It is the third and the last in the series of the three unifiers of Japan for the Sengoku period. These unifiers are, in the order, Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi (also named Hashiba) and Ieyasu Tokugawa.
Childhood MatsudairaTokugawa Ieyasu was born the January 31st 1543 under the name of Matsudaira Takechiyo. He was the heir to the clan Matsudaira, small clan of the province of the Mikawa torn between the powerful clans Oda and Imagawa.
In 1548, Oda invade Mikawa. The father of Ieyasu, Matsudaira Hirotada request assistance of Imagawa Yoshimoto, daimyo of the Imagawa clan, which accepts in the condition that Hirotada sends his/her son as an hostage to him. Hirotada is carried out, Ieyasu, share thus for Sunpu (current the Shizuoka). But Oda Nobuhige, the Daimyo of the Oda clan, had wind of the negociation and it intercepts Ieyasu and its continuation. He will threaten then Hirotada to kill his son if he does not challenge his pact with Imagawa Yoshimoto to be combined in Oda, Hirotada refuses, asserting that to let his/her son die would do nothing but seal more still the pact the binder in Imagawa. Nobuhide will not make finally any evil with Ieyasu.
The following year, in 1549, Hirotada dies and Nobuhide succumbs to an epidemic, leaving the Oda clan in a serious disorganization. Imagawa Yoshitomo jumps on the occasion and sends Imagawa Sessai to besiege the castle where is Oda Nobuhiro, oldest son and successor of Nobuhige. The seat turns quickly to the advantage of Imagawa, but Sessai meets Oda Nobunaga, wire junior by Nobuhige, in order to propose a market to him: it will raise the seat provided that Oda deliver Ieyasu to him. Oda can only accept the market, and Ieyasu arrives at Sunpu the following day. It will be well treated there.
The way towards the powerIn 1556, Ieyasu obtains the right to turn over on its grounds of Mikawa. Then it Marie for the first time and changes its name into Matsudaira Motoyasu. Ieyasu will take then its first steps as a tactician in a campaign against Oda which it carries out on order of Yoshimoto. It will gain there some victories of relative importance, but which will enable him to start to be made a name.
In 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto assembles an army of approximately 20.000 men, to go a priori on Kyōto, therefore to take the title of Shogun. Ieyasu, with the head of its army, fact part of the troops but is detached from large army to attack a frontier fort. It will remain there then to defend it, which will enable him to avoid the battle of Okehazama which will be a true disaster for Imagawa. Indeed, Yoshimoto launches its army on the grounds of Oda Nobunaga, which took the succession of his/her brother to the head of the clan, this last attacks Yoshimoto (in spite of a clear numerical inferiority and the adverse opinion of its generals) and carries the victory, killing Imagawa Yoshimoto with the passage. This battle proves to be capital in general for the destiny of the Japan and Ieyasu in particular. Learning the defeat from Okehazama, Ieyasu beats a retreat, then contacts Nobunaga in order to organize an alliance. However, the negociations are done in greatest discretion, the woman and the second wire of at this time being Ieyasu with Sunpu.
In 1561, Ieyasu captures the castle of Kaminojo, Imagawa possession, and captures there family members of a close relation of Imagawa Ujizane, successor of Yoshimoto, this capture enables him to recover his wife and her son (in exchange of his prisoners), like proving his good will with Nobunaga. Ieyasu thus becomes vassal of Nobunaga, and it will remain it until the death of this last. Ieyasu having now the freehands, it is devoted to the reorganization of its clan and his field: it rewards its vassal in their granting grounds to Mikawa. These men will have a great importance in the many battles that Ieyasu will deliver throughout its life, and among them one counts in particular Honda Tadakatsu and Ishikawa Kazumasa. Then, in 1564, it fights Mikawa Monto, armed warlike monks who had refused to subject themselves to his authority. It overcomes them and shaves their temples.
In 1566, it asks for the emperor the authorization of change his name into Tokugawa Ieyasu, which is granted to him. At this time, he states to go down from the Minamoto, which would bring to him in the event of strong position a great credibility to be named Shogun. However, it seems not very probable that this claim is based on anything of proven. But for the moment Ieyasu remains vassal of Nobunaga, and it takes part in all the important battles at the sides of Oda: thus, it is present at the time of the catch of Kyōto in 1568.
In 1570 it increases its territory by taking the remainder of the Imagawa grounds at the conclusion of a pact with Takeda Shingen, pact which was expensive to him since Shingen took Sunpu before him, thus preventing it from annexing the Suruga. In reaction, Ieyasu accommodates Imagawa Ujizane while promising to him to return its grounds to him. The relations between Tokugawa and Takeda become tended then, situation which worsens when Ieyasu is combined with Uesugi Kenshin, proven enemy of Takeda Shingen. Then Tokugawa moves its general headquarter to approach the territory of Shingen, the war becomes inevitable.
