,
- by the heterogenite of the national rights, coming mainly from the preceding point, and by the Legal insecurity in some Member States,
- by the legal flow which surround the concepts of Service of general interest and Service of general economic interest (see debate on the Constitutional treaty European),
- by a slow adaptation of the Droit of data processing to the phenomenon of Internet.
the international place of English in
- and sciences,
the absence of real political control of the Decision-making process of the European Union by the national parliaments , in particular:
- for the exercise of the respective Competence S between the European commission (which lay out of a Monopole of initiative in the First pillar of the European Union) and the Member States pursuant to the Principe of subsidiarity,
- for the control of fusions/acquisitions of companies on the level of the Registres of trade
- with faults in the Réglementation of the Lobbying at the European level (only the Parliament has a regulation, but not the European commission seems it),
- culture of division of information,
- systematic exploitation of the open Sources, with specialized companies in these activities,
- very strong organization of the Governorship of Internet, as well on the level of the Waiters roots of the DNS as of the structuring of Registers of metadata around a common core of Metadatum S (Dublin Core),
- transposition with the civil field of technologies NCW within the framework of the policy of support for the companies (Advocacy), in particular in the companies of Arme lies and Aéronautique, but also of the others Secteurs economic.
a culture of the standardization , particularly in the Technologies the information:
- presence in the organizations of standardization for the data-processing standards,
- definition of Metadatum S for the access to the Computer's resources,
- organization of Registers of metadata for the division of Computer's resources,
- structuring of the Computer materials and the Software S around standards (Oasis, W3C,…).
See also the second report/ratio of Bernard Carayon '' with equal footings ''
The most revealing demonstration of the Anglo-Saxon Lobbying is undoubtedly the communication by the Internet in the Fonctionnement of the European commission.
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