The department of Ille-et-Vilaine is a department French located in Brittany. It carries the number 35 in French departmental classification. Its inhabitants are the illiens and the illiennes. It is located in the east of the Brittany area and fact part of the country gallo, also called High-Brittany. The population could be approximately 952.000 inhabitants in 2007, in increase since several decades. Rennes is the chief town of department and prefecture of the Brittany area. The traditional language is the Gallo. The department counts 352 common and will count of them 353 with the creation of the commune of Saint-Symphorien on January 1st, 2008.
The department of Ille-et-Vilaine belongs to the area Brittany. It is bordering on the departments of the Manche, the Mayenne, Maine-et-Loire, the Loire-Atlantique, the Morbihan and the Coast-with Armor, and is bathed by the Manche, its littoral pertaining to the Côte of Emerald.
The Ille-et-Vilaine extends on 6775 km ². It is located between the Western meridian lines 1° and 2°20' and the parallels 47°40' and 48°40' Northern. It is about the Breton department least maritime since its littoral, opening on the English Channel, is only of 70 km.
The Ille-et-Vilaine is localized on a topographic depression. It is protected from flows of West by the heights of the Armorican Massif and the continental influences in the East with the hills Normans and of Maine.
Indeed, the central part and littoral of the department is of low altitude, generally lower than 50 meters in the coastal strip and the valleys and less than 100 meters almost everywhere. It is only in limits Western and Eastern that are higher reliefs:
- in the West, hills of Bécherel (190 meters) and the Forest of Paimpont where the Ille-et-Vilaine culminates with 256 meters.
- in the East, Coglais and country of Ferns (251 meters with the Vault-Janson)
Basins: dug by erosion in the tender schists, they develop principal rivers on both sides:
- in North, basin of the affluents of the Rancid and basins of the Couesnon.
- in the Center and the South, basins of Unpleasant of which most important, that of Rennes.
- in the South in the form of hard schist rock bars made up or of Armorican sandstones, directed West-north-west - East-south-east, separated by broad valleys where affluents of the Unpleasant one run.
- in North in broader bands and more uniforms made up of hard Schist S or Granite alternating with the basins.
The maritime areas including/understanding Is of Cancale, the Marais of Fraud and the Mount-Saint-Michel, and in the West a plate of crystalline rocks deeply notched by the Rancid one.
As regards the Pedology and the Botanical , the Sous-sol is often impermeable because of presence of granitic rocks. So that one finds very few ground water and one finds only surface water. The rivers see their flow varying according to oceanic flows bringing the rain. If one long period ago without precipitations, the Ille-et-Vilaine can suffer from the dryness. But a pluviometric contribution important can cause floods because the grounds can be gorged with water.
The Agriculture is mainly based on the breeding, which makes of it the first dairy department of France. That has as consequences, an adaptation of agriculture with cultures directed for the animal feeds with corn, corn, fodder plants and meadows.
Except these anthropized spaces, there still remains of natural spaces like the moor on the plates in the South and the cliffs of the littoral, the forest of which there remain important vestiges, approximately 60.000 hectares (Forêt of Paimpont, of Fougères, Rennes, Liffré, Teillay…) ; wetlands of the maritime marshes, of the Marsh of Redon as well as the peat bogs which surround the many ponds.
The Ille-et-Vilaine enjoys a slightly degraded oceanic climate. The rains are fine, abundant and fall all the year. The variations in temperatures are weak and time is often unstable. But the heights of the Armorican Solid mass block flows of West, which explains the modest height of précipatations in the basin of Rennes: It rains more in Nice in Rennes! Except that the frequency is more important in Brittany and the intensity less than on the Riviera. Marine winds created a typical thermal inertia of the oceanic areas. The winters are soft and the rather fresh summer or moderately heats. However the Ille-et-Vilaine is not safe from or cold waves (- 15°C in January 1985) heat waves (+40°C in August 2003). Moreover, the thermal amplitudes and the number of days of frosts is marked more than on the remainder of Brittany. This phenomenon shows a certain continentality due to a light degradation of the oceanic climate.
