The Indonesia or République of Indonesia ( Republik Indonesia ) was born in 1945 with independence from the the Eastern Indies Dutchwomen. It is largest State archipelago and the fourth State more populated in the world. It is located between the peninsula of Southeast Asia and the Australia, at the point of meeting between the oceans Indien and Pacifique. Indonesia is very diverse ethniquement and culturally.
The official language is the Indonésien ( bahasa Indonesia ), a variety of Malayan that only a small minority of the population speaks like first language. Many regional languages are used, like the Javanese (spoken by approximately 80 million people), the sundanais (35 million) and the madurais (nearly 17 million).
The archipelago indonésien is with the Amazonia and the Bassin of Congo one of the three richest zones of the world for the Biodiversité, but this inheritance regresses quickly because of the impacts of human activities into strong increase, with for consequence a degradation of the water resources, air, and grounds, flora and fauna (halieutic in particular) and an alarming retreat of the Forêt S.
See also: History of Indonesia
The August 17th 1945, Soekarno and Hatta, declare the independence of Indonesia, hitherto called the the Indies Dutchwomen. After 4 years of armed conflict and diplomatic that Indonésiens call " Revolusi ", the Netherlands recognize the independence of Indonesia the December 27th 1949, except for the Western New Guinea, which the statute must be discussed later on.
PrehistoryThe elements known to date show that the ancestors of current the Papous of New Guinea arrive at the neighborhoods of the last glaciation, approximately 21.000 years ago, at one time when the island was connected to the Australian continent, forming the continental mass called " Sahul ".
There are 5.000 to 6.000 years, the sea level went up to reach the current location, cutting these populations of the continent of Asia and preventing other migrations for a certain time.
One found in various places of Indonesia of the objects of bronze related to the culture Dong His of the Vietnam (Xe-Ier centuries before J. - C.).
Traditional periodThe Indian epopee of the Ramayana, written between IIIe century before J. - C. and IIIe century after J. - C., speaks about Suvarnadvipa , " the island of gold (undoubtedly Sumatra) and Yavadvipa , " the island of the millet" (i.e. Java). With the Ier century after J. - C., the west of the archipelago indonésien belongs to a network centered on the kingdom of the Insane-nan in the south of current the Vietnam, of harbor city-States which trades with India and China. A interpetation of the Natural history of Pline Old the (23-79 after J. - C.) suggests that boats with beams " indonésiens" came to trade on the east coast of Africa. Ptolémée (towards 90-168 after J. - C.) mentions in the geography the names of “Iabadiou”, i.e. Java, and “Malaiou”, i.e. Malayu in the east of Sumatra.
Excavations carried out in the mouth of the Musi river, downstream from Palembang in the south of Sumatra, in years 2000 revealed the existence of two harbor sites which would date from the Ier century after J. - C. the objects that one found there testify to commercial relations with China and India.
Inscriptions in writing Pallava, found with Kutai (Kalimantan Is) and Java Western and the period 400-450 after J. - C. show the existence of organized States having adopted Indian cultural models. Of VIIIe in XIIIe centuries, the city-State of Sriwijaya in the south of Sumatra is the dominant power of the archipelago. Thanks to its agriculture thrives, Java is the attic with rice. Of XIVe in XVe centuries, it is with the turn of Java to be the principal power of the archipelago, with the kingdom of Majapahit in the east of the island. Towards 1400, a prince of Palembang (new name of Sriwijaya) founds Malacca, which quickly becomes the largest port of the Southeast Asia. The power of Malacca, whose kings convert with Islam, involves the diffusion of this religion through the archipelago.
European expansionThe catch by the Portuguese in 1511 of Malacca will upset the economy of the archipelago. The Portuguese settle then with the Moluques, where they fail to impose their monopoly on the production and the trade of the spice S. They are évincés by the Dutchmen of the VOC who, in 1619, take the port of Jayakarta in the west of the island of Java, that they rename Batavia.
In 1641, the Dutchmen take Malacca with the Portuguese, who thus lose their principal base in the area. During XVIIe and XVIIIe centuries, the Dutchmen subject the Royaume of Gowa in the south of Célèbes, while wars of succession devastate the Javanese kingdom of Mataram, which ends up accepting in its turn Dutch suzerainty.
