One defines classically two kinds of Indian philosophies :
- philosophies āstika , (आस्तिक in Devanāgarī) this term Sanskrit means which recognizes the authority of the Veda , the such Hindouisme…
- philosophies nāstika , (नास्तिक) which reject the authority of Veda. These Hétérodoxie S Hindu women, pertaining nevertheless automatically to Indian spirituality, is the Chârvâka, the Âjîvika, the Jaïnisme and the Bouddhisme. For these last, one will refer to the articles which relate to them.
The various schools āstika
NyâyaThe school of Nyâya (in Sanskrit न्याय, nyāya) of philosophical speculation is based on a text called Nyâya Sûtra. It was composed by Gautama Aksapada (not to be confused with Siddhârtha Gautama , the founder of the Bouddhisme), towards the IVe or fifth century BC. The important contribution brought by this school is its methodology. It is based on a system of logic which was adopted later by the majority of the other Indian schools (orthodoxe or not), in the same manner that one can say that the Western science, religion and philosophy are mainly based on logic aristotelician.
But the Nyâya is not simply a logic with its own service. Its sectateurs believed that obtaining a knowledge validates was the only manner of obtaining the release of the suffering. According to the school of the Nyâya , there are exactly four sources of knowledge (pramanas): perception, inference, the comparison and testimony. However, the knowledge obtained by each one of them can naturally always be valid or invalid. In a direction, the Nyâya is probably what approaches more, in the Indian world, of contemporary Western epistemological philosophy. But one never should lose sight of the fact the fact that the wise ones of the Nyâya carried out their work with a specifically religious aim.
The system of Vaiçeshika (in Sanskrit वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika), founded by wise the Kanada, postulates an atomic pluralism. According to the precepts of this school of thought, all the objects of the physical universe, the material substances, are reducible with a certain number of atoms, except the five immaterial substances: time, space, the ether ( âkâsha ) the spirit and the heart. The atoms constitutive of the material substances are the atoms of fire, ground, air and water. Vaiçeshika not considers that a god created the world, ex nihilo , but by organizing the preexistent substances.
Although the system of Vaiçeshika developed independently of the system Nyâya , both amalgamated thereafter because of their theories closely dependant metaphysics.
In its traditional form, however, the school of Vaiçeshika differs from the Nyâya on a crucial point: where Nyâya accepts four valid sources of knowledge, the Vaiçeshika accepts only perception and the inference. The atomism ( anu ) of the Vaiçeshika also differs from the atomic Théorie of modern science, indeed, according to the Vaiçeshika , the operation of the atoms is directed by the supreme will Être. It is thus a theistic form of the atomism.
SâmkhyaThe Sâmkhya (in Sanskrit सांख्य, sāṃkhya) is generally regarded as oldest of the Indian philosophical systems, it would have been founded at seventh century BC by Kapila, or 3 centuries earlier, according to A.Daniélou, which indicates that there is a summary in language tamoule, Manimékhalaï (or rather several summaries, since there exist several versions). It acts, historically, of the first known description of the complete model of the universe, at the same time scientific and transcendent. Its philosophy regards the universe as being composed of three eternal realities: the principle of space ( âkâshä ), the principle of the intelligence ( purusha ) and the principle of nature ( prakriti ).
This model was rather quickly interpété in various restricted versions, in particular by the four major religions of old India, hindouism, Buddhism, jainism and shivaïsme, which preserved only dualistic versions or monists of the complete model, while adding a religious aspect to him.
The continuation of this article refers to limited comprehensions of the Sâmkhya by the posterior Indian texts.
The purusha (hearts) are several, conscious, static and free from all qualities. They are the quiet spectators of the prakriti (matter or nature), which is composed of three gunas (provisions): satva , the principle of regularity, maintenance of the evolution, rajahs , the principle of activity and matity or virtue and tamas , the principle of braking, passion and ignorance. When the balance of the gunas is broken, the order of the world evolves/moves. This disturbance is due to the proximity of the purusha and the prakriti . The release (kaivalya), then, consists of the realization of the difference between the two.
In the Bhagavad Gita , the Sâmkhya becomes a not-dualistic philosophy since she considers prakriti , creation and the creatures, as being the material prolongation of purusha associated has God, this one taking place by the Mâyâ (or the Illusion which the attachment with the gunas generates). Also let us note that prakriti and purusha are two energies of divergent and complementary nature: prakriti, nature is female, purusha, the heart is of male gasoline. This distinction gave place to multiple complex philosophical developments which abound in sciences of yoga. The realization can be done only while being released from prakriti , which leads to darkness of ignorance to merge in purusha .
It is a dualistic philosophy. But there are differences between the Sâmkhya and the Western forms of dualism . In occident, the fundamental distinction is between the body and the spirit. In the Sâmkhya , however, it is between the heart ( purusha ) and the matter, and the latter incorporates what the Westerners name the “spirit”. This means that the heart such as the Sâmkhya includes/understands it is more transcendent than the “spirit”, rather near to what the Westerners also understand by the word “heart”. This makes an explicitly religious philosophy of it.