There exist nuances according to the localization of the areas compared to the dominant winds and the distance to the sea. The littoral is sheltered rains coming from the South-western quadrant but it is directly exposed to the winds of the North-West and the North-East. The heights precipitations lie between 660 and 730 Misters the thermal amplitude is low with softer winters and summers less hot than in the basin of Rennes.
In the area of Rennes, the annual heights of precipitations are lower than 700 mm in the sheltered basins and lie between 700 and 750 mm on the plates exposed to the winds of South-west and the North-West. The winters are soft, wet and the summers are rather hot, dry and sunny.
The outlying areas with the rather high reliefs (Ferns, Glazed and Paimpont) are well exposed to the winds of South-west and precipitations are more important (800 to 1000 mm). The temperatures of the valleys are comparable with those of Rennes but the heights prove to be fresher.
The South-west of the department is under the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. The winters are more soft, wet and the hot and sunny summers with a height of precipitations ranging between 750 and 800mm. The area is sheltered winds of the North-East and the North-West, synonymous with freshness.
The department was created with the French revolution, the March 4th 1790 pursuant to the law of the December 22nd 1789. It is one of the 5 departments resulting from the cutting of old the province of Brittany. It is composed of the évêché of Rennes (less one small portion in South-east), of the East and of the extreme North of the évêché of Saint-Malo, of the three-quarters is évêché of Fraud-of-Brittany, extreme Is évêché of Valves and a small portion of the North of the évêché of Nantes.
To the civilian about, it corresponds:
2) with the medieval Baillie of Rennes + a fatherland of that of the Porhoët
3) with the Eastern half of the Présidial of Rennes, such as it was in 1689, including/understanding the Sénéchaussée S of Rennes (with some installations in the south with the seneschalsy of Nantes), St-Aubin of Cormier, Fougères, Bazouges, Antrain, Hédé and St-Malo + part of the seneschalsies of Dinan and Ploërmel.
The name of this department was forged like the others by taking again the principal geographical characteristics which are there. Here, it is based on two rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, which meet downstream from Rennes, in the west of the city.
This identity problem agitated the spirits of the general advice in 1989. One would then have wished to rename the department in " Steps of Brittany " , it with what DDE was opposed and who did not achieve - far from there - the unanimity of the inhabitants. In 2005, after long reflections, a new project was proposed with the popular consultation by questionnaire: " High Brittany ". He was refused by 75% of the guarantors. In front of this result, the general advice gave up this project which the Departmental committee of tourism had advanced.
As most of the remainder of the west of France, the Ille-et-Vilaine with the reputation to be a department of right-hand side. Indeed, of catholic tradition, the department voted on the right throughout IIIe République, in opposition to the left anticlerical. To leaving the Second world war, the electorate of the department turned to the MRP, of sensibilié Christian-Democrat, confirming his anchoring on the right political chessboard. However, the dechristianization started to touch the department as from the years 1960, and the left progresses continuously since. Thus, Rennes passed on the left at the time of the local elections of 1977 with the election of Edmond Herve. Following the national rout of the right-hand side to cantonal of 2004, the latter lost the control of the department for the first time since the French revolution. The Ille-et-Vilaine is also pro-European with a large majority of " OUI" with the European Constitution at the time of the elections of May 29th, 2005. At the time of the second round of the election presidential of May 6th, 2007, with 87,46% of participation and higher than the national average of 3,5%, voted it Ille-and Vilaine to 52,39% for Mrs. Ségolène Royal and to 47,61% for Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy is 26677 votes of variation. Mr. Francois Bayrou arrived in third position 23,81% of the votes cast.
For town and country planning, the department is covered by 7 basins of activity called " pays":
the Country of Rennes, in the center, covers 67 communes out of 1.145 km ², and counts 419.559 inhabitants (+ 12,5% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 48,4% of the population of the department.