In 1799, the VOC is declared in bankruptcy. Its credits are taken again by the government of the Netherlands. From 1808 to 1811 Hermann Wilhelm Daendels, named governor-general of the the Indies Dutchwomen by Louis Bonaparte, king de Hollande, reforms the colonial administration. Thomas Stamford Raffles is lieutenant-governor of Java of 1811 to 1814. By the Treated of London of 1824 between the English and the Dutchmen, the control of the territories asserted in the south of Singapore returns to the Dutchmen. The Malayan Monde is found divided into two.
The War of Java devastation in its turn the island of 1825 to 1830. Restored peace, the Dutchmen can begin the economic exploitation of Java and to subject the others States Indigène S. In 1908, the end of the conquest of Bali and the war of Aceh completes the formation of the the Indies Dutchwomen.
It is considered that creation, this same year, of the Boedi Oetomo by Javanese noble young people marks the beginning of the national movement indonésien. A " Oath of Jeunesse" in 1928 is pronounced, expressing the wish to create a fatherland indonésienne. The unloading in 1942 of the Japanese in the the Indies Dutchwomen into full Second world war is accommodated by the majority of the nationalist movement with the hope to obtain independence.
IndependenceAugust 17th 1945, two days after the capitulation of Japan which still occupies the Indies Dutchwomen, Soekarno and Hatta proclaim independence. Soekarno is named president of the young republic. 4 years of military and diplomatic confrontation with the Netherlands follow, which try to recover their old colony. Finally on December 27th 1949, sovereignty on the territory of the Indies Dutchwomen is formally transferred from the Kingdom of the Netherlands to a République of the United States of Indonesia. August 17th, 1950, the government indonésien proclaims the return to the " unit State of the Republic of Indonésie" ( Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia ), which replaces the Republic of the United States of Indonesia.
Years 1950 are remembered many separatist rebellions (" Darul Islam " for the creation of an Islamic State in Indonesia, " Republic of Moluques of the South " , movements of Permesta in the northern of Célèbes and of the PRRI with Western Sumatra). In 1955 are held the first parliamentary elections. In 1957, Soekarno dissolves the constituent assembly resulting from the elections of 1955 and establishes the " democracy dirigée".
In 1955 the Conférence is held of Bandung. Indonesia is one of the most enthusiastic defenders of the principle of Non-alignement and independence of the Tiers-Monde. However, the country approaches the socialist camp.
In the years 1960, the tensions go up in the population, and more still in the army between conservatives and pro-Communists. At the time of the " movement of September 30th, 1965 " , six generals shown by officers of left to foment a coup d'etat against Soekarno are killed. The general Soeharto organizes repression and orders the dissolution of the Communist party indonésien (PKI), that the army shows to have organized the blow. One estimates that between 500.000 and 1 million the number of victims of the massacres which follow. In March 1966, Soeharto forces Soekarno to transfer the capacity to him.
During the thirty following years, Soeharto exerts an authoritative power. Indonesia opens with the overseas investment, which remains in fact limited to the oil sector. The country knows a relative political stability and starts an economic development, initially thanks to the incomes of the Pétrole then, with the fall of the oil price in 1986, thanks to a policy of liberalization which causes a rise of the overseas investment.
In April 1997, the fall of the purse of Bangkok in Thailand starts the Asian financial crisis. Indonesia enters an economic serious attack which causes protest movements in all the country and lead to the riots of Jakarta of May 1998 and to the resignation of Soeharto. Its vice-president, B.J. Habibie, becomes president.
In 1999 are held the first democratic elections since 1955. Abdurrahman Wahid, called " Gus Dur" , president is named. He is relieved in 2001. Its vice-president, Megawati Soekarnoputri, becomes president. In 2004, thanks to an amendment of the constitution, is held the first presidential election by the direct suffrage. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is elected president.
See also: Geography of Indonesia
17 000 islands of Indonesia (of which 6 000 inhabited) are distributed around the equator giving to this country a tropical climate. There exist two seasons: the dry one (which is wet despite everything) from May to October and the rainy one from November to April. If the temperature oscillates between 25 and 35°C with the sea level, it loses in altitude 2°C the every three hundred and thirty meters, and one thus finds mountains covered with eternal snow in Indonesia.
The largest islands are Java where lives close to 60 % of the population, Sumatra, Borneo (which is divided with the Federation of Malaysia), the Western New Guinea ( Papua , called before Irian Jaya , which corresponds to the western half of the island of New Guinea) and Célèbes.