End 1571, Shingen which was combined with the Hojo invades Totomi, which belongs to Tokugawa. Ieyasu rejoins its men and the two armies meet with the beginning of the year 1572, with the Bataille of Mikata-Ga-Hara, where Tokugawa essuient a demolished cuisante: Ieyasu escapes from little from death. Following that, Ieyasu will spend one year to refuse the combat against Shingen, alive in a state of permanent headquarter. Extremely fortunately for him, Takeda Shingen dies in spring 1573. The man was the brilliant general, often considered as best of the period, and Takeda Katsuyori, his/her son and successor, proves to be unable to capitalize crushing them victories of his/her father.
In 1575, Katsuyori attacks the castle of Nagashino, in Mikawa, and Ieyasu calls Nobunaga with the rescue. This one comes personally to the head from an large army. The Tokugawa-Oda army, strong of 38000 soldiers faces the Takeda army with famous the Bataille of Nagashino. Katsuyori is overcome, but he manages to flee and withdraws himself on his grounds of Kai. He will never leave quiet Ieyasu and of the sporadic confrontations between the two clans still took place, but Katsuyori never managed to take again the control of the province of Suruga.
In 1579, the woman of Ieyasu and her Nobuyasu oldest son were accused of conspiracy with Takeda. Ieyasu ordered with his/her son to be made Seppuku and his wife was carried out. The third wire of Ieyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada, was designated as its heir, his second wire having been adopted by Hideyoshi Toyotomi
Ieyasu and Hideyoshi
In spring 1582, Nobunaga is assassinated by one of its vassal: Akechi Mitsuhide . Ieyasu is, at this moment, in the surroundings of Ōsaka and, not being able to face Mitsuhide, he sees himself constrained to return at his place by avoiding the troops of his enemy who seeks it to carry out it. Of return on its grounds, Ieyasu plans to go to avenge Nobunaga but it is preceded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which crushed Mitsuhide with the Bataille of Yamazaki. Ieyasu then makes profitable the death of Nobunaga to invade Kai and Shinano, the two old provinces of the Clan Takeda, that Nobunaga had crushed right before dying. But the Hojo react and send an large army to prevent some. The two clans will not clash, and will make an agreement stipulating that Ieyasu keeps the control of Kai and Shinano, while Hojo will take the control of the Province of Kazusa.
In 1583, a war bursts between Hideyoshi and Shibata Katsuie, another old vassal of Nobunaga. Ieyasu will remain neutral in this confrontation, preferring to avoid the conflict with Hideyoshi, which will destroy Katsuie with the Bataille of Shizugatake and will become thus the most powerful daimyo of Japan.
In 1584, Ieyasu supports Oda Nobukatsu against Hideyoshi. Nobukatsu, wire of Nobunaga, wanted to succeed his/her father and thus disputed the capacity of Hideyoshi, the fact that Ieyasu supports it was only one manner of causing Toyotomi, to generate a confrontation before the power of Hideyoshi does not become too large so that it is overcome. Ieyasu thus sends an army to the castle of Owari, Hideyoshi answers by leading an army in the province of the same name. The two armies meet first once at the Bataille of Komaki (in truth a simple skirmish) then to the Bataille of Nagakute, only true confrontation of what is called today the countryside of Komaki. One year later, both daimyos issue a truce under the impulse of Nobukatsu, then Ieyasu goes to Ōsaka there to meet Hideyoshi and thus make watch of its good will. Peace is concluded, but it goes without saying Hideyoshi does not rely any more on Ieyasu, in fact this one will not take part more in any military countryside (except the countryside of Odawara). During the two attempts at invasion of the Korea (1592 and 1597) Ieyasu will be present at the general headquarter but will not send any man to the site.
In 1590, after having subjected Shikoku and the Shimazu of Kyushu, Hideyoshi attacks Hojo Ujimasa, large daimyo of the Kanto. Ieyasu to the site sends 30.000 men, who unite with the Toyotmi army which then reaches a total of 160.000 men. After the catch of several frontier castles, the army puts the seat in front of the Château of Odawara where Hojo were locked up. The seat will last six months under the terms of which it will be taken. The Hojo chiefs commit suicide and Hideyoshi offers to Ieyasu to take the control of their provinces in exchange from the five which it has (Mikawa, Totomi, Suruga, Shinano, Kai) Ieyasu accepts and moves in on its new grounds: after 450 years of reign on Kanto, after having directed Japan during the decline of Minamoto, Hojo are not any more. After their disappearance, Date Masamune becomes the last daimyo independent of Japan, but only because its grounds are very far from those of Hideyoshi. It will subject some time afterwards. Ieyasu thus inherits the Hojo provinces, more rich person that those which it had before. It establishes its capital with Edo (current Tōkyō) but by doing this it moves away from Hideyoshi and thus from the political center of the country, which was probably the objective of Toyotomi.
