They are suitable for affect any living organism (animal or vegetable). Their mode of transmission is variable and depends on their tank (human, animal, environmental). They are more or less contagious .
For example, the Tétanos is an affection caused by Clostridium tetanii , a Bactérie which is in the ground. There is no transmission interhumaine, the infection occurs if the bacterium enters the organization by a soiled wound. A Vaccin exists against this affection and is obligatory in France for all the children of school age.
Another example, the Paludisme is due to a parasite, the Plasmodium falciparum (there exists other Plasmodii ), transmitted of man to man via a Moustique, the Anophèle. The tank of the parasite is human but there is no transmission interhumaine. There does not exist vaccine.
The Tuberculose is transmitted of man to man by airborne mechanism: the tank is human and it is a contagious disease.
The sexually transmitted diseases (MST) are transmitted at the time of sexual relations.
The infection is the term indicating either an infectious illness in general, or the contamination by a germ. It is the pathological consequence on the level of a fabric or an organization of the presence abnormal and/or replication of a bacterial, viral germ or mycosic.
The contamination is the penetration of the germ in an organization.
The infectiology is the branch of the Médecine concerning the infectious illness. The specialist physician is a infectiologist . According to the type of germ, one also speaks about Bactériologie, Virologie, Parasitologie.
A sepsis is a serious infection. The septic adjective refers to an organization or an object contaminated by a germ (Septic tank for example). A septicaemia is the serious and durable contamination (without treatment) of the Sang by a germ. A bacteriemy is a transitory contamination of blood by a germ.
When the cases multiply during a place and a limited time, one speaks about epidemic. If the diffusion is generalized much, one speaks then about Pandémie.
When the epidemic relates to the animal medium, one speaks about epizooty.
The contage indicates the contamination by the germ.
The incubation period is the time between the contage and the first manifestation of the disease. The patient can be contagious lasting this time.
The period of contagion is the time during which the patient excretes the germ and can transmit it. It depends on each infectious illness .
The infections nosocomiales are infections caught with the Hôpital. They are particularly complex and dangerous because they occur at weakened subjects and often relate to germs resistant to antibiotics. It is about major public health problems.
In the world, the infectious illness is responsible for 17 million death per annum, which represents a third of mortality. They represent 43 % of the deaths in the Country in the process of development, against 1 % in the industrialized countries.
The six following diseases represent 90 % of the deaths by infectious illness in the world.
- liés in a great number of cases to the sida
In France, the infectious illness is the third cause of mortality:
Also let us note that certain infections are also at the origin of inflammatory diseases chronic (such as the Asthme) and of Cancer S.
The prevention of the infectious illness is articulated in three shutters: to avoid the infection, to reinforce the immunizing Defenses and to take preventive medications (Disease prevention) in the event of risk of exposure.
To avoid the infection
The infectious illness is caused by the penetration in the organization of a Bactérie or a Virus. The first precaution thus consists in “closing the main doors”, namely:
- the respiratory Tracts: to put the hand in front of its mouth when one sneezes or coughs to avoid contaminating the entourage; to carry a facial mask when one meets weakened people (for example in certain zones of the hospital mediums) or carrying very contagious virus (like the Sras); for the artificial Ventilation, to use a filter antibactérien;
- the digestive Tract S: to wash the hands before eating or preparing a meal, or after an exposure to biological liquids (for example while leaving the toilets), even to disinfect them when they are liquids of another person (for example Accident of exposure to blood); to wear fine gloves (latex, or for the allergic people in PVC or Nitrile) when that such an exposure is probable;
- cutaneous effraction : all serious Plaie will have to be shown with a doctor which will take the necessary measures; any simple wound must be cleaned, or disinfected better (see the article Bobologie); but the first precaution is of course to avoid being made a wound, by complying with the safety regulations of certain activities and while carrying adapted protections (gloves of work…) ;
- ocular way: to avoid rubbing the eyes and washing the hands before if that would arrive; in the event of risk of exposure to biological liquids, to carry safety goggles;
- Sexuality to use a Preventive to reduce the transmission risks of the sexually transmitted diseases.