Indonesia is located in a tectonic zone of friction , on the Ceinture of fire of the Pacific. Close to the island of Sulawesi connect 3 plates (the Pacific, Philippines, Indo-Australia) and the block of Sunda (which is driven independently of Eurasia). That explains why this volcanic zone is most active of the world with approximately a hundred and thirty Volcan S in activity, including one certain number in the archipelago (for example celebrates it and disappeared Krakatoa). The earthquakes are thus frequent and often followed Tsunami S. the tsunami of December 26th, 2004 made, according to the provisional appraisal of the January 19th 2005, at least 220 000 dead.
The island of Roast, located in the province of Nusa Tenggara Is and to 170 km of the territory Australia N of the islands Ashmore and Cartier, is the southernmost ground of Indonesia (this situation involves in particular conflicts between the traditional practice of fishing and the international law).
Indonesia is made up of more than 17.000 islands, including approximately 6.000 inhabited. They are of very diverse size and nature. Very wide space and with the very varied populations, Indonesia is a unit State which, in 1999, granted a certain autonomy to the kabupaten (departments), which are in addition subdivisions of the provinces. These last are today (2007) 33,7 having been created since 2000, generally on the basis of cultural and historical identity.
Java: center political and demographicJava, a mountainous and volcanic island, is not the largest island but occupies a central place in the archipelago. The density, with nearly 1000 hab. /km ², is much higher there than on the other large islands. Java is thus, and by far, the most populated island: 120 half, inhabitant million more of the population of the country. One finds there the majority of the big cities of which Jakarta, the capital.
SumatraSumatra is entirely the largest island indonésienne, it touve in the west of the archipelago. It occupies 470.000 km ², and counts nearly 50 million inhabitants. Sumatra is a former producer of Pétrole. In particular, the American company Caltex produced in the province of Riau half of the crude indonésien. Aceh in the north of the island was the largest producer of Natural gas in the years 1980 and 1990 but its reserves are in process of exhaustion.
KalimantanThe island of Borneo is in indonésienne majority under the name of Kalimantan. Its northern part is made up of the states of Sarawak and Sabah, which belongs to the Malaysia, and of the sultanate of Brunei. Kalimantan Is is an important producer of Pétrole and the first producing area of Natural gas of Indonesia. Kalimantan is also the principal producer of coal, wood and Palm oil of the country.
Small islands of the ProbeSmall the Islands of the Probe, in the east of Java, is made of multitudes of small or average islands. They count approximately 12 million inhabitants. Among them are in particular Bali, only true the tourist center indonésien, and Timor, of which the oriental party, old Portuguese colony and not Dutchwoman, acquired her independence in 2002, after a referendum in 1999 which was violence follow-up.
SulawesiSulawesi or Célèbes is a large island of 18 million inhabitants.
MoluquesThe Moluques are a populated archipelago of hardly 2 million inhabitants. Between 1999 and 2003, took place there of serious violences between Christians and Moslems.
New GuineaThe Western half of the New Guinea, in the east, is indonésienne since 1969. The other part forms the State independent of New Guinea-News-Guinea. These territories densément are little densément populated. There exist various local ethnos groups, but one also finds there migrants come from Java and Madura within the framework of a policy known as of " transmigration" initiated in 1905 by the government colonial of what was then the the Indies Dutchwomen to relieve the over-populated islands of the archipelago.
DemographyThe sources do not agree on the population of Indonesia.
the CIA World Factbook gave an estimate of 245 million inhabitants for July 2006, but now gives 234 million for its estimate in July 2007. According to this source, the population indonésienne would thus have decreased by 4,4% in one year.
- the census of the government indonésien of 2000 indicates a population indonésienne 206 265 000. One observes a deceleration of the growth of the population, whose average annual rate is of 2,4 % over the period 1971-1980, of 2 % for 1980-90, 1,7 % for 1990-1995 and 1,15 % for 1995-2000. If one takes figure for 2000 and that one applies like annual growth, rate observed for period 1995-2000 (what amounts supposing that the growth does not slow down any more but is stabilized, rather pessimistic assumption), one obtains for 2007 the figure of 223.453.000 inhabitants, definitely lower than the estimate of the CIA World Factbook .
- the graph below was established starting from the figures of FAO (United Nations for the food and agriculture arranges).