- the Country of Saint-Malo, in North, covers 71 communes out of 1.106 km ², including 67 in Ille-et-Vilaine (4 in the Coast-with Armor), and counts 149.360 inhabitants (+4,7% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 17,2% of the population of the department.
- the Country of Ferns, in the North-East, covers 58 communes out of 1.026 km ², and counts 76.517 inhabitants (+0,04% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 8,8% of the population of the department.
- the Country of Glazed (Carry-of-Brittany), in the East, covers 64 communes out of 1.282 km ², and counts 87.256 inhabitants (+7,7% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 10,1% of the population of the department.
- the Country of Brocéliande, in the West, covers 43 communes out of 929 km ², and counts 57.683 inhabitants (+7,3% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 6,6% of the population of the department.
- the Country of the Small valley-of-Unpleasant, in the South, covers 25 communes out of 620 km ², and counts 41.624 inhabitants (+%10,6% between 1990 and 1999) that is to say 4,8% of the population of the department.
- the Country of Redon and Unpleasant, with South-west, covers 54 communes out of 1.434 km ², of which 28 in Ille-et-Vilaine (others in the Morbihan, the Loire-Atlantique) and counts 77.987 inhabitants (+2.3% between 1990 and 1999) including nearly 37.000 in Ille-et-Vilaine, that is to say 4,1% of the population of the department. Within sight of the geographical location of Redon and the administrative difficulties related to the management of the economic basin by 3 departments, it was planned to create a new department around Redon and of its country, however the coordination of the departmental means in the plan of the area seems to be enough.
The strong very centralized development of the agglomeration of Rennes, reinforced by an excellent road service road, railway, even air, and the attractivity of the zone in term of teaching and employment led to a concentration fast of population in its basin, but also distributed in a vast peripheral zone, requiring transverse ways. Also the agglomeration developed a joint transport system aiming to decentralize the center town of Rennes and to facilitate and accelerate the exchanges. The success of this transport mode, supplemented by an excellent service road of the lines transdépartementales led the agglomeration to redefine the lines of urban buses. Also Rennes is more the small town in the world to be had a underground Métro, the VALLEY. However exploited North-South new line is located indeed on an axis of strong density of shift in population.
To thwart this attractivity of Rennes, the department developed effective exchanges in the other countries, and reinforced the role of the communities of communes in order to reconvert the agricultural industry and zones in development areas tertiary (of service or tourist). Also the demographic development of the department knew to remain positive even in the zones of old declining industries (Ferns) or little facilitated by their offset situation (Redon).
The population of Ille-et-Vilaine varied in " teeth of scie" during all the 19th century and until 1921 following the various wars or economic crises. Since, the population did not cease increasing has a very constant rate/rhythm. The department counts 867.533 inhabitants in 1999, that is to say 68.815 of more than in 1990. The Ille-et-Vilaine is the seventh department where demographic rise was most extremely. Since 1997, the Ille-et-Vilaine east passed in front of Finistere and became the department more populated Brittany area. It should exceed the million inhabitants by 2015.
The following table recapitulates the evolution of the population of the department of 1801 to 2004:
Among the 352 communes of Ille-et-Vilaine, 8 count more: 10000 inhabitants, and are in the order:
- Rennes: 212484 hab., prefecture (in the center of the department), regional metropolis, tenth town of France in population and more big city of the administrative area Brittany.
- Saint-Malo: 52737 hab., sub-prefecture (maritime in north).
- Ferns: 22819 hab., sub-prefecture (in the North-East of the department).
- Glazed, chief town of canton (in the east of the department): : 15908 hab.
- Cesson-Sévigné: 15522 hab., commune of the agglomeration of Rennes in the east of this one, which accommodates the principal research centres in new technologies in the zone of companies " Rennes Atalante" , close to the university zone of Rennes-Beaulieu.
- Bruz: 13522 hab., commune of the agglomeration of Rennes in the south of this one.
- Dinard: 10988 hab., common neighbor to the west of Saint-Malo, and separated from it by the mouth of the Rancid one.
