It was carried out by the International organization of standardization, indicated internationally under its initials of origin ISO (International Organization for Standardization) which is systematically included in the denomination of the standards.
An organization can make certify its system of environmental management following this standard by organizations third party accredited like the French Association for the Quality assurance, for example for France.
The contribution of the standard S is very often unperceivable in our daily newspaper, their importance appears especially when this one are lacking, so much in term of reliability of the product, its dangerosity or the bad conditions of hygiene and safety in our work environment, but also of the impacts Environnement with which our activities can have.
In term of standardization, there are two types of approach: the approach produces that one will approach by the creation of label for example, and approaches it process as for the standards ISO 14000 which represent a family of “generic standards of system of management”. The standards are “generic”, they have vocation to be able to be applied to any organization, whatever its size, whatever its product, in any branch of industry, and that the organization is a business enterprise, a public administration or a governmental department.
The standard ISO 14.000
The publication of the first standards of the series ISO 14000 goes back to September 1996. In general, the ISO works out only standards answering a requirement of the market, the standards ISO 14.000 relating to the systems of environmental management help the organizations of all kinds to improve their environmental performances while exerting an positive impact on their results.
The ISO 14.000 draft in first chief of “environmental management”, i.e. of what the organization carries out to the minimum to reduce the detrimental effects of its activities on the environment, to improve its environmental performance permanently (that contributes to the protection and the stability of the environment).
List series ISO 1400*
- environmental ISO 14 - Requirements and guiding lines for its use. Published 2nd edition 2004-11-15.
- ISO 14004 : Guiding lines of the system environment
- ISO 14010,11,12 : Audit of the system environment
- ISO 14031 : Environmental indicators
Whereas the standards ISO 14004 and ISO 14010,11,12 are regarded as standards tools, the standard ISO 14001 constitutes the basic reference frame for certification. It represents 18 requirements divided into 6 chapters:
general requirements (intentions of the establishment in term of environment).
- the environmental policy (objectives of the company).
- planning (Realization of the actions planned to satisfy the environmental policy).
- the implementation (monitoring of the functionality of the System of Environmental Management).
- controls and the actions correctives*
- the review of direction.
It does not have there absolute requirements as regards environmental performance
- Exigence of engagement in the policy of the direction.
- Obligation to arrive in conformity with the legislation and with the applicable regulations.
- It is necessary to respect the principle of continuous improvement.
- the attribution of the ISO 14001 is done following one to that carried out by an approved organization standard DNV, LRQA, AFAQ, BVQI, SGS, SQS,…. In France these organizations are accredited by COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation)
- the listener must check the conformity of the system with the requirements of the standard. If a major nonconformity is notified, the system cannot be certified as long as it is not raised. The listener carries then his report/ratio of audit before a commission which will decide certification or not audited system.
- certification is held by 3 years cycle:
- Year 1: Complete audit (duration 2 to 3 days)
- Year 2 and 3: Audit of follow-up
This step is in theory committed either voluntarily by the entity, or following the contractual request for a client or a direction of group. It has several advantages. The first is a better control of the environmental questions in its operation. It gives management tools to integrate these questions in the total management of the company as well as quality, safety. It obliges to structure operation with respect to the regulation, and thus gives a better financial control of these problems. It gives, even if this point can be prone to critic a tool to communicate as well in-house as into external. The fact of following a step ISO 14001 makes it possible the company to be perceived better by the organisms in charge of the environmental questions such as the Regional management of Industry, Research and Environment (DRIRE) charged to make respect the regulations in force.
Critical of the step
If the standard is a tool for the companies making it possible to set up a controlled system of follow-up of the environmental questions, it generates on the other hand criticisms on certain points. It does not mention in any point an obligation of sustainable development. An also important point, if a company is certified ISO 14001, that does not mean that it does not pollute, but that it respects the principles of the standard: observance of the regulation, engagement of a continuous progress, engagement of the prevention of pollution. This point is not always very clearly in the communication of certain certified companies. Moreover the company obligation to communicate its results outside contrary to the European reference frame EMAS does not have.
- Social responsibility of the companies
- International organization of standardization or ISO
- Series of the ISO standards 14000
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