It is under the feather of Adolphe Blanqui that from industrial revolution was born the term to characterize the major phenomenon of the 19th century whose consequences affected the economy deeply, the Politique and the Société.
DefinitionThe industrial revolution is characterized by the passage of a company with predominance Agraire at a company Industrielle. In the plural, the industrial revolutions indicate the various waves of industrialization which followed one another, since the industrial revolution was a phenomenon shifted in time and space.
The first spaces to be itself industrialized were the Great Britain and Belgium at the end of the 18th century then the France at the beginning of the 19th century; one speaks about country of the first wave. The Germany and the the United States as for them were industrialized starting from the medium of, the Japan starting from the 1868 then Russia at the end of; one speaks for these four countries about country about the second vagueness.
The economic, political and social transformations were such as certain, like max Pietsch and David Landes, rather characterizes the industrial revolution like a rupture of with the past. Others see the convergence of elements rather there that the historical context supported and generalized at the 19th century. Karl Polanyi presents in particular idea the one century marked by:
- an international political balance : absence of Great Wars between 1815 and 1914;
- a monetary balance : system of the Gold Standard and absence of inflation;
- an economic equilibrium : acceptance of the market economy.
So of no agree to recognize the colossal impact of the transformations carried by the industrial revolution, one should not on the other hand not forget nor to neglect the existence of elements binding the preindustrial and industrial periods, that whose Walt Whitman Rostow will be one of the first to be taken into account. Thus, Chantal Mendels speaks about a situation of “Proto-industrialization” in many areas of Europe and P. Leon notes the existence of “industrial nebulas” former to. Moreover, Bernard Rosier in Pierre Dockès watch that the advent of the factory system makes following the former experiment manufactory system . In addition, Alexander Gerschenkron note which the industrial revolution is especially the result of economic obstacles, political and social that the traditional companies opposed and surmounted by each State. Lastly, Fernand Braudel note: “It there forever between past, even remote and present of absolute discontinuity, or if one prefers of noncontamination. The experiments of last do not cease being prolonged in the life present”.
Many authors date, in fact, the beginning of the industrial revolution of the end of the Moyen-Âge, beginning of the Renaissance. Thus Paul Mantoux speaks about the existence of an industrial capitalism as of the middle of the 16th century, but the industrial revolution in oneself dates, according to him, of the 18th century. It is this period between the 16th century and the 18th century which Franklin Mendels describes as “proto-industrial”.
Before the industrial revolution
End of the the Middle Ages at the 18th century, Europe knows several phases of population growth and economic prosperity. However this expansion is always caught up with by deep crises: the epidemics, the wars and the food shortage S. infant mortality is very high, the Hygiène remains generally disastrous, which is attested by the deformations and other markers of innumerable diseases that one could raise on the skeletons of the time. The Alimentation is primarily containing cereals.
The company is still largely feudal, and almost exclusively agricultural. However, the first capitalist companies appear dice the Renaissance in Holland and in the north of the Italy (Venice). The techniques record important progress: Navigation, Printing works, Clock industry, financial methods. The Fair S, crossroads essential of the exchanges, develop in certain areas of Europe. But the market economy, with the direction or let us hear we it, remains marginal.
The company needed changes. The Factory, with the modern direction, is almost non-existent. The Manufacture S established by the State, in France for example, remain a marginal activity. However, certain organizations, the such Domestic system , announce the industrial revolution. The merchants provide already the peasants out of raw materials, sometimes out of tools, in order to then recover a processed product which they will resell downtown. The peasants draw a complement from it from income to their agricultural activity. This lifestyle is not thus completely any more serfdom but is not yet wage-earning. It is a new mixture of Agriculture and Artisanat. The modern economy is in germ.
Except, certain areas, like the Flandres, agriculture is still largely under productive, and vegetates under the yoke of the feudal archaism. The practice of the three-year rotation remains the rule, and the fields are exploited in a collective way, the absence of fences allowing the movement of the cattle of one ground the other.
According to calculations of Angus Maddison, the Western Europe knows of 1500 to 1800 a population growth of 0,14%, a rate low but already higher than those of the other areas of the world (0,02%). It is thus as of the 13th century that Europe starts to widen the economic gap with the rest of the world. But this advance remains limited.
Nevertheless if Western Europe is not much richer than the rest of the world, it already started to dominate it, the large companies of trade having acquired, thanks to the superiority of the maritime techniques, the control of the seas. But this trade relates to primarily the luxury items, in particular the spices, of which the customers are the richest part of the population, i.e. a numerically tiny social group.
Favorable context, result of a long evolution
to see the article History of capitalism
Social, economic and political structures
Evolution of the companyAs of the 16th century, the Protestant Reform carried out by Martin Luther and Jean Calvin shake very whole Europe. Protestantism carries in him the germs of what constitutes a “compost” of values which revolutionize the design of work and the life. Indeed, according to max Weber, work is not regarded as the expiatory punishment of fished original as in catholic ethics. It is a fundamental value, by the means of which each one endeavors to approach God. Certain countries, as France with the revocation of the Édit of Nantes will impoverish itself with the profit of other nations by driving out the Protestants, their know-how and their capital.
The evolution of the ideas is also marked by the dimension taken by the middle-class within the company. It is notable that the early economic expansion is often done in a political context already partly freed from feudalism. Venice is dominated by the merchants, the United Provinces and the England obtained a parliamentary mode.
The economic changes however meet obstacles until in the dominant classes. For example, in Great Britain, the substitution of coke to the Charcoal contravened the interest of the forest owners, and the relative scarcity of wood partly explains the advance of England on France. They are the same for the Steam engine being those having of the rivers or rivers, i.e. the hydraulic force (water mills). In France, the Nobility and the large abbeys which had forests and Moulin S largely chose the opposition to progress. The system was thus in fact protected by monarchy, and thus refused the innovation. Thus the corporation of moderate in Lyon repurchases all the patents and the concurrent companies to save its trade (the towing with the hand), until 1820.
But the spirit of innovation existed indeed in England. Indeed the country is very sensitive to the shortages, as wood, essential for the navy. It is abroad, and that implies the best marinades world. In the same way, England imports its iron of Sweden and Russia. The innovation appears essential then and played a central role in the process of industrial revolution.
Birth of the company
Capitalism is not born with the industrial revolution; Fernand Braudel notes that the activities of commercial and financial capitalism are already largely developed at the end of the Middle Ages, in areas like the north of Italy or the current Netherlands.
For example, the large maritime commercial companies, like the English Company of the Eastern Indies (1600) or the Company Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies (1602), precede, as of the 17th century the modern capitalist firms. They constitute the first entities indeed to be gathered capital, average materials (ships), technological advancements (compass, sextant, etc) and men. Their objectives announce those of the modern companies: monetary profit.
In addition, during the preindustrial, or “proto-industrial” era according to the expression of the Franklin historian Mendels, one finds “industrial nebulas” (P. Leon) as in Flandres at the 17th century in which embryonic forms of companies develop to circumvent the corporative rules. It is thus at that time that the first legal forms of companies members are born; it is the case of the limited partnership.
The companies will play an important role during the industrial revolution because they allow an important concentration of capital being used for the financing of the increasingly expensive investments.
The new form of firm which one selects Public limit company (S.A.) appears in France in 1867, facilitates the contributions in capital of several Investisseur S by limiting their responsibility to the invested amounts. This legal status of business firm allowed the rise of powerful industry groups such as Krupp Ag in Germany. To also note the role of the Banque S who start at the 19th century to offer services of deposit and Prêt, becoming investors powerful and essential in the Economic development of the Nation.
Also, the process of the industrial revolution largely rested on the Railroad. However, the construction of a rail network, necessary for the routing of the goods and their sale, implies colossal investments.
Liberalism is born at dawn from industrialization
The reflection on the role of the State in the economy is registered mainly at the 18th century. Adam Smith recommends in 1776 in its Recherche on the nature and the causes of the richness of the nations the presence of a State-gendarme ensuring on the one hand his kingly prerogatives and on the other hand guardian functions; it thus is not about a minimal State.
