The immigrant term (substantive or adjectival) means ground literally besides , of the Greek ales , foreigner, and chtonos , ground. Contrary to the concept of immigrant, one finds that of indigenous, literally ground from here .
The immigrant term is used with the Netherlands and in Belgium (at the beginning in, but more and more also in French) to designate people or groups of people of foreign origin, it can cover various definitions, including legal.
In Géologie, immigrant qualifies grounds which were carted and which recover others of them being able to be more recent, known as autochtones.
In ecology, the immigrant qualifier ''' ''' is used to indicate S of foreign origin to the local Biome. They are generally organizations introduced by the man, either voluntarily, in an economic or esthetic outlook, or accidentally.
The concept of immigrant in the Netherlands
The concept of immigrant to nominate the persons resulting from the Immigration was initially introduced in the Netherlands, in a report/ratio written in 1971 by the sociologist Hilda Verwey-Jonker (an old sénatrice of the Workers party) for account of the ministry for the Culture, of the Leisures and of Social work, the term was to replace that d'" immigré" who was most current at the time in the Netherlands (whereas in Flanders the term gastarbeider , on the German model - Gastarbeiter , hard-working guest, was extremely used). The central Office of the statistics (, CBS) gives the following definition of it:
- Nobody who resides at the Netherlands and from which at least a relative was born abroad. Any person who was born abroad belongs to the first generation, any person who was born in the Netherlands belongs to the second generation.
This official statistic definition does not correspond however to the common use of the term, which appoints especially the immigrant workers and the refugees, their children and their grandchildren, in particular those which present distinctive signs emphasizing their difference of with the stereotype of the Netherlander. In this direction, immigrant is synonymous from abroad (buitenlander).
The central Office of the statistics in addition makes a distinction between Western immigrant or not-Westerner:
Allochtone which has for " regrouping of origine" (characteristic which indicates with which country a person has a factual relationship, being given the country of birth of his/her parents or oneself) one of the country of the continents African, Latin-American and Asian (other than Indonesia and of Japan) or of Turkey. Because of their socio-economic and sociocultural position, the immigrants originating in Indonesia and Japan are counted among the Western immigrants. They are especially people who were born in the old Indies Dutchwomen and from workers of Japanese companies and their families. (source: CBS, Begrippen,)
The use by the public authorities of the concept of immigrant to follow policies of integration or Positive discrimination is the debate object, certain municipalities refuse from now on étiquetter kind part of their population. Others on the other hand follow the everyday usage in the media to attach the people to their country of origin whatever them " génération" , thus it is more and more question of " Marocains" young people; or of " Antillais" young people; , including in official declarations.
The presence in the Netherlands of populations originating in the old colonies Dutchwomen (Indonesia, Surinam) or in the current associated territories (the Dutch West Indies and Aruba) adds to the complexity of this labelling since a colonist of stock Dutchwoman born with Sumatra and his children are included in the immigrant category. But in the last years, the CBS enters the people originating in Indonesia, of which the mongrel indo-Dutch and sino-Dutch, as well as Moluquois, among the " immigrants occidentaux" , whereas the West-Indians and Arubans, of nationality Dutchwoman, are classified among the " immigrants non-occidentaux". (source: CBS, Begrippen,)
All the royal family Dutchwoman is also included in this category: the father of the Reine Beatrix was German (Bernhard zur Lippe Biesterfeld, husband of the Queen Juliana), his maternal grandfather (Heinrich de Mecklenburg-Schwerin, husband of the Wilhelmine queen) also, just as the mother of his grandmother Wilhelmine, Emma de Waldeck-Pyrmont. Fire the husband of Beatrix, Claus von Amsberg, father of the Crown prince Willem-Alexander, was itself German, as for the wife of the known as Crown prince, Máxima, it is Argentinian.
The concept of immigrant in Flanders
Several legal definitions coexist in Flanders:
- Within the meaning of an effective decree in Flanders, it is necessary to understand by:
- a) at least one their parents or their grandparents was not born in Belgium;
- b) they are in a position disadvantaged because of their ethnic origin or their precarious socio-economic situation; ( Relative order with the Flemish policy against the ethnoculturelles minorities, Belgian Monitor April 28th, 1998 + erratum: Belgian monitor immigrant November 9th, 1998 ''
- immigrant or : the citizens remaining legally in Belgium having a sociocultural source going back to another country of origin, who became Belgian or not and which either entered to Belgium as foreign workers or within the framework of a family gathering, or obtained the statute of request asylum or refugee declared admissible, or lodged a request for regularization within the framework of the law of December 22nd, 1999 relating to the regularization of stay of certain categories from abroad remaining on the territory of the Kingdom, or any person recorded as immigrant within the framework of a method of recording approved by the VESOC (Flemish Committee of socio-economic dialog) ( Arrêté Flemish Government fixing them criteria, conditions and procedures of the granting of subsidies within the framework of the action plan 2003 of the VESOC “participation proportional to the labor market and diversity”, Belgian Monitor May 18th, 2001 )
The debate on the use of the term in French
For some, the use of this term amounts considering that the foreign origin sticks to the skin of each individual on several generations, which constitutes a contradiction compared to the political will to lead to a very thorough integration, and to nona Discrimination between people of different origins.
For others, it is especially a question of solving the problem of denomination of social groups existing indeed without having recourse to expressions like " resulting from the immigration" or " of origin immigrée" for people born in Belgium, even from which at least one of the parents is itself there born.
To date, its use in French is primarily limited to Belgium, with only one occurrence proven in France.
Examples of official use of the term in French
June 18th, 2003, in a commission of the Parliament of the French Community, a deputy puts a question about the " Visibility of the people of immigrant origin in RTBF" (French-speaking radio-television public), which the qualified minister answers him that " the RTBF endeavors to ensure the presence of a certain number of agents resulting from the immigrant communities in order to give them a visibilité." .
Similar concepts in other languages
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