After the death of Hideyoshi Toyotomi (豊臣秀吉) in 1598, the combat starts almost immediately between the 5 regents whom it had set up to manage the minority of his son Hideyori Toyotomi (born in 1593). Ieyasu Tokugawa, eminent member of this council and former important lieutenant of Nobunaga Oda, take the advantage quickly. It obtained, in 1600, the support of half of the daimyō by crushing a coalition of rivals in the west of Japan during the Bataille of Sekigahara and became, de facto , the leader of the country. It made marry in Hideyori its grand-daughter, Senhime, then seven years old, then will get rid some définitement in 1615.
First Shogun TokugawaIn 1603, after being itself made allotted the title of Shogun, it made village of Edo (江戸) ( carries river ), where it had established its general headquarters, the new capital. Edo will become Tōkyō (東京) ( capital of the East ) starting from the Ère Meiji.
Ieyasu was thus the first shogun of the dynasty of Tokugawa, which will reign on Japan until 1868 (Meiji revolution).
With its death, it was buried with Sunpu (now Shizuoka) in the sanctuary being called Kuno-zan Tōshōgû, then its body was moved in Nikkō. The Mausolée of Tokugawa Ieyasu is located in the Tōshōgu sanctuary, located with Nikkō (日光) (to more or less 140 km in the North of Tōkyō).
Personality of IeyasuThe Ieyasu lord had many assets which gave access to him the capacity. He was not very appreciated of the people but was fears and respected for his charisma and his trick. He was subtle calculator and often modified his alliances at the time or that arranged it. It was initially combined with Takeda Shingen then changed opinion and responsible for had died for Shingen and its son. It was combined with the Clan Hojo then joined the army of Hideyoshi which destroyed it and it is Ieyasu which recovered their territory. This kind of behavior was current in feudal Japan. It was one period of violence, sudden death and treason. He was not very liked nor popular.
He capable of a great honesty, once was combined with Oda Nobunaga, he never went against him and the two chiefs benefitted from their long alliance. He was known for his honesty towards his friends and his vassal whom he rewarded. However he remembered the affronts which was made to him. It is said that, become powerful, it carried out a man who had insulted it during his youth.
Ieyasu has been known for being heartless. He also personally ordered his men to carries out Hideyori' S infant its, Kunimatsu. He ordered the execution off every soldier that could Be found who defended Osaka castle. Tens off thousands off will samurai are said to cuts been killed, to their off heads stuck one planks Wood which lined the road from Kyoto all the way to Fushimi. His lack off compassion was not especially uncommon for his time and edge Be attributed to his upbringing amidst wars, assassinations, and continuous violence. With quote from Ieyasu ace portrayed in the film Rikyu edge roughly sum up his outlook one life: " Live Life means that I edge to see tomorrow." -->
In its personal relations, Ieyasu expressed the same extreme temperament as that which it had with foreigners. It had 19 women and concubines, who gave him 11 wire and 5 girls. The 11 wire were: Tokugawa Nobuyasu, Yūki Hideyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada, Matsudaira Tadayoshi, Takeda Nobuyoshi, Matsudaira Tadateru, Matsuchiyo, Senchiyo, Tokugawa Yoshinao, Tokugawa Yorinobu, and Tokugawa Yorifusa. (Both without nickname died in their childhood.) His/her daughters was Princesses Kame, Toku Hime, Furi, Matsu (Eishōin), and Ichi (Seiun' in). It took great care of his children and grandchildren, and made 3d' between them, Yorinobu, Yoshinao, and Yorifusa the respective daimyo of the provinces of Kii, Owari and Mito. It could also be extremely hard: it ordered the execution of his first wife and her oldest son.
Later in life He took to scholarship and religion, patronizing famous scholars like Hayashi Razan.
Two off his famous quotes:
"Life is like unto has long journey with has heavy burden. Let thy step Be slow fox trot and steady, that thou stumble not. Persuade thyself that imperfection and inconvenience are the natural batch off mortals, and there will Be No room for discontent, neither for to despair. When ambitious desired arise in thy heart, recall the days off extremity thou has passed through. Forbearance is the root off quietness and insurance forever. Look upon the wrath off the enemy. Yew thou knowest only what it is to conquer, and knowest not what it is like to Be defeated, woe unto thee; it will fare ill with thee. Find fault with thyself rather than with others."
"The strong manly ones in life are those who understand the meaning off the Word patience. Patience means restraining one' S inclinations. There are seven emotions: joy, anger, anxiety, coil, objection, fear, and haste, and yew has man does not give way to thesis He edge patient Be called. I amndt not ace strong ace I might Be, goal I cuts long known and practiced patience. And yew my downward wish to Be ace I amndt, they must study patience."
He claimed that He fought, ace has warrior gold has general, in 90 battles.
In sum sources Ieyasu is known to cuts the bad dress off biting his nails when nervous, especially before and during battle.
He was interested in various Kenjutsu skills, has owner off the Yagyu Shinkage-ryu school and also had them ace his personal sword instructors. -->
- Kagemusha (1980), of Akira Kurosawa
|Random links:||Astronomical observatory of Uppsala | Deliver of gold | John Zerzan | Ahmed Chawqi | Season 1 of the Last Ruby|