In addition, the Age of Enlightenment was confined of a design of the State which guarantees individual freedoms. Economically, this State defends the free competition; it is thus in all logic that it introduces it into the company and the economy. Concretely, that is translated into France by the abrogation of the corporations (decree of Allarde) and the prohibition of any coalition (law the Hatter) in 1791. In England, the Combination Act of 1799 and 1800 engage a similar process. Such measurements had a decisive impact on the process of industrial revolution since according to Arnold Toynbee “the gasoline even of the industrial revolution is the substitution of the free competition to the regulations which, since the Middle Ages, were imposed on the production”.
Moreover, the 19th century is divided between periods of Libre-échange and others of Protectionnisme. However, the topics of free trade and protectionism result also from a long historical reflection. Already at the 17th century the Mercantilisme was a “economy with the service of the prince” and defended the borders of the kingdom. The United Kingdom commercialist chose protectionist measurements then the such Navigation Act of Cromwell in 1651 or the Corn laws in 1723. Moreover, the physiocrat Vincent de Gournay launched already at the 18th century: “let make, let pass”. The Physiocratie thus preceded the liberal ideas by Adam Smith and David Ricardo. This last was throughout its life a burning defender of the abrogation of the corn laws . Their abrogation by the Peel Act of May 15th, 1846 will constitute, as well as the abrogation of the Navigation Act in 1849, a fundamental turning of the 19th century.
In a more thorough way, Adam Smith recommends also the division of the labor, source of efficiency and dexterity and thus of a better productivity. It is also synonymous with specialization and thus with interdependence between the economic actors who is a factor of generalization of the market.
This liberalism is thus at the origin of the generalization of the market at the 19th century, formerly existing but in marginal manner, deciding factor in the process of industrialization. Karl Polanyi estimates that the market functioned in a autorégulée way, i.e. without intervention any State, between 1844, date of the abolition of the Loi of Speenhamland devoting the marchandisation of the labor, at 1929, date on which the economic crisis constrained the State to institutionalize the market.
The industrial revolution is the fact of discovered many innovations which supported industrialization. This “bunch of innovation”, to take again the expression of Joseph Schumpeter, was of a width such as the industrial revolution could seem a true rupture on the level of the techniques.
However, of many industries appear as of the middle of the 15th century, like printing works and the silk trade. It is what work Henri Hauser reveals. These industries then supported the emergence of the first manufactures of which some, in France, were created on royal decisions as of the reign of Henri IV but especially under that of Louis XIV, influenced by the ideas mercantilists of Colbert. In the same way, Lewis Mumford regards the invention of the clock as one of the first mechanical activities, allowing the improvement of certain techniques and supporting the division of the labor.
Three revolutions: agricultural, demographic and industrial
The agricultural techniques evolve/move in an important way at the 18th century, although a slow evolution started since the 10th century according to certain historians like Georges Duby. The agricultural revolution, i.e. the upheaval of the techniques, characterized by innovations, begins in the south from Great Britain around the years 1720. Until there, only the United Provinces benefitted from a strong agricultural productivity. Since 1720 Charles Townshend tries out a new system in the area of Norfolk: the continuous rotation replaces the Three-year rotation with Jachère. It is the beginning of a wave of innovation: drainage, Marling, invention of the Seeder by Jethro Tull in 1701, etc
However, the most important element is the upheaval of the exercise of the agricultural production caused by the movements of enclosure started at the 15th century. The setting in fence of the arable lands by the landlords mark a rupture with the traditional system of the Openfield , synonymous with collective profits. The enclosures , inaugurated in England by the Enclosure acts since 1760, allow the agricultural regrouping, the application of novel methods and the increase in production significantly. These last are also at the origin of the departure of the peasants without ground towards the cities in which they will become the first workmen of the industrial revolution. Indeed, the enclosures deprive many these small farmers of their means of subsistence, namely the culture of the communal Biens. It is the “triumph of agrarian individualism”, according to the expression of Marc Bloch.
Although France has more delay as regards agricultural innovation because of a refusal of agriculture “to English”, the historian Jean-Claude Toutain notes all the same an increase in the agricultural production in France from 20 to 30% per decade of 1700 to 1780. This allowing to support the demographic strong growth of France at the 18th century. In the same way, the agricultural market develops in France after the Révolution of 1789 which devotes the release of the ground, allowing, according to the expression of Pierre Rosanvallon, of “déterritorialiser the economy and to build a fluid space structured by the only geography of the prices”. These elements call into question the idea of the conservatism of the rural world, in particular to Western Europe. However, the agricultural world remains traditional in Mediterranean and central Europe. Russia, for example, abolishes serfdom only in 1861.
In Great Britain, the movement of enclosure had direct consequences on the industrial revolution since it pushes the yeomen , private British ground small holders, to emigrate towards the factories to form what Karl Marx calls the Prolétariat. The same applies to the occupants of communal, the cottagers British and French blazing infernos.
The agricultural revolution, begun at the beginning of the 18th century, continues throughout the 19th century. It is the appearance of the agricultural mechanization, marked by some major innovations like the mechanical reaping-machine of Cyrus Mac Cormick in 1824, its combine harvester in 1834, the plow of Mathieu de Dombasle in 1837, then appearance of artificial manures thanks to chemistry (searchs for Justus von Liebig in the years 1840), etc
The countries having known the industrial revolution also knew all of the demographic changes whose most important demographic Transition is the . This one does not occur inevitably at the same time as industrialization, which makes it possible to moderate the bonds between demography and industrial revolution.
The demographic transition corresponds to one period of imbalance between birth rates and death rates. Before does not begin the demographic transition, the traditional demographic mode is that of a strong birthrate and a mortality, and being compensated.
Human progress is characterized by the rarefaction of the famines and the best treatment of the epidemics, sometimes combined with a temporary absence of war, in other words by the retreat from the “three park surmortelles” according to the expression of Alfred Sauvy. This progress causes, in the first time of the transition, a fall of mortality without birth rate being changed it. The important variation, then noted between mortality and the birthrate, causes an important rise of the population. Thereafter, of the sociological and cultural evolutions, related to the evolution of the lifestyles, cause a retreat of the birthrate whose rate tends to converge towards that of mortality.
The demographic transition is then finished, and generally leaves the place to one period of stability marked by a weak mortality and a weak birthrate.
France is the first country to know the demographic transition, i.e. at the 18th century. Thus, France is the most populated nation Europe, exception made of Russia, in 1800. Some make the correlation with the prevalence of the French economy to the same time; the GDP of France accounts for 15% of the European GDP is 1/3 of more than the GDP of the United Kingdom and three times more than that of the United States in 1820. Then, the United Kingdom knows in its turn the demographic transition; its population is multiplied by 9 between 1500 and 1900 and passes from 6 to 21 million inhabitants between 1750 and 1850. In parallel, the United Kingdom is the first country to be industrialized. In the same way, the population of the United States is multiplied by 15 between 1820 and 1950 and in same time its GDP is multiplied by 14. It is seen all the same that the bond between demographic rise and industrialization is complex since France is the first country to enter in phase of demographic transition but it is the United Kingdom which enters the first the industrial revolution, this same United Kingdom which will use the demographic transition process thereafter.
Three dependant upheavals
The agricultural revolution makes it possible to support the demographic trends by allowing the disappearance of the food shortages. The increase in population however caused certain fears at the time. Thomas Malthus supported as well as the population growth evolved/moved in a geometrical way (1, 2,4,8,16,32…) then agriculture evolved/moved only in an arithmetic way (1, 2,3,4,5,6…), more especially as the productivity gains in agriculture were confronted with the output decreasing of the grounds.
The demographic transition it also had reflected on agriculture, it has provides prospects for profit to him. In addition, studies Boserup the Ester show that the increase in population put perhaps the population vis-a-vis requirements of productivity, “the need being the mother of the invention”.
Authors like Paul Bairoch and Walt Whitman Rostow regard the agricultural revolution as a precondition to the industrial revolution. The increase in the agricultural productivity per capita made it possible to reduce the share of the agricultural workers. The latter being put at unemployment went in the cities and one provides to industry the important labor, essential with his expansion. Agriculture in evolution also benefitted from an increasing mechanization, which resulted in industrial orders. The increase in the product gross agricultural increases the profitability and the value of the grounds, and makes it possible to release from the financial possibilities for the investment.