YogaThe system of the Yoga makes broad theoretical loans with the philosophy of the Sâmkhya , and Patanjali is regarded as the supposed writer of the Yoga Sutras, reference book of the system of yoga. The most significant difference is that the school of yoga includes not only the concept of Ishvara (or personal god ) to its metaphysical vision of the world, which the Sâmkhya does not make, but also confirms Ishvara like one of the models on which to meditate. The goal of the teaching of Yoga is to obtain the release of conditionings generating the suffering. The follower of yoga is called Yogi.
The system of yoga is based on a whole of exercises of which the goal is to gradually increase the control physical and mental of oneself, and this until the release of a conscience higher, only able to distinguish between the purusha and the prakriti . The yogi reaches the release and then takes conscience of his true nature. The yoga which one knows in Occident is a derived form and, often purified its spiritual substance. The Hatha Yoga borrowed from the Tantra to work out its concept of energy body known as pranic, which would function thanks to called immaterial bodies Chakra. These bodies seven, collect and lead the prana (or energy) expressed of each one by the kundalinî (internal energy). They are named: will mûlâdhara (on the level of the anus, its element is the ground), svâdishtana (on the level of the genital apparatus, its element is water), manipûraka (on the level of the stomach, its element is fire), anâhata (on the level of the heart, its element is the wind), vishuddha (on the level of the throat, its element is the vacuum or the ether), âjnâ (between the eyes, its element is the thought) and will sahasrâra (to the top of cranium, it corresponds to the release). When the practice is primarily directed:
- towards the postural practice and the pranayama, one can speak about Hatha Yoga.
- towards the ciculation of the prana through Sushumna nadi, putting moving will cakras them, one can speak about Kundalini Yoga.
Bhakti Yoga, it is the worship and the worship affectionate dévotionnel of a personal god - the bhakti - fact part of the majority of the religious traditions. In the hindouism, also, one finds it there since the beginning. Among the first schools to recommend it, one finds that of Transfered-Shaiva, at the 13th century. Its founder, Basava (1125 - 1167), rejects the system of the Caste S, denies the supremacy of the Brahmans, condemns the ritual sacrifices, accepts the women in his school and insists on the bhakti and the worship of only one god, Shiva. Its pupils are called transfered-shaivas , which wants to say “the excessively pious people of Shiva”.
However, beyond the formal schools and movements, the development of the bhakti as forms important of practice hindouist left an indelible trace on the faith. The philosophical speculation was always the concern of a minority, in India like elsewhere. The practice of the bhakti, however, is immediately accessible to all. If it does not eliminate the worst share from the system of the castes, at least it offers to people a provisional respite.
See also: Amorce=Voir the detailed article, Bhakti yoga
Pûrva-MîmâmsâThe main aim of the school of Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ (in Sanskrit मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) was to establish the authority of Veda. Consequently, the most important contribution of this school of old research to the hindouism was its formulation of the rules of interpretation of Veda. Its follower believed that the revelation was to be proven by the reasoning, and was not to be accepted blindly like a dogma. In agreement with this belief, they stressed the great importance of the dharma, which they included/understood like the result of ritual vedic. The Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ accepts the logical and philosophical lesson other schools, but estimates that those paid an insufficient attention to the action right. It believes that the other schools of thought, which continue the moksha (the delivery, the equivalent of the nirvana of the Buddhists) like drank final, are not completely of desire and selfishness. According to the Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ , research éperdue of the release proceeds of an egoistic desire to be free. Only the action in agreement with the regulations of Veda can make it possible to reach safety (rather than the release). Although the Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ does not cause many erudite studies today, its influence is felt in the life of the Hindu practitioner. All the ritual Hindus, ceremonies and regulations religious are influenced by him.
The school of Uttara Mimamsa ( new research ), generally known under the name of Védanta (in Sanskrit वेदअन्त, vedānta), concentrates on the philosophical lesson of the Upanishad rather than on the ritualistic injunctions of Brahmanas. There is more than one hundred Upanishads which does not form a unified system. Their systematization was undertaken by Badarayana, in a work called Vedânta Sûtra.
The way in which the aphorisms of the texts of Vedânta are written leaves the open large door for a multitude of interpretations. That involved a proliferation of the schools of Vedânta. Each one of these last interpreted with its way the texts and produced its own series of under-comments - while claiming to be only faithful to the original.
The monism Advaita Vedânta
It is probably most known of the schools of Vedânta. Advaita means “not two literally”. Its first large unifier is Shankara (788 - 820). According to the traces of some of the teachers of Upanishad, and in particular those of its own professor Gaudapada, Shankara exposes the doctrines of the Advaita - a non-duelle reality.