Almost the totality of Indonésiens speak about the Langues austronésiennes. The genetics Linguistique, which aims at reconstituting filiation through the time of a whole of languages connected between them, tends to locate at Taiwan the cradle of these languages. A study on the variation of the Y chromosome led to the university of Stanford in California by a group of biologists of the United States, from Italy, from the United Kingdom and Taiwan concludes with a paternal heritage in the majority from the inhabitants from Indonesia and Oceania coming from populations established in the area since the Pléistocène (i.e. there is more than 10.000 years Before the present, therefore before with the migrations austronésiennes). This study in addition shows a genetic contribution at Indonésiens coming from the north (Philippines and Taiwan) associated with populations of farmers, therefore dating from the Neolithic .
See also: Settlement of the insular Southeast Asia
Heritage of the history, of many citizens indonésiens belong to groups Allochtone S. the colonial administration divided the population of the the Indies Dutchwomen in three groups: Europeans, inlanders (“Indigenous S”) and vreemde oosterlingen (“Eastern foreigners”). This last group comprised in particular the Arab , the Indiens and especially the Chinese. The existence of Moslem Chinese communities in the Javanese ports is attested since 1400. July 11th, 2006, DPR (National Assembly) adopted a new law which, inter alia, removes the residual elements of discrimination towards of Indonésiens of Chinese origin, which from now on are described as pribumi (" Indigenous s").
See also: Political of Indonesia
Legislative powerSince an amendment of 2002 with the constitution indonésienne, the legislative power is held by the Parlement indonésien, the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (" deliberative Parliament of the people ") or MPR, consisted of:
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (" Representative council of the people ") or DPR, which is the Lower House and whose 550 members are elected by the direct suffrage for 5 years in a system overall proportional and
- Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (" Representative council of the areas ") or DPD, kind of Upper House whose members are elected by the direct suffrage for 5 years at a rate of 4 per province or special territory. The full number of members of the DPD (currently 128) cannot exceed the 1/3 of that of the DPR.
There exist also regional assemblies ( Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah ) whose members are also elected by the direct suffrage for 5 years in a system proportional, on the level:
Executive powerThe executive power is held by the president of the Republic, elected official by the universal direct suffrage for 5 years.
The current president is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono known as " SBY" democratic party, it beat with the second round in 2004 the outgoing president Megawati Soekarnoputri. The vice president is Muhammad Jusuf Kalla Golkar.
The governors of province, until in 2005 elected officials by the provincial Parliaments, are gradually re-elected by the direct suffrage. It is already the case for the provinces of Papua and Aceh.
The bupati (prefects) are elected by the departmental assemblies and the walikota (mayors) by the municipal assemblies.
Judicial powerMore the legal high ranking authority is the Supreme court or Mahkamah Agung .
International relationsIndonesia is member founder of ASEAN (Association off Southeast Asian Nations). It is also a participating credit of APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation).
Organizing to the Conference of Bandung in 1955, Indonesia always endeavoured to seem a non-aligned country. However, she cooperates with the United States in the " war against the terrorisme" what carries out those.
Defense and safety
See also: Army indonésienne, Police force indonésienne
The armed forces indonésiennes ( Tentara Nasional Indonesia or TNI) have a total staff complement of a little more than 360.000 men. They include/understand:
the Army ( TNI Angkatan Darat ),
- the marine ( TNI Angkatan Laut ),
- the air force ( TNI Angkatan Udara ).
" Total Power" Fire; classify the armed forces indonésiennes 13th in term of power (5th in Asia, behind China, India, Japan and South Korea).
The Police indonésienne ( Kepolisian Republik Indonesia ) depends directly on the president of the Republic. Until 1999, it belonged to the armed forces. Its manpower are of 150.000 men, including a body of 12.000 men, the Brigade Mobil or " Brimob" , organized like a military unit.
See also: Subdivisions of Indonesia
Indonesia is divided into a succession of 4 levels of territorial units of government which are, while going from largest to the smallest unit:
- 1st level: the provinsi (province),
- 2nd level: the Kabupaten (department) and the Kota (city),
- 3rd level: the kecamatan (district),
- 4th level, according to the area or the province: the kelurahan (common), the Desa (village), the gampong (village in Aceh), the nagari (village in country Minangkabau in Western Sumatra), the kampung (village in Papua).
