The indonésien ( bahasa Indonesia , literally “language of Indonesia”) is the official language of the Republic of Indonesia. It is also one of the languages of use in the Republic of the Eastern Timor.
The indonésien is, at the origin, of the Malayan ( bahasa Melayu ). For a majority of Indonésiens, it is not their native tongue. They learn it at the school only towards age the five years. The Malayan one is however the regional language ( bahasa daerah ) of the east coast of the island of Sumatra, more precisely of the Eastern coastal strip of the Northern province of Sumatra and of the provinces of Riau, Riau Kepulauan (archipelago of Riau), Jambi and Southern Sumatra, and of the coastal strip of the provinces of Western Kalimantan, Southern Kalimantan and Kalimantan Is in the island of Borneo.
In 1908, the colonial government creates an organism in charge to publish, in the Latin alphabet, of the works in the regional languages, the majority into Malayan, since centuries the Lingua franca which made it possible to communicate in an archipelago where tens of languages different are spoken. In 1928, associations of students and young people of the the Indies Dutchwomen assemble themselves in congress and pronounce the “Oath of the youth” ( Sumpah Pemuda ) by which they state to adopt three ideals: a nation, the nation indonésienne ( Bangsa Indonesia ); a language, the indonésien ( Bahasa Indonesia ); a fatherland, Indonesia ( Tanah Air Indonesia ). The indonésien was born.
WritingThe indonésien is written with the Latin alphabet. The letters decide as in French, except for:
- C which decides between “tch” and “Ti”: coklat = Chocolate, decides between “tchoklatt” and “tyoklatt”
- J which decides between “dj” and “di”: jalan = to go, go, decides between “djalann” and “dyalann”
- U which decides “or”: rumah = house, decides “roumahh”.
The nationalist movement indonésien had adopted the Latin alphabet in 1928 with the C-W communication Dutchwoman known as Van Ophuijsen (for example tj for the sound “tch” and dj for the sound “dj”). This C-W communication was slightly modified by the spelling reform of 1947 known as Soewandi, of the name of the Minister for the Education of the government of the First socialist minister Sjahrir (the oe becoming U : Soerabaja > Surabaja ).
The reform of 1972 brought to a C-W communication common to the indonésien and the Malayan of Malaysia, the dj indonésien becoming J ( Djakarta > Jakarta ) and the J , there ( djaja > jaya = victory, Surabaja > Surabaya ), as into Malayan of Malaysia, and the tj indonésien and the Malaysian CH becoming C ( tjahaja and chahaya > cahaya = light).
The majority of the Proper names people (anthroponymes) did not take into account these successive changes of C-W communication.
HistoryThe oldest document known in old Malayan is an inscription in writing Pallava gone back to 683 and found on the island of Bangka.
See also: Malayan (language)
In 1908, the colonial government founds the Commissie voor of Volkslectuur (“commission on the popular literature”), charged to as well publish traditional, popular and modern works local in regional languages and Malayan, that the foreign works translated into Malayan, printed in Latin characters. This organization takes soon the name of Balai Pustaka (“the house of the book”). In the year 1930 appears a new literature, written into Malayan, that the indigenous intellectuals call from now on “indonésien”. The literary review Poedjangga Baroe (“the new poet”) is founded in 1933.
The Japanese occupation of the Indies Dutchwomen (1942-1945) will allow the rise of the language indonésienne. The Japanese hear éradiquer any influence Western and prohibit the works in Dutch and English. To diffuse their propaganda, they use the indonésien, of which the use is spread through the archipelago. The proclamation of independence in 1945 is read in indonésien.
The literature indonésienne gains in vitality after independence. During the years of conflict between the young republic and the former Dutch colonizer, Chairil Anwar (1922-1949), ombrageux character and rebel, are the figurehead of the poetic movement Angkatan 45, the “generation of 45”. Then, the indonésien develops with the rate/rhythm of the transformations of the country.
By choosing the Malayan like national language, the nationalists indonésiens joined again with the time when it was the language of exchange of the archipelago, but with this time will to build a nation indonésienne.