- Redon: 10545 hab., sub-prefecture at the southern border of the department, and whose wedged agglomeration covers communes of two other close departments, the Loire-Atlantique in the south and the east, the Morbihan in south-west and the west.
A good part of the cultural equipment are concentrated on the prefecture of Rennes with departmental, regional radiation even more. Here the list of the principal equipment.
Theaters, cinema, theaters and in concert
Museums and places of exposure
- the Free fields
- the Museum of the Art schools
- Museum of Brittany
- international Center of documentation on the spectacles to Vitré
- museums of principal monuments of department (Ferns, Combourg, Fraud, Glazed, etc)
Festivals and events
The Gallo was the language " traditionnelle" Ille-et-Vilaine, it was especially spoken within the Western limit about the department about Ille-et-Vilaine, which divides several countries in two: Poudouvr, Porc' hoed, Redon… In 2001-2002, one counted 1761 pupils (schools, colleges, colleges) who study the language gallèse in Brittany.
However, the Breton language was also used in the East of a Mount-Saint-Michel/Pornic line.
In the old one évêché of Saint-Malo, from which a part was attached to the Ille-et-Vilaine during the French revolution, one spoke Breton until the 12th century. It was the same in certain " poches" he was spoken until the 15th century. To the 11th century, one announces an important Breton community to Chateaugiron).
According to balanced manpower that provides the investigation Étude of the family history carried out by INSEE in 1999, more than 8.500 Breton-speaking of more than 18 years resident in Ille-et-Vilaine. For that, it is necessary to add manpower of the bilingual schools Diwan who are assembled to 718 pupils to the re-entry 2005, or the pupils following of the courses of Breton in the public corporations of the secondary (more than 200 in 2002/2003).
TransportThe general advice is the organizing authority of the interurban network Illenoo.
The Ille-et-Vilaine is a department very rich in historic buildings or religious, remarkable medieval cities, museums and natural heritage. Here principal monuments or visited equipment (>50 000 visitors - Figures 2005 of the Departmental committee of Tourism):
- the Large Aquarium of Saint-Malo (≈ 420.000 visitors)
- the tidal Power plant of Rancid the
- Field of Trémelin (≈ 150.000 visitors)
- Castle and zoo of Bourbansais with Pleugueneuc (137 873 visitors)
- Cobac Parc with Lanhélin (≈ 92.000 visitors)
- the Castle of Fougères (80 390 visitors)
- Manoir of the Car with Lohéac (≈ 80.000 visitors)
- Musées of Vitré (≈ 50.000 visitors)
- Étang of Ball with Pretend - nautical center
- Natural Musée & Mégalithes and site of Cojoux with Saint-Just: one of the fifteen greater centers megalithic of Europe.
In 2005, the tourist capacity of reception is of:
220.000 tourist beds, of which:
- 60.000 classified commercial beds
- 77 camp-sites for 25.077 beds
- 273 hotels for 15.208 beds
- 783 furnished for 3.132 beds
- 12 residences with tourism for 2.928 beds
- 491 rural lodgings for 1964 beds
- 566 rooms with hosts for 1.568 beds
This same year, the tourist frequentation reaches 11.965.041 nights extra-secondary roads and still more if one adds them ille-and-vilainois (E) S which remain in their own department. The number of nights in the hotels reaches the figure of 2.387.478 and 929.319 in the camp-sites. Approximately 5 million excursions was carried out (i.e. displacements in day). In 2005, the average expenditure per day and anybody is of 28.36 € and the intermediate duration of the stay is 5.1 days.
- Since January 2005, a new network of bus at summer set up on the territory of départment: Illenoo.
- In 2005, certain personalities of the department required that the name of the department be changed into High-Brittany in order to better do to feel the Breton membership. This idea was abandoned, the public opinion having highly reacted against this idea.
- Chart of the parishes of the territory corresponding to the Ille-et-Vilaine before the creation of the departments (6,5 Mo):
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