Industrial programmable Automat
See also: API
A industrial programmable automat (API) is an electronic device programmable intended for the order of process Industrie ls by a sequential treatment. It sends orders towards the préactionneurs (left operative or PO side actuator) starting from Donnée S of entries (Capteur S) (left order or PC side sensor), of Consigne S and a Computer program.
PresentationOne names Industrial Programmable Automate , API (in English Programmable Logic Controller, PLC ) a device similar to a Ordinateur, used for to automate processes as the order of the Machine S on a Ligne of assembly in a factory. Where the older automated systems would employ hundreds or thousands of relay and cam S, a simple automat is enough. One names Automaticien S the Programmeur S of these Industrial Programmable Automats.
The API one is structured around a or calculating unit Processeur (in English Central Processing Unit, CPU), a food (since tensions AC or cd.) and, modules according to the needs for the application, such as:
- Of the charts of input-outputs (in English Input-output, I/O) numerical (All or nothing) or Analogical S
- Cards inputs to connect Sensor S, pushbuttons,…
- Charts of exits to connect Actuator S, indicator S, Valve S,…
- Of the modules of communication Modbus, Modbus More, Profibus, InterBus, DeviceNet, LonWorks, Ethernet, FIPIO, FIPWAY, RS232, RS-485, Have-I, CANopen, to dialog with other automats, off-set inputs/outputs, man-machine supervisions or other interfaces (IHM, in English Human Machine Interfaces, HMI)),…
- Of the modules dedicated trades, such as fast counting, of weighing…
- Of the modules of Interface for the ordering of movement, said modules Motion, such as progressive starters, variable speed transmissions, order of axes.
- Of the modules of dialog (man-machine) such as the Desk (tactile or with keyboard) dialoguing with the automat by industrial network owner or not and posting messages or a représention of the process.
Others, older, consisted of simple a memory whose entry consisted of a concatenation of data input (sensors, clock) and preceding state. Much cheaper, they lent itself on the other hand badly to a fast increase in the number of states. They remained very much used for simple automations of the style Block-system or traffic lights to the crossroads.
The programs of API are treated according to a precise cycle: acquisition of all the entries (recopy in a memory image) - data processing (calculations) - update of the exits. The time of a cycle the API ones vary according to the size of the program, the complexity of calculations and the power the API one. The cycle time is generally about a score of milliseconds and, is protected by a watchdog.
The API ones are characterized compared to the computers by their reliability and their facility of maintenance. The modules can be changed very easily and the restarting of API is very fast.
The absence of Man-machine interface (IHM, English HMI) to visualize the action and the operation of the program on the operative part make that the automats are very often connected by a communication to a desk operator, an graphical interface (screen of posting or touchscreen) or a PC. In this last case, one speaks about supervision.
ExamplesAn automat equipped with a simple program can maintain a level of liquid in a tank between two levels (minis and maximum), by opening and closing a Vanne. An arrangement slightly more complex could imply a balances under the tank (like entry) and a controller of flow (like result) making it possible water to run ata ordered rate. A typical automatism Industriel could order several tanks in a process such as the Traitement of the waste water. Each tank could be observed for a variety of conditions such as: to be neither too full or nor too vacuum, to have the '' p '' H in a certain fork.
Different Computer programming languagesThere exist various computer programming languages defined by CEI 61131-3:
- IT (Instruction List), the List language is very close to the Assembly language one works closest to the Processeur by using the Arithmetic logic unit its register S and its accumulating S
- ST (Structured Text), This structured language resembles the Langage C used for the Ordinateur S
- LD (Ladder Diagram), the Langage Ladder (English scale) resembles the electric diagram S, makes it possible to quickly transform an old program made of electromechanical Relais S, this way of programming allows a visual approach of the problem (most frequent in industry). One also speaks about Langage to contacts or Schéma to contacts to indicate the Langage Ladder.
- FBD (Function Block Diagram), FBD is presented in form Diagramme: continuation of blocks, applicable between them, carrying out simple operations, even very sophisticated.
In the programming of automat, it is possible to choose to program in SFC, in a way very close to the Grafcet. Behind each action is associated a program written in IT, ST, LD or FBD.
It is finally possible to produce small automats by means of simple a read-only memory (ROMANIAN), without Microprocesseur.
(These numerical automats are logic networks cabled and not of the programmable automats.)
Entries all or nothing
- If one has sensors providing only information of the type 1 or 0 (“carries closed” (or open) or “awaited event”, for example), the juxtaposition of the corresponding bits can be sent to the ROMANIAN as an address.