ClassificationThe indonésien belongs to the group known as " malaïque " Austronesian branch (some say “Nusantarien”, of the name indonésien Nusantara which indicates the archipelago indonésien) Langues austronésiennes, family whose surface extends from Madagascar in the west with the Easter Island in the east, and of Taiwan and Hawaii in north with the New Zealand in the south.
The other connects this linguistic family is that of the Langues formosanes of Taiwan.
Differences between indonésien and Malayan of Malaysia
See also: Malayan (Malaysian)
The differences between the two Langue S are actually of a dialectal nature , like those between French of Europe and that of Quebec. Mutual comprehension is done without too many difficulties, but with orthographical and lexical divergences. Moreover the accent the area of origin of the speakers indicates easily. One can say that the indonésien and the Malayan one of Malaysia are " languages ausbau" one compared to the other, i.e. they exist as such by a political will and culturelle.
The indonésien differs from Malayan from Malaysia initially for historical reasons. Colonizations English on the Malayan and Dutch peninsula on the archipelago indonésien had an major impact on the Malayan language. Also the two forms the Malayan one were influenced by the respective colonial contexts.
A factor much more determining today is the context indonésien. The Javanese, with more than 80 million speakers, but also other regional languages of Indonesia as the sundanais of Western Java, which has nearly 35 million speakers, enrich the indonésien enormously, in particular its vocabulary.
The choice by the nationalists indonésiens of Malayan as language of future independent Indonesia was logical. Until about 1900, when they start to open schools for natives with a modern Dutch teaching, the Dutchmen refused to speak their language with the natives. They used the Malayan one, language of exchange in the archipelago indonésien at least since at least XVe century, period of size of the sultanate of Malacca on the Malayan Péninsule. The oldest document writes into Malayan that one found is a written letter in 1521 in the sultanate of Ternate to the Moluques, in the east of Indonesia.
Malacca would have been little founded before 1400 by prince de Sriwijaya, which one higher quoted the inscriptions of VIIe century into old man-Malayan. One can suppose that the Malayan one was already used in the ports of the area at the time of Sriwijaya (either before XVe century). Inscriptions into old man-Malayan were thus found in the center of Java, whose dates go from 792 in IXe century.
ConsonantsThe system of the consonants of the indonésien is summarized in the table below: The /s/ dental consonant decides as in the word packs and is never voiced in /z/: nasi = rice decides " nassi".
The /r/ dental consonant decides rolled (end of the language on the palate).
The /c/ palatal decides some share between " tch" and " ti". In the same way, /j/ decides some share between " dj" and " di".
Velar /ng/ is a difficult phoneme for the French-speaking people. He decides like the " ng" in German singen (" chanter").
The aspired glottale /h/ is always pronounced, at the beginning as at the end of a mot. Darah , " sang" , decides with a /h/ final marked, which distinguishes it from will dara , " young person fille".
The final consonants, instead of being slackened as in French, are marked by keeping the articulations in place. For example, minum (" boire") decides by keeping the lips closed on /m/ finale. /k/ final thus decides by keeping the glottis blocked in closed position, which makes it inaudible for a French ear.
The following fricative consonants are foreign loans:
- Deaf: labiodental /f/, palatal /sy/, velar /kh/.
- Voiced: labiodental /v/ and /z/ dental consonant.
VowelsThe vowels of the indonésien are:
- /a/ pronounced as in French,
- /e/ dumb man,
- /é/also writes " e" and in general marked like a " è" , sometimes like a " é" marked French,
- /u/ " ou".
DiphthongsThe diphthongs are:
- /ai/, marked in theory " aille" , but more often " eille" under the Javanese influence and jakartanaise.
- /au/, marked in theory " aou" , but more often " ow" for the same reason.
- /oi/, marked " auille" , but rare.
The diphthongs must be distinguished from the juxtaposition of vowels belonging to different syllables, for example:
- Menyukai , marked " me-nyuka-i" because formed on suka , " aimer" , with the circumfixe me - I ,
- Daun , " feuille" , marked " da-un" , by remembering that the lexical bases have in theory two syllables (see the section " Lexique" below).
It is thus necessary to distinguish the /ai/ diphthong in gulai (flat of sauce meat) from the successions of vowels " ai" in gulai (" sucrer"), which decides " gula-i" and is formed on gula (" sucre").