However, work of Phyllis Deane shows that it is necessary to relativize this theory by underlining the geographical shift which there exists between the areas where the “agricultural revolution” and those proceed where develop industrialization. Thus, the South-east of England, which knows agricultural matter progress, is not the area of England which industrializes itself in first. There exists a similar shift, this time temporal, between demographic transition and industrialization. Thus, the areas whose population growth is considerable are not inevitably those which know the process of industrialization in first, as in Spain. In the same way, other areas which are industrialized do not know a very strong population increase, as in the Rhenish part of Germany.
Moreover, the theory according to which the agricultural surpluses supported industrialization is it also to relativize. Indeed, these surpluses were reinvested, to a large extent, in agriculture. In fact, in fact rather the industrial surpluses moved towards agriculture, in particular in great properties, sometimes in the name of the social prestige which was lacking with the middle-class. However, the role of agriculture, if it not the only one to allow the process of industrialization, does not remain less crucial about it, in the countries of the first wave as for the others, in particular for the last countries of the second vagueness, Japan and Russia (cf IV the second industrial revolution).
First industrial revolution
The first industrial revolution begins in England as of the XVIIIème century, but accelerates as from 1850 to extend in the worldwide from Western Europe.
Importance of the patents
The first true legislation allotting a Monopole for the inventions appears with Venice in 1474. This law specified that the monopoly was the counterpart of its disclosure. As of this time, the Brevet has two functions:
to protect the inventive against competition;
- to inform the innovators.
In Great Britain, the legislation on the patents appeared gradually: according to the British use, the system of patents was created without intervention of the government, by a succession of legal decisions. Under the queen Anne, the judges of the crown gave as condition of obtaining a patent which “the applicant must describe in writing and establish the nature of the invention and the way of carrying it out”. In 1718, the patent granted to James Puckle for a Mitrailleuse was one of the first of which one required a “specification”. The famous patent of Arkwright for machines of spinning was invalidated in 1785 for absence of an adequate specification, after ten years of existence. In addition, the acceptance of the patent of James Watt in 1796 for the steam engines establishes the important principle according to which a patent can be granted for the improvement of a known machine, like for ideas and principles - provided that they can be applied concretely.
Joseph Schumpeter defends the concept of patent because it is absolutely essential by ensuring a monopoly rent the contractor-innovator. However, the patent is temporary, which is necessary according to Joseph Schumpeter. Indeed, if it is normal to protect and to reward an innovator during a time by a monopoly rent, which can be regarded as a just reward compared to the investments and to the sacrifices authorized by this innovator, it must be temporary to encourage to innovate unceasingly. Always according to Joseph Schumpeter, the cycles of long-term growth - Cycle Kondratieff - are explained by the periods existence of bunch of innovations or not.
In France, the first legislation on the patents was created in 1791.
An energy: vapor
At Christian era Héron of Alexandria built Éolipyle, left toy to vapor functioning like a reaction turbine. Other inventors will have to be awaited, as Denis Papin to show that the vapor under pressure could actuate a piston in a cylinder. In fact, at the beginning, the concept of work associated with this machine is completely absent and it will be necessary to await work of Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot and the birth of the Thermodynamique to formalize this concept. It is precisely this concept which, attached to the machines developed at the time of the industrial revolution, with in parallel the use of fossil energy, will make rock the technical Système towards thermo-industrial civilization.
The first machine functioning with vapor with being used industrially was that of the captain Thomas Savery in 1698. It was used to pump the water of pumping out in the mines of Cornouailles. Although simplistic and greedy out of coal, it saved many mines of the ruin.
The first true Steam engine, that of which all the alternate machines go down, was that invented and built by a blacksmith of the Devon: Thomas Newcomen in 1712. It was built like machine of pumping for a coal mine located close to Dudley Castle, in the Staffordshire. Highly reliable, this machine functioned at the slow rate of twelve blows per minute, and consumed also much coal. The steam engine of Newcomen could be used only to pump water, in addition its coal consumption was very high. Indeed, during his operation one sent in the cylinder successively vapor, which heated it, then cool water, which cooled it: coal was especially used to heat the metal of the cylinder.
In 1764, struck by the loss of energy of the machine of Newcomen, James Watt imagined not to more condense the vapor in the cylinder, but in a separate condenser. It deposited the patent in 1769 of it. The industrial application started as from 1775, after James Watt had joined Matthew Boulton, owner of the manufacture of Soho, close to Birmingham. Their step of marketing was itself innovating: they signed a contract with a customer equipped with a Newcomen machine, and financed the replacement by a machine of Watt. The two associated ones were paid by taking for them a share of the savings in coal carried out by the customer, thanks to the good energetic efficiency of the machine of Watt.
Watt patented several other inventions like the rotary machine and especially the double-effect machine (1783) in which the cylinder alternatively receives the vapor by bottom and the top, as well as a centrifugal governor or with balls (1788) ensuring a constant speed the engine. The steam engine could replace the wheels of mill, for the drive of the industrial plants.
The development was fast, and 496 steam engines Boulton and Watt were in service in the United Kingdom in 1800. The patents of Watt fell into the public domain about 1800. The development of the steam engine was one of the reasons of British precocity. In 1830 the United Kingdom has 15.000 steam engines, France 3.000 and Prussia 1.000. France will remain with the drag in this field: in 1880 it has only 500.000 horsepowers installed against two million for the United Kingdom and 1,7 million for Germany.
Means of transport: the boat
The industrial revolution, particularly in its first phase, is pressed on the vapor making it possible to make function steamers and, a little later, engines. To note, also, that another energy will develop, more marginally, during this period; it is about gas. This one, will be in particular used to light the first factories before the use of electricity is not generalized, at the end of the 19th century.
The adaptation of the steam engine to boats was more difficult than for the railroads: fire hazard with the wood hulls, risk of breakdown - a boat whose machine breaks down is disabled - weak autonomy due to the bad output of the steam engines. However, on July 15th, 1783, the “Steamship” is the first steamer - sailing during fifteen minutes, on the Saone - built by the marquis Claude François Dorothée de Jouffroy d' Abbans (1751 - 1832). Navigation with vapor thus started on the rivers, in the ports for the tug boats, and on short ways, like the crossing of the English Channel. The steamers progress quickly, as well of number as at the technical level. Thus, as of 1830 the first steamers spend ten days less on the way New York-London that the fastest sailing ships. The increase in the size of the ships divides the transport costs by four between 1820 and 1850 on the international connections.
In 1869, the opening of the Suez Canal made it possible the steamers to make the way towards India in 60 days, against six months before. In addition, of tens of steamers furrowed the the Loire between 1830 and 1850. Their speed was impressive (from 4 t0 15 nodes with goes, and 9 nodes while going down), and gave place to races which finished sometimes in a sand bank… About 1850, the railroad will involve their disappearance. It is into 1910 that the Royal Navy British makes the decision to rock towards a food with the Fuel, and not with coal, for its new buildings. This rocker is then general in the field of transport, founding the era of oil for the 20th century.
During first half of the 18th century, the development of coal industry rested on transport by boats, either on the navigable rivers, or by sea. The roads did not make it possible to transport heavy loadings, especially after a rain.
Francis Egerton, third duke of Bridgewater (1736 - 1803), could see in its large turn of Europe the channel of midday, open in 1681. Having coal mines in Worsley, close to Manchester, it decided the construction of a channel to transport its coal of its mines to Manchester. Construction started in 1759, directed by James Brindley, and finished in 1776, at a cost of 350.000 £ - enormous for the time -. This channel brought back a great profit to the Duke, and prosperity in Manchester which could have a cheap coal, for the steam engines and the industry of the cotton which started to develop. Quickly, a network of 4800 km channels allowed the routing of coal and other products a little everywhere. By the road, a horse could transport 120 kg, on a channel, the same horse could draw 50 tons at the mean velocity of 6,5 km/h. Fast boats drawn by two horses (replaced every 6,5 km) transported passengers at the mean velocity of 16 km/h.
During 50 years, the channels were the arteries of the first industrial revolution, making the fortune of their owners. Then the railroad replaced them little by little, until imposing itself definitively during the second industrial revolution.
(see History of silk)
Until about 1750 the production was carried out either in residence, or in artisanal workshops with some apprentices; it is the domestic system which dominates. It was often about an auxiliary income, during the idle periods of agriculture. This rational organization of the families by them even constitutes the premises of industrialization called proto-industrialization .