- Aceh (1)
- Bangka-Belitung (2)
- Banten (2)
- Gorontalo (2)
- Jakarta (3)
- Java Centers
- Java Is
- Western Java
- central Kalimantan
- Kalimantan of the South
- Western Kalimantan
- Eastern Kalimantan
- Moluques of North (2)
- Nusa Tenggara Western
- Nusa Tenggara Eastern
- Papua (4)
- Western Papua (2)
- Islands Riau (2)
- central Sulawesi
- Sulawesi of South-east
- Sulawesi of the South
- Western Sulawesi (2)
- Sulawesi of North
- Sumatra of North
- Western Sumatra
- Sumatra of the South
- Yogyakarta (5)
(1) special Statute. - (2) Province created since 2000. - (3) the Daerah Khusus Ibukota (DKI) is the special territory of the capital. - (4) special Statute. - (5) the Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) is the territory of the old kingdom of the same name, which owes its special statute with the part played by its sultan, Hamengku Buwono IX, at the time of the conflict which opposed of 1945 to 1949 the Republic of Indonesia to the old power coloniale.
See also: Economy of Indonesia
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of Indonesia east of 264 billion $ per 2006. In Purchasing power parity, the GDP is of 935 billion $, that is to say 3.800 $ per capita, which places Indonesia among the countries at income " inférieur" means;. The composition of the GDP by sector is:
- Agriculture: 13,1%
- Industry: 46%
- Services: 41%.
Principal exports of Indonesia are the Pétrole and the Natural gas liquefied, the electricals appliance, wood and the Contreplaqué, the textiles, the rubber. Its principal imports are the machines and industrial plants, the chemicals, the fuels, the food products.
The Asian financial crisis of 1997 had involved an economic serious attack in Indonesia, which resulted in a fall of more than 13% of GDP in 1998. The country took longer than the others to join again with the growth. In 2006, the GDP posted a growth of 5,4%.
See also: Tourism in Indonesia
Tourism is one of the most important economic activities for Indonesia. It is one of the first rapporteurs of currencies of the country.
The tourist attraction of Indonesia can be declined in two aspects:
nature: Larger archipelago of the world, Indonesia has some 18.000 islands, of innumerable beaches, of many coral reefs, large a marine Biodiversité of the world. With horse on the equator, the archipelago enjoys a hot and wet climate throughout the year. Most of its territory is still covered of tropical forests, they also seat of a large biodiversity. Located on the Belt of fire of the Pacific, Indonesia has many volcanos.
culture: Nation of a great ethnic diversity, Indonesia still has many alive cultural traditions, with their architecture, their dances, their music, their craft industry. Cultural crossroads, Indonesia has a history which left many religious monuments, in particular Buddhist and hindouists.
Tourism indonésien suffered much from the crisis of 1997, the many conflicts which touched and touch still the archipelago, and from the many catastrophes, human and natural, which struck it. In 2004 however, the number of visitors reached historical records of 5,3 million, exceeding the level of before the crisis, to drop slightly in 2005.
CultureDifferent the ethnicities from Indonesia has each one a rich person tradition.
The mode of Soeharto endeavoured to build “regional cultures” ( kebudayaan daerah ) on the basis of province. This action created artifices like the “culture of Western Java”, the “culture of Kalimantan Is”, the “Northern culture of Célèbes” etc, without taking account of a more complex cultural reality. The same province can shelter various traditional cultures, like Western Java, where one can at least distinguish, if one limits oneself to the linguistic criterion, a culture Banten, a culture Betawi (Jakartanais “autochtones”), a culture Sunda, a culture Cirebon. Conversely, the same culture can cover more than one province, like the culture Malaise, which one finds in the provinces of Northern Sumatra, Riau and Jambi with Sumatra, and Western and Southern Kalimantan with Borneo.
Since the resignation of Soeharto in 1998 and especially the intellectual and cultural opening initiated by the president Abdurrahman Wahid, various areas of Indonesia try to promote their traditional culture, while not taking more as reference the administrative framework but quite simply the name of the “ethnos group”, like the institute of the culture Minahasa, principal ethnos group of the Northern province of Sulawesi. This policy finds a framework favorable with the law on the autonomy of the areas promulgated in 1999.
Also forming part of the Indonésienne culture: the art of the jungle, the pentjak silat which is an martial art very effective but malheuresement little known.
