Ijevsk ( Russian Ижевск in ) is a town of Russia and the capital of the République of Oudmourtie. It is to 970 km in the east of Moscow, on the river Ij. Ijevsk is the first town of Oudmourtie by its population: : 623400 inhabitants in 2005.
Ijevsk is a town of mechanical engineering industries, celebrates by the factory of weapons created in 1807, and which bears today the name of Ijmach. It is in this factory that was developed and manufacture the rifle of attack Kalachnikov AK-47 and its later versions. The Ijmach group also produces cars, of mark “ IJ ” (Russian ИЖ) as well as motor bikes. The concentration with Ijevsk of factories working for defense in made a closed Ville at the time soviétique ; its access was interdict the abroads.
The city suffered much from the reduction in the budget of defense after the perestroika. However since 2007 a Korean manufacturer of cars to begun again the assembly of cars with Ijevsk, which shows the possibility for new hopes of development.
FormationUniversity (UDGU) made creditable efforts to support the international exchanges, but it should well be recognized that the number of foreign students with Ijvsk remains particularly weak.
Art of livingIn spite of its size all the same sizeable, the city keeps an aspect of large village. The climate is continental. It can make very hot, more 30°C the summer, but also very cold, close to -35°C in January. However, during the winter, the low temperatures remain very acceptable, about -15°C on average. Precipitations are limited, it rains and snows relatively little. Public transport functions well and is cheap.
HistoryIjevsk is the capital of Oudmourtie. It is an industrial, commercial and scientific center, as well as a road and railway crossroads. The history of the city goes back to spring 1760, when were simultaneously built a stopping on the Izh river, as well as the adjacent iron-foundry. In same time the first dwelling houses were built. However in 1774 the factory was mainly destroyed by the partisans of Pougatchev, the church was burned and most of the executives of the factory carried out.
The future development of Izhevsk passes mainly by the installation of an arms factory built according to the plans and the direction of A.F. Diriabine. July 1807 is regarded as the date of foundation of the factory.
Then, the development of Ijevsk was determined by a specialization in the field of defense, metallurgy, firearms and shotguns. The first production of the factory was intended for the Napoleonean wars of 1812. As of the middle of the 19th century century, the production of the factories of Ijevsk had already acquired a solid reputation.
In 1808-1815, the architect S. Dublin (successor of A. Zaharov) planned the construction of the arms factory with his basin of accumulation. At the same time, the first buildings on several floors in Russia were built. It is an example of the architectural classicism of the area of the Ural. The same architect conceived also the plans of the city, the arsenal (1823-1828, today national museum of the republic of Oudmourtie), the church of the Holy Trinity (1814) and the cathedral Alexandre Nevsky according to a project of A. Zaharov (1820-1823). In 1879, Ijevsk was officially regarded as a borough and nearly 41.000 people lived there. But by the quantity of its manufactures, commercial and administrative establishments, Ijevsk could already claim with the statute of City. However, for various reasons the statute of city was granted officially only on June 6th, 1925. The establishment of the Soviet capacity was done at the price of violent one engagements. It should be said that as a major center of production of weapons and because of its strong concentration of skilled labor, Ijevsk constituted a major strategic issue. The city spent several times in the hands of one or the other of the belligerents. Being rebelled against the Soviet capacity, part of the workers of Ijevsk fought until the end on the side of the forces of Koltchak.
At the time of the first five-year plan, the city developed quickly. New industries developed, such as manufactures motor bikes, machine tools and chemistry. At the same period the first brick houses were built for the workmen. The number of cultural and educational institutions increased consecutively. In December 1934, Ijevsk was proclaimed capital Republic of Oudmourtie.
During the Second world war, the importance of the city as a production center of weapons was considerable. The factories of Ijevsk equipped a division with aviation and an artillery division per day. The post-war period is characterized by a development by the expansion of the industrial base. The weapons, motor bikes, cars and machines acquired a world reputation. Among the principal personalities one can note the examples of Mikhaïl Kalachnikov, G. Koulakov, A. Momontov, A. Chizhov, G. Skourighin and others.
At January 1st, 1998, the city counted more than 600.000 inhabitants of more than 30 nationalities. For one short period, the city was baptized name of a Minister for the defense of the USSR: D.F. Oustinov. (It is advisable to mention that for Russian the term of nationality is different from citizen, a tatar and a oudmourte are of two different nationalities, but both Russian citizens)
The city continues its modern development while becoming more general-purpose and diversified.
TransportThe city has an airport, and a Ij-Avia company which in general ensures approximately two flights per day on Moscow and vice versa. Approximately 2 hours of flight, attention, one hour ago of jet lag with Moscow. A train per day towards Moscow in direct connection, plus some others less direct. Slow but specific.
In connection with KalachnikovIt is difficult to speak about Ijevsk without speaking about its most famous citizen, Mikhaïl Kalachnikov. A museum located at the center of the city is almost entirely devoted to him. Before being an arms manufacturer, Mikhaïl Kalachnikov is before a whole self-educated handyman. And he even says it him, if the war had not come to seek it, he would certainly never have invented this rifle (Russian automat). Currently the family of Kalchnikov made fructifer the mark " Kalachnikov" with the assistance of a German company of marketing with products such as snowbords, vodka, is pruduits which do not have anything any more " Guerrier".
- Mikhaïl Kalachnikov (born in 1919), engineer, inventor of the rifle of attack AK-47.
- Andrei Kirilenko (born in 1981 in Ijevsk), player of basketball of NBA, called " AK-47".
- Site of the Ijmach company.
- Site of the town of Izhevsk.
- the principal university of the republic of Oudmourtie (Also in English).
- the technical university of Izhevsk.
- cultural Guide of Ijevsk.
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