Textile industry was the first with being mechanized:
1733 : John Kay invented the flying shuttle which makes it possible to weave four times more quickly and of broader fabrics. One thus needed four spinners for Tisserand. This rupture of balance caused other technical inventions,
- 1765: James Hargreaves patented the “Spinning-Jenny” a wheel where one can pose eight pins. Hargreaves was illiterate a Tisserand workman. Its machine was destroyed by workmen furious weavers to lose their work, and he died in poverty,
- 1767: Richard Arkwright patented the “toilets-frame”, first mechanical ropemaking machine based on the model of spinning machine patented by Lewis Paul in 1738,
- 1779: Samuel Crompton created the “mule-jenny” which implemented 400 pins at the same time. (water or coal necessary),
- 1785: Edmund Cartwright - a “clergyman” of Leicestershire invented the first Weaving loom mechanical,
- 1846: sewing machine of Elias Howe, which improves the model of Barthelemy Thimonnier of 1829.
Richard Arkwright bought their hair with the country-women to make wigs. After having invented the mule-jenny , it created in 1771 a factory with Cromfort. There was water to actuate the machines, but little world. It made come from the poor families, whose women and children worked on the weaving looms 13 hours per day. In 11 years, it created two other factories, employing 5000 people and it was anobli. Its system was largely copied, and in 1780 there were 120 factories, the majority in the North-West of England.
In 1800,80% of cotton was woven mechanically with “mule” in Lancashire. In 1815: one found in England 2500 power looms against 250.000 with arm.
The production was concentrated in manufactures, using a very important labor under bad conditions of hygiene, lighting, noise and safety. The use of steam engines made it possible to install these manufactures close to the cities, which quickly became industrial towns. The workmen were to live near their work place, because they went there to foot, their day's works were very long and the too short rest period so that it can be reduced by a long way. Let us note that certain innovations contribute to the degradation of the living and working conditions of the workmen. Indeed, the sewing machine of Elias Howe in 1846 conduit with the maintenance of the domestic industry, the domestic system , but the intensification of industrialization involves the increase in rates in the spinning mill so that the living and working conditions in the textile degrades itself; it is the sweating system . In the light of the quoted elements, one includes/understands, partly, the precocity of the United Kingdom in the process of industrial revolution.
In 1708 Abraham Darby, a Quaker which exploited a foundry of Cuivre, settled with Coalbrookdale in the throats of the Severn. It intended to carry out what no ironmaster had made a success of until there: to make cast iron by using coke instead of the Charcoal, more expensive. It rented an old man Haut-fourneau running on the charcoal with the lord of the place.
Coal was exploited very early in Great Britain. It is considered that the monks of Newbattle Abbey created the first coal mine of Scotland at the 13th century, and the Scottish mines produced 400.000 tons in 1700,2 000.000 tons in 1800. Coke was manufactured, exactly like the charcoal, by an incomplete combustion in grinding stones. Coal and coke were used in the place of wood, for the domestic or industrial heating (glassmakings, tileries, potteries). The difficulty came from the high sulfur content of cokes, making the cast iron unsuitable with the use. After one year of experiments, by selecting sulfur cokes not very charged, it succeeds in producing a cast iron usable. This one was still of poor quality and did not allow to obtain iron. But it was enough good to manufacture pots of cheap kitchen, cast-iron plates of chimney and other products similar. Abraham Darby sold of it in all the Europe, and that lasted 40 years, until 1750.
In 1750, the son of Abraham Darby - Abraham Darby II - succeed in obtaining iron starting from the coke pig iron, which allowed a fall in the price of iron. In 1779, the grandson Abraham Darby III built the first metallic bridge, Iron Bridge, on the Severn, in a place named since Ironbridge. It took three months for its blast furnace to produce the 384 tons of cast iron necessary. Ironbridge is regarded as the cradle of the industrial revolution. The Darby company ceased its activity in 1818, victim of the crisis which followed the end of the wars against the France and of competition.
The first metallic bridge carried out in France was the Pont of Austerlitz, in 1807 (rebuilt in 1854 because of many cracks).
The cast iron, produced by the blast furnace, is iron containing an high percentage of carbon. By removing carbon, one obtains iron. And one obtains steel by adding a little carbon to iron. In 1784, Henry Cort invented the process of the puddling to obtain iron starting from the cast iron - process described very well by Jules Verne in his novel the 500 million the Begum . For example, the Eiffel tower is made out of puddled iron.
The first manufacturing process of steel, already known in Antiquity, was that of cementing, a process which aimed at heating iron bars using charcoal in a closed furnace so that the surface of iron acquires an important percentage of carbon. The method known as with the crucible initially developed in order to withdraw slags of steel resulting from cementing, makes it possible to melt together iron and other substances in a container (the crucible) composed of fireclay and graphite. It is by this method that the knives of Damas and the swords of Tolède were manufactured, for example. Steel thus obtained returned at an high price.
Supremacy of Great Britain since 1750
In Europe, at the 17th century, England is an exception in more than one way. It makes exception on the cultural level. Since the Treated of Westphalia of 1648, which stabilizes the situation in Europe, by consolidating the France, Northern Europe is stable on the religious level, the Anglicanisme is essential and approaches the Protestantisme. This part of the world is detached. The Parlementarisme English emerges. The economic designs of the British take a radical evolution with the liberalism of Adam Smith, which recognizes the economic value of the individual, with rights. The system of the Corporation S, motionless, disappears, with the appearance of the patents. But England being an island, it is essential an ambitious maritime policy. At the 18th century, the United Kingdom has a large maritime fleet, a technical and economic large capital. The Franco-English confrontation is with its paroxysm. The English dominate the sea, in spite of the main French efforts. The English advance is technical (marine chronometer), the French richness is diluted in its demographic power (an European on five is then French).
It is in this context that is born the industrial revolution. Its precocity in England raises the question of its origins. Several factors are advanced: colonial empire, early industrial specialization, and financial power.
The British colonial Empire is vastest of the world at the 19th century with approximately 33 million km 2 for a population representing approximately the quarter of the total world population of then i.e. 500 million inhabitants. It is about an Empire much vaster than that of France, so much in surface (10 million km 2 ) that of many inhabitants (50 million).
Adopting a colonial strategy different from the other nations, in particular from France, the United Kingdom chooses very early the Libre-échange with its colonies but also with the other nations. Since 1786, for example, Great Britain and France sign trade agreements making the circulation of the grains almost free and prohibits the export of English machine and the emigration of skilled workers British. However the most important treaty between the two nations is that of 1860. Such agreements either are negotiated, as in the preceding example, or obtained by the force, as for the installation of concessions in Shanghai in 1842. One forwards oneself consequently more and more to the end of a policy of obedience mercantilist that the abrogation of the corn laws sanctions definitively in 1846. Great Britain pours then in a free trade of design free trade and not, as it is the case nowadays, of design to fair trade . However the Grande Depression of 1873-1896 pushes on a return towards policies tinted of protectionism, therefore in fold on the trade with the colonies.
Early industrial specialization since 1750
The factorial equipment of Great Britain is a component of its precocity and its superiority at the beginning of the industrial revolution.
Agriculture is sacrificed to the profit of industry; the share of the agricultural activity in the GDP of Great Britain passes from 20% in 1850 to 6% in 1906. So in absolute value the data remain stable, on the other hand in relative value one sees well the proportion taken by the industrial activity. In addition, such a relative reduction in agriculture can be explained by the effects of free trade and the trade with the “emergent” countries like the United States.
Sacrificed agriculture, efforts turned towards industry, industrial domination of Great Britain east ensured, at least during most of the 19th century. Thus, the industrial production strongly increases, in particular in the productions of coal (which increase by 100% between 1830 and 1845), textile and iron and steel in which specializes Great Britain. This domination is pressed in particular on a labor, abundant thanks to the demographic rise, acquired with the new in particular organisational methods with the division of the labor according to the designs of Adam Smith. It is based moreover on the availability of the raw materials, iron and coal, on the colonies and many innovations (cf 2.4).