The first of the Pancasila (“five principles”) which constitute the ideology of the State indonésien is the belief in single God. The constitution does not refer to any religion in particular. Article 29 of this constitution guarantees freedom of worship and does not grant precedence to any religion.
A law promulgated in 1969 by the mode Soeharto stipulates that the five religions (in indonésien agama , word meaning Sanscrit “gone down” or “inherited last”) of which claim most of Indonésiens are the Islam, the Protestantisme ( agama Kristen in indonésien), the Catholicisme, the Hindouisme, the Bouddhisme and the Confucianisme. In 1974, the Minister of Interior Department had emitted a decree not leaving the choice to Indonésiens, to fill their form with request for indentity card, which enters five religions: the Islam, the Protestantism, the Catholicism, the Hindouisme or the Buddhism.
Considering that it was contrary in article 29 of the constitution, the president Abdurrahman Wahid (known as “Gus Dur”) cancelled this decree in 2000.
The official figures of 1998 indicate that 88% of Indonésiens are Moslem, 5% Protestants, 3% catholics, 2% hindouists, 1% Buddhists, the 1% being made up d'" autres" religions, which includes the Judaism and orthodoxe Christianity. At the sides of these " grandes" religions officially recognized by the mode Soeharto of many beliefs and former practices are always alive and belong to the life of the majority of Indonésiens, whatever their official religion.
Although it is not strictly speaking a religion, the Confucianisme has from now on established among. The Chinese New year, Imlek , is now official bank holiday in Indonesia.
See also: Indonésien, Malayan (language)
The national language ( bahasa kebangsaan ), the Indonésien ( Bahasa Indonesia ), is in fact the Malayan, which grew rich since independence, in the dynamic and creative context of a various nation and still young person, in particular by contributions of the regional languages. The Indonésien is the first language only for one small majority. For most of Indonésiens, the regional language is indeed still the first language.
At the time colonial, the Dutchmen spoke Malayan for asresser with the natives. Language of sailors and tradesmen, the Malayan one had become, with rise at the 15th century of the sultanate of Malacca on the Malayan Péninsule, the language of exchange in the ports of the archipelago. The island Vietnamese of Poulo Condor for example ( Idiot Vietnamese Đảo in ), sinisterly celebrates to have sheltered a bagne during the French colonial time, bears a name of Malayan origin, since pulau wants to say “island”.
The Malayan one is also the national language of the Federation of Malaysia, where its official name is “Malaysian” ( bahasa Malaysia ), of the Sultanat of Brunei, and one of the official languages of the République of Singapore.
The majority of Indonésiens still have like first language a regional Langue ( bahasa daerah ). The Malayan one is besides the regional language of the inhabitants of the east coast of Sumatra, the Archipel of Riau and the west coasts and south of the island of Borneo.
In Papua, the linguists identify some 250 languages, which are not always related between them and which for want of anything better, one gathers under the term of “Langues papoues”. This diversity is explained by the insulation in which the various communities live. These populations arrived 60.000 years ago, therefore well before the Austronésiens.
The most known music is that of the Gamelan, a whole of metal percussion instruments. It belongs to the traditions Balinese, Javanese and sundanaise.
LiteratureMany people of Indonesia have a relatively old literature.
The Balineses and the Javaneses have a common tradition at least until XVIe century. Until XVe century, this literature is written in a language that one calls old man Javanese. The most important text of this period is the Nagarakertagama , a poem writes in 1365 which makes the praise of the king Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit. In XVIe century, this literature is written in a language that means-Javanese is called. The principal text of the time is the Pararaton , a Chronique which decline the genealogy of the kings of Singasari and Majapahit.
Conversion with Islam, at the end of the XVIIIe century, last Hindu prince of Blambangan under the pressure of the Dutchmen, separates Bali de Java. At that time, the Javanese language has already its modern form. The few 70 years of relative peace which separates the end from the Javanese wars of succession of the Guerre of Java (1825-30) will see to hatch in the courses royal and princely a delicate and refined art. The literary monument of this time is the Serat Centhini , poem epic, mystical and ribald of 200.000 worms writes in 1814 at the request of a prince of Surakarta.
The Balinese literature, it, goes on from now on its own way.
In the west of Java, the Sunda be born have a literature in their own language.
See also: Kitchen indonésienne
CodesIndonesia has as codes:
- WA, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
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