By analyzing the three state of consciousnesses - the waking state, the dream and the deep sleep - it shows the relative nature of the world and establishes the supreme truth of the Advaita : the non-duelle reality of the brahman in which atman (the individual heart) and brahman (the final reality expressed in the trimurti ) is only one.
the Supreme Spirit (Oneself Supreme) or Brahman (delivery like " brəh mən") is the totality and the only reality of the world. Other that Brahman, including, God, the universe, the objects material and the individuals are not true. When man tests to know Brahman without-attribute with its spirit (the mind), under influence of Mâyâ (illusory power of Brahman which causes Brahman become like the world material and distinct), Brahman becomes God (God). Brahman is God through Maya. When the Maya is removed, there does not exist finally any difference between Jiva-Atman and Brahman. All is one, here why this school is called not-dualistic.
Its theories are discussed as of the beginning and some of its contemporaries show it to teach the Bouddhisme while pretending to be Hindu. But Advaitisme is certainly the major philosophy and most influential of India.
Vedantins posterior discussed the reality of the brahman to know if it were saguna (with attributes) or nirguna (without attributes). The belief in the concept of the saguna brahman caused a proliferation of dévotionnelles attitudes and helped to spread the worship of Vishnou and Shiva. See also the Advaita vedanta and the Brahman.
The qualified not-dualism of the Vishistâdvaita Védanta
Ramanuja (1040 - 1137) is the first partisan of the concept of saguna brahman . He teaches that final reality has three aspects: Ishvara (Vishnou), cit (heart) and acit (matter). Vishnou is only independent reality, whereas the hearts and the matter depend on God for their existence. Because of this concept of qualification of final reality, the system of Ramanuja is known like not-dualistic.
Dualism Dvaita Vedânta
Like Ramanuja, Madhva (1199 - 1278) identifies God with Vishnou, but its vision of reality is purely duelle and is thus called Dvaita (duel) Vedânta. According to Madhva, there are five types of separation between:
- God and the world,
- God and the individual heart,
- various hearts,
- hearts and matter,
- various parts of the matter.
The various schools nāstika
The chârvâkaChârvâka is the name of an Indian thinker of VIIe or Life century before J.C., but also of its system of thought - also known under the name of Lokâyata, of loka , the world , only thing is the which exists truly . It is about a philosophy materialist, atheistic and hedonist, which refutes the theory of transmigration and does not admit that perception like means of knowledge. This thinker belongs to the generation which, by its questioning of the Brahmanism and its negation of the existence of the gods vedic and the Védisme from which rises the sacrificial rites.
JainismThe Jaïnisme division the many ones and apparent resemblances to the Hindouisme and the Buddhism, but must be about it however differentiated. Contrary to Buddhism but in agreement with the hindouism, the jainism believes in the existence of the heart; on the other hand, the jainism is different from the hindouism in the direction where the heart of released of the cycle of the reincarnations is not melted in the cosmic heart, in the universal heart, but remains in its individuality (in connection with its concept of God: God is in the jainism a man who is released by his only clean effors, i.e. his total asceticism; there is not To be Supreme Cosmic, where hear the Hindus; one can say that the jainism is philosophically atheistic, but not at the metaphysical level). The morals which rises from its metaphysics is thus the Ahimsa , perfect non-violence.
See also: Buddhist Philosophy
In the beginning, the Bouddhisme is not a philosophy but a “lesson of things” (Dhamma in Pali, Dharma in Sanskrit), the teaching of reality, a talk of the facts, suffering, of its origin and its suspension for finally reaching the Nirvāna. It will give birth thereafter to a rich person philosophical tradition and sometimes religious. It is sometimes described like a “science of the spirit” inspired by the lesson of the “Bouddha”, a man whose historical existence is attested, even if the details of its life remain, for much of them, unverifiable.
Comparison with Western PhilosophyWe find, neither at the “primitive ones”, nor in more advanced non-European civilizations, the idea of interchangeable Nothing with the idea of Death. Among Christians as in the nonChristian religions, the Mort is not approved with the idea of Néant. Death is - of course, an end - but an end which is immediately followed by a new beginning. One dies in a mode to be in order to be able to reach another. Death constitutes a rupture of level Ontologique.
It is also interesting to know how was developed Nothing in the Religion S and Métaphysique S of the India; the problem To be it and of the Non-being being regarded as a speciality of the Indian thought.
For the Indian thought, our world as well as our vital and psychological experiment are the more or less direct products of the cosmic illusion, of Mâyâ. The physical world just as our human experiment are consisted becoming to it universal, by the Temporalité; they thus illusory, are created and destroyed that they are by the Temps. But this does not want to say that they do not exist, that they are a human creation. The world is not a Mirage or an illusion in the immediate direction of the term: the physical world exists, but only in Time, which wants to say, for the Indian thought, which there will not exist tomorrow any more or from here hundred million years; consequently, judged on a scale To be it absolute, the world, and with him any experiment depending on temporality, are illusory. It is in this direction that the Mâyâ appears, for the Indian thought, a particular experiment of Nothing, Non-being.
On the one hand, one never sees appearing the Concept of Raison, which at the very least makes it possible the individual to take up for itself the ideas of its medium, but can also give birth to from the projects as ambitious as a Descartes: to set out again with Zero to think just and to base a thought on an unattackable starting truth
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