It is noted however that British hegemony is disputed more and more in the second part of the 19th century, especially by the United States and Germany which industrialize themselves at any speed and catch up with Great Britain. That results in an erosion of the trade balance whose deficit passes from 11 million £ in 1820 to 140 million in 1820. However, financial supremacy replaces industrial hegemony and makes it possible to make up the trade deficit thanks to colossal surpluses.
Great Britain dominated incontestably during all first half of the 19th century. Consequently, the City , money market of London, is impossible to circumvent in the financial field; it is the most important place in term of transaction, impossible to circumvent for the ackowledgements of debt, to emit actions, to borrow etc This situation is all the more strong as Great Britain has vastest colonial Empire and is the most important investor abroad. Moreover, one there coast a majority of raw materials, in spite of the Chicago Stock Exchange competition, and the currency of reference for the international exchanges remains the Pound sterling. The financial supremacy of Great Britain is accentuated under the reign of the queen Victoria (1837-1901).
Singularity of the case of France
One speaks indeed about singularity for the process of industrial revolution because it does not correspond to the established models. In particular, some like Jean Marczewski, consider that the industrial revolution made exception by the absence of a phase of takeoff (takeoff) according to the criteria establish by W.W. Rostow. According to this last any company follows a process of growth in five stages which it defines in the Étapes of the economic growth , 1960, of which is paramount; that of the takeoff . That corresponds to an entire investment accounting for 10% of the total GDP, the existence of driving sectors, and with a political and social framework favorable. France does not follow this model; the beginning of the industrial revolution in France is characterized, according to Maurice Levy-Leboyer, by:
a historical context marked by the revolutionary and Napoleonean wars (1789-1815);
- an industrial development, despite everything, at the sides of Great Britain (1815-1860);
- an economic deceleration (1860-1905);
- a strong recovery as from 1905.
The beginnings of the industrial revolution in France are marked by the consecutive disorders with the revolutionary and Napoleonean wars whose cost is human but also economic; France loses its demographic dynamism. In addition, the continental Blocus set up by Napoleon 1st in 1806 causes an loss of markets for the large French ports, like Bordeaux, Marseilles or Nantes which lose of their activity and their population, left towards the industrial areas the North-East. Thus the continental Blockade supported an industrial specialization and reversed the poles of industry in France. It moreover accentuated French commercial specialization towards the continental trade.
Revolution, France also inherited the values of the Century of the Light. Thus, at the same time tinted liberalism and of design more “social”, France will adopt an intermediate way between British liberalism and German protectionism.
Importance of the State
As of the end of the Revolution, the capacity in place hastens “to release the forces” of the market by the removal of the corporations (decree of Allarde, 1791) and the prohibition of any coalition (law the Hatter, 1791). In addition, France obtains under the Consulate a currency, it “frankly germinal” and of a Central bank; Banque de France. This association makes it possible France to find stable monetary bases and a centralized system. This one indeed made it possible to suppress the monetary disorders, born disorders revolutionist; the too abundant emission of assignats having creates inflation. Moreover, the germinal franc is characterized by a stability throughout the 19th century. If France obtains a centralized monetary system, it is that she inherited her history her tradition jacobine, in other words centralizing. The tendency was even accentuated after the Revolution since the capacity places from there got busy to shake regionalisms by the means of an administrative division organized in departments.
In addition, France proceeds to many reforms like the creation of the colleges allowing the formation of an elite. But the major reform to retain is that of the introduction of the Civil code by Napoleon in 1804. Indeed, it frames the property right private, essential component in the process of industrial revolution. But it also makes it possible to make use of the private property by defining the contractual right; the private property is a transferable good and thus allows accumulation. Attention however, that does not mean which the property was not transferable under the Old mode but that the property did not have any function of accumulation, it was a social symbol. It remains this symbol at the 19th century but adds the concept of accumulation.
Agricultural and industrial power
Moreover, by the means of laws, the State joint with the economic growth not only by supporting it, but also by supporting it. One can quote for example the law Guizot of 1842 which supports the extension of the railroad which one knows the importance in the process of industrial revolution, great work - work of the baron Haussmann in Paris, cleansing of marshy zones like the Moors and the the Sologne -, the plan Freycinet (1879-1882) to start again the economic activity by the railroad and the improvement of the infrastructures, etc the colonial Empire French also contributes to support industrialization.
The State is sometimes at the origin of negotiations supporting free trade, sometimes at the origin of protectionist measurements; there one finds still the intermediate way chosen by France, neither completely liberal, nor completely protectionist. In the first case, it establishes trade agreements, like that of 1786 and more still that of 1860 which limits the rights on the industrial products within the limit of 25%. In the second case, it takes protectionist measures like the adoption of the law Méline in 1892 making it possible to increase the customs duties on cereals and the meat in the event of overproduction.
Agriculture preserves a place much more important in the French economy than in the British economy at the same time. Inventors contribute to progress of agricultural industry like André Grusenmeyer. Its importance is such in France which it is enough that agriculture thrives so that the whole of the economy is some improved. On the contrary, an agriculture which prosperous is not led to the amplification of the movements of crises. Agriculture is dominated in France by small holders, which partly explains the behavior “Malthusian” of France at the 19th century; to make less children makes it possible to avoid the crumbling of the family inheritance.
France is also an industrial power, nevertheless behind Great Britain. The changes are more progressive than in Great Britain, expression of a characteristic “Malthusianism”; trust and mass production are later. Moreover, industry is dominated by a lower middle class which privileges a not very dynamic interior market.
Although largely behind the financial power of Great Britain, the weight of France in financial matters does not remain less important about it. Indeed, France has the most important private gold stock and represents the financial main market of the European governments. The bonds between banks and industries remain however weak and mark a difference with Great Britain. Indeed, France remains sensitive to the cold with this kind of practice after the experiment of the Système of Law. Moreover, banking, in particular at the end of the century, is characterized by a prudence which translate the Germain doctrines devoting the bulk-heading of the functions of the bank.
Second industrial revolution
See also: Innovation in Europe at the Beautiful time
to see the article History of electricity
The second industrial revolution rests primarily on electricity. It is initially used to light, thanks to the lamp EDISON (1878). However the possibility of transporting this new energy makes it possible to develop its use. It is the creation of the lines high voltages. Of large firms build the electrical material; in particular " Edison General Electric Company (the United States), Siemens and AEG (Allemage)
to see the historical part of the article on the Oil
1859 : the first synthetic dyes are invented by William Henry Perkin,
- 1867: Alfred Nobel invents dynamite,
- 1868: discovered first artificial matters in celluloïde by John Wesley Hyatt,
- 1874: discovered dye by Heinrich Caro,
- 1879: Karl Josef Bayer manages to synthesize it, the indigo,
- 1885: Pasteur creates the vaccine against the rage
Chemin de iron
One used since 1760 in England of the railroads, on which the coaches were drawn by horses. Compared to the roads, the tractive effort is quite lower.
In 1804, Richard Trevithick adapted to traction on rails a steam engine manufactured by the PEN-there-darren Ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil: that made it possible to reach the speed of 5 miles per hour (8 km/h) by drawing a load from 10 tons and 70 passengers from Merthyr with Abercynon, on a distance of 14 km. But the rails broke under the 5 tons of the engine, and the steam engine was re-used at fixed telephone.
Richard Trevithick is regarded as the inventor of the steam traction, and has a monument with Merthyr (Carmarthenshire, Wales).
The first engine with vapor used regular use was that of the engineer George Stephenson. This one manufactured and patented its first Locomotive in 1815.
Charged with building a railway to transport the coal of Liverpool in Stockton to England, Stephenson convainquit owners of the mines to finance it to build an engine. It was the “Locomotion”, of which the first use took place on September 25th, 1825. It had to draw 20 passenger carriages and 10 buckets from coal. A rider carrying a flag gallopped in front of the “Locomotion”. Stephenson ordered with the rider to deviate, and one could note that the train went more quickly than a man to horse.
It was necessary years however so that the steam traction is sufficiently reliable so that one can make him transport passengers. In 1830 Robert Stephenson, the young person wire of Georges created the first railway line modern: Manchester - Liverpool. It consisted of a double way over all its length and offered for the first time of the fixed hours to the travellers.
First lines in France in 1823 (Saint-Etienne - Andrézieux), they are limited to the transport of coal. True departure after 1840 with an average of 60 km/h in 1850.