See also: Grammar of the Malayan-indonésien
BaseA base is a Mot to which one can apply Affixe S to form new words. Into Malayan-indonésien, the base generally dissyllabic, i.e. consists of two syllables. Here examples:
It seems that the 2nd syllable of the base constitutes the root mot. One indeed notes families Sémantique S of words, for example:
Angkat : " soulever" , tingkat : " étage" , pangkat : " grade" , peringkat : " niveau".
- Kuku : " ongle" , paku : " clou" , kaku : " raide" , beku : " figé" , buku : " node of a branch or a tige".
- Darah : " sang" , merah : " rouge" , marah : " in colère" , parah : " grave".
- Sumur : " puits" , kumur : " to rinse the bouche" , jemur : " to make sécher" , jamur : " champignon"
- Lebar : " large" , sebar : " répandre" , tebar : " étendre" , kibar : " déployer" , bubar : " disperser".
On a basis, one can produce other words by applying a series of affixes, redouble the base or combine affixation and redoubling (see the article Grammaire of the Malayan-indonésien).
Interrogative pronounsInterrogative formed on apa :
- apa ? = what, what?
- siapa ? = which?
- mengapa ? = why?
Interrogative formed on mana :
- yang mana ? = which?
- bagaimana ? = how?
- di mana ? = where (is it)?
- ke mana ? = where (do we go)?
- kapan ? = when?
Relative pronounThe indonésien has only one of them: yang .
A little vocabulary
- yes = ya
- not = tidak (vis-a-vis an adjective or a verb) or bukan (in front of a name)
Traditional complimentary closes:
- When somebody is met:
- Indian millet mana? (" From which do you come? ") : general
- Sudah makan? (" You ate? ") : at the beginning of afternoon
- Sudah mandi? (" You took your bath? ") : at the beginning of evening
- When somebody is left:
- Pergi dulu! (" I from go away! ")
- Husband! (" Allons-y! ")
Complimentary closes copied on Western models:
- forgiveness, excuse me = maaf (my-aaf) or permisi
- hello =
- selamat pagi (literally " hello of the matin") from 5 with 10:00 of the morning
- selamat siang (" hello of the journée") from 10 with 15:00
- selamat sore (" hello of the afternoon ") from 15 with 18:00
- good evening = selamat malam (" hello of the nuit") from 18 with 5:00 of the morning
- good night = selamat tidur (" hello of the dormir")
- welcome = selamat datang (" hello of the venir")
- goodbye = sampai jumpa lagi
- how are you? = Apa kabar ? (litt. " what new? ")
- that goes! = Kabar baik ! (" good news! ")
- thank you = Terima kasih (litt. " (I) receive (your) amour")
Terms of address:
- Mister = Bapak' (= " père")
- Madam = Ibu (for a married woman or of a certain age, = " mère")
- Miss = Nona
- you (of courtesy) = 'anda , or a term of address (Bapak, Ibu etc) or the first name of the person
Some current words:
- to eat = makan
- to drink = minum
- to sleep = tidur
- to go = jalan
- to walk = jalan-jalan : the redoubling gives a vaguer direction to the word
Foreign loansThe indianisation of the archipelago, direct or via the Javanese, makes that the indonésien comprises many words of origin Sanscrit E. Islam brought words of Arab origin and Persan E. Lastly, the old presence of Chinese communities, in particular on the northern coast of Java, introduced many words Chinese, in particular hokkien (China of the South).
Dutch colonization left some Dutch words. It also introduced many roots of origin gréco - Latin, as well as French words borrowed by Dutch. Thus, of many words in “- ism” are found practically without deterioration in indonésien (the adjectival suffix “- ist” becoming - is ), and of the words in “- tion” (" administration" , " nationalization" etc) are found with a suffix - if ( administrasi , nasionalisasi etc).
Since independence, the indonésien borrowed much and continuous to borrow from the English for technical terms or modern life in general.
French loansFew words were borrowed from the indonésien by French. Pisang , term in particular associated with the island of Ambon for the name of a well-known aperitif, means Banane .
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