- the value of the data read at this address will contain one 1 for each effector to be rocked ONE (1) or OFF (0): relay, engines, electromagnetic sluice gates, signals, etc
- When the action of the effector causes to change one of the signals, the entry signal will point towards an address different which will be able for example to cause the stop of this effector, or starting from another, etc
Details in Boolean algebra
Analogical entriesOne can, if they comprise few bits, treat them by a analog-to-digital converter . In practice, it is rare that one needs the bits of weak weight, and the only thing which will be taken into account in entry is the setting with 1 or not of one (or several, by safety) bit (S) of strong weight.
UseThese electronic automats are of interests:
- the elements which compose them are particularly robust (absence of revolving mechanics for the cooling and the data storage, reinforced materials) enabling them to function in particularly hostile environments (surrounding dust, electromagnetic disturbances, vibrations of the supports, temperature variations,…)
- They have electronic circuits optimized to interface itself with the entries and the physical exits of the system, the transmissions and receptions of signals are done very quickly with the environment. With moreover one cyclic sequential execution without modification of memory, they make it possible to ensure a maximum execution time, respecting a temporal and logical determinism, guaranteeing one effective real-time (the system reacts inevitably within the allowed time).
N the other hand, they are much more expensive than the traditional solutions of office automation but at present remain the only platforms of execution considered as reliable in industrial environment. Moreover they require the control of languages specific in conformity with the standard CEI 61131-3 which include in their form the internal logic of execution of the automat. The price is often depend on the memory which one wants to lay out to carry out a program. One in general manufactures the contents of the ROMANIANS with specialized programs as soon as this number of states exceeds ten. A ROMANIAN of 2^N words of NR bits can manage 2^N states corresponding to p entered and Q left, with p+q=N. So some of these states cannot be met in practice, one can simplify the system of as much with a little circuitery at a cheap rate (mechanism of Chip select ).
They are appropriate perfectly for security systems railway, machineries of elevator, orders of line productions or any other requiring type of activity of the reflex rather than of the reflection.
For the management of fires of circulation of a crossroads, in fact particular and completely different automats are used and dedicated to this task. It is about controllers of crossroads, which must respect security standards particular to the field.
Various marks and models
- Allen Bradley - Rockwell Automation: Models ControlLogix, CompactLogix, FlexLogix, GuardPLC, Micrologix, PLC5, SLC500
- ABB: Models AC500 and AC31
- Advantech: Models ADAM-5000, ADAM-8000
- Beck IPC GMBH
- Beckhoff: Range BC and BX, PLC virtual (real time) on industrial PC.
- ClassicLadder : Software automat for education available as a free software.
- Crouzet (mark): Model Millenium II+ and Millenium III (programming by let us icons)
- CoDeSys: programming tool IEC 61131
- Elau (mark of Schneider Electric): PacDrive max-4
- Endress+Hauser: Software: ControlCare Designer Application, FieldCare… Models: SFC162, SFC174…
- GE Fanuc: Models 90-70, 90-30, VersaMax
- Hima: Models A1, H41, H51
- Honeywell FSC
- ISaGRAF: Software IEC 61131 and IEC 61499
- Johnson Controls
- Matsushita: Models FP-Series FP0/FP-Sigma/FP-M/FP1/FP2/FP10SH
- Mayr System
- Mitsubishi automation: Models MELSEC F1, F2, FX1N, FX2N, AxN, AxS, QnA, QnAS, System Q
- Moeller: Models PS4, PS416, X-System
- Omron: Models CPM1A, CPM2A, CPM2C, CQM1, CJ1
- Panasonic: Models FP series
- Phoenix Contact: Models RFC450/430 ETH, ILC 350 ETH, ILC 200-Series, S-MAX
- Pro-Face: Model tactile automats: AGP 3000 FN; LT 3000
- Samson: Models TROVIS 5171
- Siemens: Models SIMATIC S5 & S7
- SAIA-Burgess: Models PCDx
- Straton (mark)
- Telemechanic Modicon (marks of Schneider Electric): Models Twido, M340, Micro TSX, Premium, Quantum, Atrium, Momentum, Preventa XPS.
- Vipa Automats: 100V, 200V, 300S, 500S - Bill-posters: TOUCH PANEL, OP03, TD03
- Multiprog: Software
- WAGO: Automats series 750
- Control engineer
- Automatism (body)
- widespread networks of ground
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