Iron and steel industry
One needed more and more steel with the development of the industrial revolution: rails of railroad, elements of steam engines, textile machine components, hulls of boats etc It was the English Henry Bessemer who found the solution, with his converter patented in 1856. It is a retort of big size, with refractory walls, which one fills with cast iron in fusion. One sends then by the bottom of the compressed air, which makes burn carbon by producing a spectacular gushing of sparks. After 20 minutes, the converter contains iron; one then introduced there a precise quantity of carbon which, after a few minutes of mixture, gives steel corresponding to the specifications. It any more but does not remain to incline the converter on its pivots to empty it in an ingot mould. This process made it possible to convert into half an hour 10 tons of cast iron in as much of steel; consecutively the price of the mild steel passed from 50£ the ton to 3£.
The United States
The expansion of the territory of the United States throughout the 19th century contributes to develop the industry of the railroads. Thus, the United States buys the Louisiana in France in 1803 and Florida in Spain in 1819. The United States takes New Mexico and California in Mexico after the war of 1848 and the Republic of Texas, independent, decides its fastening with the Union in 1845. Moreover, strong demography in Oregon involves an increase in the American population compared to the British population and Oregon to become an American State in 1845. Once conquered, these territories are the subject of a policy of settlement. Thus, the large ordinance of the North-West in 1789 allows it the attribution of grounds and the Homestead Act of 1862 gives grounds to the colonists after 5 years of development.
This displacement of the border towards the West strongly contributes to develop the railroads. Since 1869 the connection San Francisco-New York is completed east connects the east coasts and West in less than 7 days against 6 months before. In 1870, the American rail network represents 85.100 km, in 1913,420 000 km is one the third of the world network. It is understood that such a development had direct consequences on the US economy and its industrialization thanks to domino effects on the industrial activity. For example, the extension of the railroad involves the dynamism of the iron and steel activities. Moreover, the financing of this colossal work involves the development of the stock exchange activities. Lastly, one can note the incidence on the urbanization, but one knows the close links between urbanization and industrialization.
In addition, it is about a territory rich in raw materials. Let us quote in particular the presence of oil whose exploitation made it possible the United States to take share very largely in the second industrial revolution. Indeed, it is often considered that the first oil well was dug under the direction of Edwin Drake in Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859. That precedes the American domination in the field of the oil production. One will retain the hegemony of the Standard Oil of John D. Rockefeller whose monopoly will be undeniable until the company falls under the jurisdiction from the Sherman Antitrust Act where it at summer divided into several companies from less size. Let us add as a remark that several of these small companies will grow bigger at the point to become the largest current oil companies like Exxon Mobil.
It is moreover one territory which contributes to the development and the power of American agriculture. Indeed, agriculture profits from vast territories exploited thanks to progress of mechanization; the first mechanical reaping-machine is invented by Mac Cormick in 1831. Moreover, agriculture can be based on the diversity of the American territory; the South specializes thus in the culture and the West in the breeding; productions easily forwarded to the ports of shipment by the infrastructures and in particular the railroad. Moreover, the cheap labor that slavery constitutes is a crucial factor of the American agricultural power so much so that the historian Robert Fogel regards it as crucial factor of the prosperity of the South. On the external level, agriculture profits from the advantages of free trade, in particular of the abolition of the corn laws in 1846.
Applied to the new methods of production, this diversification of the activities contributes to establish the power of the United States in particular at the time of the second industrial revolution. The industrialization, begun in the middle of the 19th century was to then be the American power-factor.
The United States makes completely remarkable demographic great strides. This rise is maintained on the one hand by the natural growth and on the other hand by important migratory flux. The population of the United States grows of 25% per decade between 1860 and 1890 so that in 1880 the United States counts 50 million inhabitants and 1918 100 million. Immigration largely nourishes the population growth; the migratory flux brought 36 million people between 1820 and 1920.
In addition, the majority of the migratory flux comes from the United Kingdom and Ireland but also of the Scandinavian countries. Thus, the immigrants who unload in the United States are often Protestant religion. Let us point out here all the importance of Protestant ethics by basing us on work of max Weber. Moreover, one can base the analysis of American industrialization starting from the characteristics of the american company; it is about a meritocratic company as the analysis Alexis de Tocqueville in Of the democracy in America , 1835-1840.
Turning of the American Civil War
Before the American Civil War (1861-1865) the rise to power of the United States is based especially on its agricultural activities so much so that agriculture remains the principal activity until 1880; in 1890 agriculture accounts for 75% more of American exports. But the American Civil War changes somewhat gives it. Indeed, the American Civil War is not only one war political which fits only in the question of the slave system. It is also a war resulting from the economic competitions between the South - conservative, agricultural and favorable to free trade - and the North - opened with the ideas lately from Europe, in the course of industrialization fast and favorable to protectionism according to the thought of Alexander Hamilton, of the theory of the “educational protectionism” of Friedrich List and those of Henry C. Carey. Consequently, the victory of North devotes the evolution of the industrialization whose financing is partly supported by inflation during the war.
The industrialization of Germany begins at the same time as in the United States i.e. in the middle of the 19th century. It also has an important industrial, agricultural and human potential.
German unification to industrialize itself
The characteristic of Germany, it is that it does not exist at the beginning of the century. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the German Confédération gathers 39 States of which the unit is built around the language but also Zollverein as from 1834. The Zollverein is a customs union which sets up a free exchange zone inside and which establishes common external tariffs outside (TEC). Moreover in 1857, the Prussian thaler becomes the currency of the zone then is replaced by the Mark in 1871. In parallel Reichbank is born in 1875. Germany adopts from this point of view a protectionist position which contrasts with the British position.
It should first of all be stressed that the starting of industrialization is slow because of the disparity between industrial basins; those of the East are much less powerful than those of the West like the the Ruhr. Moreover, Germany presents a technological delay which makes it dependant on Great Britain but also on France. Let us note the importance that revêt the annexation of Alsace and the Moselle which consequently allowed Germany occasion to obtain an additional industrial potential.
However the rise to power of industrialization is supported on the one hand by the commercial tradition of the North of Germany and by the support which the State brings. Indeed, there exists a real tradition in the field of the trade thanks to the ports of North, inherited the port activity of the Hanse as of the 13th century.
But it is especially necessary to underline the central role of the State. Indeed, this one tends to support the extension of the railroad because that was necessary for the unification of the German Confederation. It moreover supported the constitution of large companies - konzerns - and allows their development by the means of protectionist measurements. Moreover, the German State supports professional training.
Let us note, as remark, that Germany is the first country to be obtained a form of social protection. Indeed, the very strong working concentration emanating from industrialization starts to raise criticisms as for the living and working conditions. It is thus with an aim of countering the Marxism that Otto von Bismark decides to set up the first social laws. Since 1883 an health insurance is created, followed into 1884 of a protection against the industrial accidents and finally in 1889, creation of an old-age insurance.
These elements make it possible Germany quickly to be industrialized as from the years 1850 and more still after 1870 when the konzerns take a paramount place in the industrial activity.
The other activities remain important but remain secondary compared to industry. The agricultural production grows throughout the century; the Junker S, landowners, are politically preserving, economically innovating. The agricultural matter innovations are of more than more after 1850 and supplement the imported innovations of Great Britain. German specialization in chemistry confers to him a role of first order in the search for manure; the searchs for Justus von Liebig as of 1840 are founders.
The financing of industrialization calls much less upon the stock exchange capital as in Great Britain. German specificity is that the financing lies rather within the scope of long-term investment thanks to the close links between banks and companies. Let us quote, as prolongation, the analysis of Michel Albert in Capitalisme against capitalism , 1991, which shows that this German characteristic is characteristic of its contemporary capitalism; the Rhenish Capitalism.
Moreover, the other financial specificity of Germany is the concentration of the capital towards its national territory. Indeed, the capital German is intended rather little abroad; one notes however important investments in the Ottoman Empire. This use of the capital falls under the perception of the nation's economy in Germany; the real economy - industry - i.e. the economic power must coincide with the national power. One sees well the divergence with the British design.