It is also necessary to avoid the development of germs on the body and in the dwelling, by having a sufficient hygiene:
- personal hygiene: to wash itself, to brush the teeth
- domestic hygiene: to have a Refrigerating creating a cold sufficient, defrosted and cleaned regularly, to wash covers, plates and glasses after use, to store the refuse in dustbins dedicated and collected regularly by the municipal services, worn drainage towards a regularly drained Septic tank or towards the sewer S, arrangement and cleaning of the dwelling, ventilation to avoid interior pollution (Acarina S, made up organics volatile) and thus the Allergy S and the respiratory diseases.
The territorial collectivities play a big role with regard to collective hygiene, with the management of water to provide drinking water, the organization of the collection and treatment of the refuse, the squaring of the corpses of animals and the police force of the Funérailles and places of burial (and conservation transport condition of the bodies before Crémation or Inhumation, management of the Cimetière S and Crématorium S).
To reinforce immunizing defenses
The first measurement consists in having good a Hygiène of life: healthy food, regular physical exercise, sufficient sleep, to avoid the behaviors at the risk (Tabagisme, excess of alcohol), which makes it possible to have a better general health condition thus to better resist the infections. In addition, it is advisable to respect the protective inoculations obligatory, or recommended like the vaccination of the elderly against the Grippe.
It is also necessary précautionneusement to take the drugs prescribed by a doctor, by systematically reading the accompanying notes, rich in information (side effects, interactions with other drugs, recommendations…) and not to hesitate to question the doctor or the Pharmacist in case of doubt. The effects can not be immediate, and it is necessary to continue the treatment until the end even in the event of improvement and disappearance of the Symptôme S, in particular in the case of the Antibiotique S: the disappearance of the symptoms means the reduction in the number of Germe S, but not their disappearance, if one stops the treatment too early, those can redévelopper, and to become resistant to antibiotic.
It should not either be astonished if the doctor does not prescribe an antibiotic: those are not effective against the viral diseases.
At the time of certain activities, it can be necessary to take drugs with preventive measure, like the drugs against the Paludisme at the time of a voyage in a impaludé country.
The early detection of a disease makes it possible to start its treatment earlier and thus to reduce mortality; the weather is recommended to be at least a medical visit per annum. In case of doubt about an infection (for example Wound soiled, accident of exposure to blood, sexual relation not protected), the doctor will be able to set up a preventive medication to decrease the risks of development of a disease. For the sexually transmitted diseases, there exists in France of the anonymous and free centers of tracking.
In certain diseases, it is necessary to isolate the patient to avoid the dissemination of the germ: thus, at the time of a Chicken pox, the newborn should not go to school during 15 days starting from the first eruption. It is about the school ousting .
The hospital prevention of the infections nosocomiales is a complex subject. It rests primarily on the hygiene of looking after and neat (washing of the hands), on the insulation of the patients carrying germs resistant to antibiotics, but also on a targeted and adapted antibiothérapie.
- Antoine van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723) sees for the first time of the agents bacterial in microscopy.
- Louis Pasteur allows the bringing together between infectious disease and agents. The first vaccination against the Rage.
- Robert Koch is famous for its discovery of the bacillus of the Tuberculose which bears its name: the bacillus of Koch.
- Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin ensures the development of vaccination anti Polio.
- List of infectious illness
- Infectious illness: the current location in the world, on the site of the Institute Pasteur
- the infectious illness in the countries in the process of development, a page of the Canadian Agency of international expansion (ACDI)
- the infectious illness: the world fights, on the site of International information program states-unien (in French)
- H. Krauss, A. Weber, Mr. Appel, B. Enders, A. v. Graevenitz, H.D. Isenberg, H.G. Schiefer, W. Slenczka, H. Zahner: Zoonoses. Transmissible Infectious Diseases from Animals to Humans. 3rd Edition, 456 pages. ASM Near. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC., the USA. 2003.
Simple: Infectious disease Zh-min-nan: Thoân-jiám-pīⁿ
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