A forced economic opening
The Japan is an old country several millenia but its opening on outside is late; Japan remains in a political and economic autarky. Its opening on outside does not take part of a deliberate choice but Japan was constrained there. Indeed, the American admiral Matthew Perry enters out of bay of Tokyo in 1853 and imposes on Japan the opening by the treaty of Kanagawa in 1854, treated asymmetrical with the disadvantage of Japan. The economic opening of Japan east thus the result of what one calls the diplomacy or policy of the drain-hole.
The era Meiji (1868-1912)
In 1868, the emperor Mutsuhito shift the Shogun and involves Japan in the industrial revolution. As of the years 1870, Japan knows a process of growth and development, supported by the intervention of the State. This last met places the adequate structures from there to support industrialization. Indeed, it initiates the installation of railroad and creates new companies. Once consolidated by the State, these companies are privatisées and pass under the control of Japanese big families; it is the birth of the zaïbatsus of which most known are Mitsui, Mitsubishi and Sumitomo. Those take the shape of joint stock companies then. To accompany these evolutions, Japan sets up new institutions; creation of the Yen (1871), of the Stock Exchange (1878), the Central bank of Japan (1882) and obtains various legislative measures framing economic development.
The industrialization of Japan goes hand in hand with its agricultural development. This one is characterized by a rupture of with the feudal mode; the grounds held by the daïmios and the samurais are confiscated then redistributed with the peasants. These grounds, allocated with the peasants, are an important source of tax re-entries for the State, which makes use of it to finance industrial development. Agriculture develops more especially as it diversifies by the use of the grounds in the north of Japan, in particular in Hokkaïdo. Agriculture is thus a deciding factor of the industrialization of Japan not only because it also generates incomes for the State but because it contributes to decrease external pressure of Japan, very strongly dependant on raw materials with which it is provided little.
With final, Japan experiences a strong economic development, its growth rate is higher than that of Germany though lower than that of the United States, the foreign trade strongly increases like its industrial production. Moreover, the Japanese population passes from approximately 30 million in 1860 to 50 million at the beginning of the 20th century.
The land reforms
Russia is the last of the countries of the second vagueness to be industrialized. The archaism of its agriculture, even after being reformed, nourished its industrial backwardness. However, one cannot think starting industrial without, amongst other things, the agricultural development. After the Russian defeat at the time of the Crimean War the Russian leaders, initially the tsar Alexandre II, became aware of the economic and social delay of their country. In this context, engages the agricultural reform, preceded by the general emancipation of the peasants with the abolition of serfdom on March 3rd, 1861. The reform sets up village communities - called obshchina or to mir - within the framework of which the peasants were to pay allowances for the grounds that have allotted to them. These characteristics explain the failure of the reform, the modernization and the development of agriculture not being to the height of the hopes. However, Russia more did not agree, initially, to make evolve/move its agriculture. Indeed, the latter was enough to make live the country thanks to its exports and the great landowners blocked any evolution. However, Russia must engage in fact , since 1906, in a new agricultural reform because of the fall of the courses on the markets of cereals and the famines of 1891-1892 and 1902. Piotr Stolypine leads this reform which leads to the suppression of the mode of the communities, i.e. mirs. However, the carried out efforts will be stopped with the beginning of the First World War in 1914 and the Révolution of 1917. To final, Russia will not have managed to hoist its industry on the level of those of the large European countries, of the United States or even of Japan, against which Russia loses the war which opposes them in 1905. However, that does not mean that Russia industrialized itself at all.
At the end of the 19th century, Russia is a late country but its industrialization will be the fact of a political change and will benefit from advanced from the other large countries. Initially, the agricultural reform of the years 1860 increases the tax re-entries of the State, by taxing the peasants, enabling him to finance the construction of roads, industries but also of railroad, like the Transsibérien and the transcaspien. The deficiency in transport infrastructures had appeared after the defeat in the Crimea, the Russian army not managing to convey sufficient soldiers for the face. In addition, the State calls upon foreign industrialists to develop his industry while profiting from the last technical innovations. Let us quote, as example, the role of English John Hughes who in 1869 founds the “Russian New business” to build blast furnaces in the area of Donetz. The role of the State is crucial in the industrialization of Russia; for Alexander Gerschenkron the State, in substituent at the market, allowed to exceed the obstacles related to the structures economic and social of the country. It is necessary, moreover, to underline the big role of the foreign assets, in particular French and British. Thus, the industrialization of Russia accelerates in the years 1880-1890.
The industrial society
This industrial revolution appeared in the economic domain, but it did not transform the social domain of it. This aspect of the industrial new business was mainly studied by Karl Marx. According to K. Marx, the industrial society succeeds the feudal company, and plays a paramount historical part as it affirms the Capitalisme and makes emerge the Prolétariat.
Evolution of the social structure
One will be able to refer to the book of Olivier Marchand and Claude Thélot, Work in France (1800-2000) , 1997, to obtain reliable statistical data as for the evolution of the social structure of France since 1800.
An agricultural decline as of the middle of the 19th century
The continuous farming population to grow until 1846 and gathers 9,3 million farmers, according to the statistical series studied by Olivier Marchand and Claude Thélot in Work in France (1800-2000) , 1997.
According to the same authors, the reduction in the farming population is due to the consequences of the Franco-British treaty of free trade of 1860, with the difficulties related on will phylloxera and the too small structure of the exploitations, and to the weakness of the investments.
Rural migration and urbanization
To a certain extent, the enclosure of the agricultural land has constrained many peasants to leave the fields for the factories, thus contributing to nourish the urban growth. In addition, the mechanization of agriculture made it possible to increase productivity gains releasing of labor for industry. In addition, the departure towards the factories was perceived like an opportunity of improving the living conditions. However, the rural migration is not the single cause of the urbanization.
Industrialization initially contributed to the urbanization by the creation of factories, themselves causing the installation of many workmen and thus the constitution of a true city. It is for example the case of the Creusot or Roubaix, or of cities to the periphery of Paris like Saint-Denis. Moreover, the factories attracted a many labor while installing directly in the close cities or their peripheries. Indeed, the factories profited thus from powerful transport infrastructures while being close to a vast market of consumption.
The urbanization also contributed to important social evolutions. It is, indeed, the beginning of the development of the collective habitat, the first policies of urban development - installation of means of transport like the subway at the end of the 19th century and urban developments like the work carried out at Paris by the baron Haussmann -…
The Revolution of 1789 marks the triumph of a middle-class, whose capacity within the company had started to grow as of the reign of Louis XIV to become major during the 19th century. First of all, part of this middle-class plays a decisive part during the process of industrialization because has financial resources. That is even truer for the second 19th century during which the required investments represent increasingly important sums. However, part of this middle-class remains passive compared to the industrial revolution, alive of revenues resulting from its inheritance; they are the shareholders, particularly many in France.
Throughout the 19th century, the number of this middle-class increases and represents most of the company. Upper middle class, with the head of industrial companies, and the lower middle class, the small shopkeepers, weighs a consequent weight in the company. In addition, in addition to its economic and social role, the middle-class is increasingly present politically. In France, this political presence is maintained by the formation the middle-class in schools, as the school of the High Commercial Studies (HEC) creates in 1881, whose it only has, at the 19th century, access. That contributes to the formation of a body of senior officials or, of what Pierre Bourdieu will call, a “nobility of State”.
The constitution of the Proletariat
Too much often associated to the workmen, the proletariat raises, in fact, of a reality much more complex. If one retains Karl Marx his analysis economic of the company in two categories, the capitalists and the proletarians, one forgets sometimes that Karl Marx had already included/understood the complexity of the company of the 19th century and the proletariat. Indeed, Karl Marx distinguishes within the company, the financial aristocracy, the industrial middle-class, the lower middle class, the working class, the “lumpen proletariat” (“proletariat let us haillons some”) and the compartmental farming community. In addition, K. Marx sees in the proletariat a class forced to sell its labor force to the capitalists, that Marx shows to maintain a situation favorable to the development this “industrial army of reserve”. To include/understand the concept of exploitation about which K. Marx speaks, it is necessary to return to its design of the value. It distinguishes, indeed, practical value and exchange value; to be able to carry out a “appreciation”, the capitalist is forced to force the proletarian with the “surtravail”, more especially as the capitalist is confronted with a “trend fall of the rate of profit”.
Moreover, one can truly speak about a relatively homogeneous working class only starting from the last quarter of the 19th century. Indeed, one finds, especially at the beginning of the 19th century, the semi-skilled workers who are the craftsmen, of the workmen resulting from rural industry, in particular in France, and the proletariat of manufactures then factories. This last category of workman remains minority until the middle of the 19th century. Thereafter, consecutively with the modernization and the concentration of the factories, the number of workmen of the small rural industry and craftsmen become weaker. Consequently, after 1870-1880, the factory workers constitute a homogeneous social class.
About 1930, the workmen still represents nearly 33% of the Western active population. The wages are relatively low (5 F per day in France of 1900 to 1914) and food absorbs most of the incomes (up to 60%). Thus, in the workmen, all the family works: men, women and children. Day's works are very long, from 12 to 3 p.m. on average until about 1860, with rare pauses. The Chômage is frequent because of the abusive layoffs and of the numerical importance of the active population. It increases clearly during the periods of economic crises. Their residences are unhealthy, food is unbalanced and of bad quality, which generate the Sous-alimentation, the Rachitisme and the development of diseases (Choléra, Tuberculose while the lack of hope pushes with alcoholism. The industrial accidents, related on tiredness, painfulness, the difficult work conditions are frequent (22 per 10.000 in France, 41 per 10.000 in the United States between 1871 and 1875).
Evolution of the work world
The Rationalization of the productive process
In order to increase the Labor productivity, the economists reconsider all the organization of the productive process. This research of the optimal effectiveness is done by rigorous methods and give rise to the Scientific management (O.S.T.).
Adam Smith in 1776 shows the effectiveness of the Division of the labor in simple task in the factory of pins. That announces the beginning of the specialization of the workmen and the assembly line work. It is Frederick Winslow Taylor, initiator of the Taylorisme, which towards 1900 continues the reflection on the rationalization of the productive process. He recommends the splitting up of the tasks for the Ouvrier S and the Employé S which must become simple executants. He brings to the idea of the timing of the simplified tasks (the gestures are broken up to the maximum) workmen, in order to the minimum reduce their movements, the “systematic dawdling” of the workmen and to define rates of work to have a regularity of the production. Henry Ford, beginning 20th, with the Fordisme, introduced the Travelator into the assembly lines, to convey the parts and to avoid useless displacements of the semi-skilled workers.
This new organization of work is not without consequence on the workers, Karl Marx describes it like leading to the Aliénation Prolétaire, which is nothing any more but one link of a line production: “ It is a simple machine to produce the richness for others, crushed physically and moron intellectually. ” Later Georges Friedmann will qualify this organization of work of “work in crumb”. Working S and Syndicat S often disputed these work methods.
Karl Marx highlights the existence of the Reserve army of workers, a reserve of workers to unemployment making it possible the Capitaliste S to have labor and to maintain the wages with low.
Certain workers perceive the machine like directly responsible for the Chômage, and one sees appearing movements of breakers of machines as in England in 1811-1812 with the Luddite S (or Luddistes).
to see the part concerning the industrial revolution of the article on the Work of the children
Political evolutions of the industrialized companies
Evolution of the role of the State
As of the end of the 16th century, the Mercantilisme defends the designs of a “economy to the service of the prince”. The State intervenes then in the economy as with the installation of royal manufactures. However, this intervention of the State, initially, is put at the service of the war and does not meet other aims. Nevertheless, the triumph of physiocracy at the 18th century then liberalism at the 19th century reduces the importance of the interventions of the State within the economy. Moreover it is well at the 19th century, exactly in 1834 and 1929, that Karl Polanyi estimates that the market is autorégulé, i.e. with a very restricted intervention of the State.
However, gone autorégulé does not mean therefore absence of any form of intervention of the State. In addition, it is necessary to moderate the idea according to which the triumph of liberalism at the 19th century led to the absence of any intervention of the State, more especially as certain liberals as Leon Walras defend the public intervention in certain fields like the property of the ground.
Economically, the States begin financially in the process of industrial revolution. They initiate, indeed, a policy activates to set up an environment favorable to economic development by arranging their territory: great work in Paris under the direction of the Baron Haussmann, installation of provincial towns, creation of new cities in England, drainage works - in the Sologne, for example -… Moreover, they contribute to set up transport infrastructures modern: Plane Freycinet since 1878 in France, construction of subway or tram… In addition, if liberalism were very influential on the orientation given to the foreign trade by imposing free trade - abolition of the corn laws in 1846 and of the Navigation act in 1849 in England, signature of the Franco-British treaty of free trade in 1860… -, the States do not hesitate to intervene directly when the economic difficulties force there. Thus, with the difficulties generated by the Grande Depression the States intervene while returning to protectionism: law Méline of 1892 and “law of the lock” of 1897 in France, tariffs Mac Kinley in 1890 and Dingley in 1897 in the United States, installation of antitrust legislations, in particular in the United States with the Sherman Act of 1890 and Clayton Act of 1913. In fact, the degree of protectionism and intervention of the State depends on each country. Germany remains faithful to the “educational protectionism” of Friedrich List, the United States remains in an isolationism, such as it east defines by the Doctrine Monroe, justifying protectionism while the United Kingdom chooses liberalism and that France adopts an intermediate way.
New fact at the 19th century, the intervention of the State spreads with the social status under the combined effect of an evolution of the political thought and mobilization of the trade unions. The State then inaugurates a role which, before, was mainly the fact of the parishes; it was the case of the poor laws in England. The first social measures can be dated from the beginning of the 19th century in England, ground of liberalism. Indeed, since 1815 Robert Owen is at the origin of a law to limit the child work whom it will make controlled by factory inspector in 1833. Thereafter, England limits the duration of the work of the women in 1847. In France, a first attempt at social legislation also relates to the child work with the law of March 22nd, 1841 to iniciative of Laurent Cunin-Gridaine. However, the most important measurements with the social status come from Prussia; Bismarck sets up in 1883 a health insurance, 1884 a system to secure the workers against the industrial accidents and in 1889 a state pension scheme.
Such an intervention of the State finds a positive feedback in certain liberals. In addition to Leon Walras and Alfred Marshall, John Stuart Mill defends the importance of the public intervention in the field of education. In addition, Jean de Sismondi defends the idea of a State in the middle of the economic regulation and parking wellbeing of the population.
Social combat and Utopia S
As of first half of the 19th century, the “mixed crises”, i.e. whose origin is still agricultural but of which the effects are increasingly important at the industrial level, the first social combat cause. Indeed, the crisis of 1836, caused by the speculation on the emission of Spanish public titles and portuguais, led to a social crisis with the birth of the Chartisme. Previously, other movements had already been born like the Luddisme in Great Britain or the revolt of the Canuts in Lyon in 1831. However, the crisis having had the most repercussions is that of 1847, resulting from bad harvests. All the European countries engaged in the process of industrial revolution know disorders which culminate in 1848 with the revolutionary movements.
Nevertheless, the social combat will become fuller and more organized in second half of the 19th century. That is the result of a concentration of larger labor, in increasingly large factories, and which in addition is organized around the trade unionism. Indeed, the right to strike is authorized in 1864 in France and in 1875 in England, the trade unions are authorized in France in 1884 by the Loi Waldeck-Rousseau. So great trade unions are create at the end of the century:
- the Trade Union Congress (TUC) in Grandre-Brittany is legalized in 1874,
- the American Federation off Labor (AFL) in the United States in 1886,
- the General confederation of Work (CGT) in France in 1895.
These trade unions massively mobilize the workmen at the time of the crises, for example at the time of the Grande depression (1873-1896). In addition, they are influenced by the Scientific socialism - the Marxisme - initiate by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The great Utopias of the 19th century are thus born in this context. These last are generally influenced by the Utopian socialism, i.e. socialism preceding the scientific socialism. In Great Britain, Robert Owen imagines the creation of colonies, founded on the pooling of the goods, whose attempt at installation will fail. In France, Charles Fourier thinks the new shape of social organization through phalansteries that its disciple, Victor Considering will try, in vain, to concretize. Other currents will try to bring more realism to these Utopias. It is the case of Louis Blanc which proposes the installation of national Ateliers or of Philippe Buchez which defends the creation of vast co-operatives. With final, these Utopias underline a critic of the capitalist profit, competition, or at least its excess and sometimes of the private property.
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