The République of Hungary (in Hungarian Magyar Köztársaság , marked) is a country of Central Europe, member of the European Union, surrounded by the Austria, the Slovakia, the Ukraine, the Romania, the Serbia, the Croatia and the Slovenia.
The Hungarians are called themselves Magyars - this term is sometimes used in French in a historical context - what explains the local name of the country Magyarország (delivery).
Hungary has as codes:
- LH, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- .hu, the national Field of first level,
The kingdom of Hungary (1001-1867)According to the legends, Hungary would have been founded by Árpád, which would have led the Magyar S (come from the the Ural and the the Volga) in the plains of Pannonia, in 896. In 955, the Bataille of Lechfeld against the Germanic Empereur Othon stopped their devastating raids.
The Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000 by the king Etienne ( Vajk of its name " païen" of before its baptism: prince Géza, father of Vajk, indeed choose to insert Hungary in Christendom). Initially, the history of Hungary parallel to developed those of the Poland and the Bohemia, with the many connections with the Pape S and the emperors of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. Hungary was destroyed partly in 1241 - 1242 by the Mongolian armies of the Horde of Gold.
Hungary became gradually an important and independent kingdom which formed a center-European culture distinct related to most important civilizations from Western Europe. Matthias Corvin reigned on Hungary of 1458 with 1490; it reinforced Hungary and its government. Under its reign, Hungary (in particular zones in north, some form today part of the Slovakia) became an artistic and cultural center of Europe of the Renaissance. The Hungarian culture influenced other cultures, such as for example those of Poland and Lithuania. With the Czech Poland and grounds, Hungary formed the Groupe of Visegrád. Since the end of the Years 1990, an political alliance of the same name exists with the Czech Republic, the Slovakia and the Poland.
Hungarian independence ended with its conquest by the Ottoman Empire, at the beginning of the 16th century. The western parts of Hungary which were not conquered by the Othoman were annexed by the Austria (of which reigning them acquired the right to add the title of " Kings de Hongrie" on this occasion), while in the east, the Principality of Transylvania, up to that point vassal of Hungary, became independent, but had soon to accept the Othoman Suzeraineté, just like its neighbors, the Valachie and the Moldavie). However, in Transylvania, the Hungarian Noblesse preserved its privileges. At this same time, the Réforme was spread, and a third approximately of the Hungarians became Calvinistes or Luthériens.
After 150 years - before the end of the 17th century - the Christian Austria and its allies took again with the Ottoman Empire the territory of current Hungary.
After the final defeat of the Turks, the Habsbourg seized the totality of Hungary, as well as vassal countries: the Croatia and the Transylvania. A conflict started between the Hungarian Aristocratie and the Habsbourg for the safeguarding of the rights of the Noble S (and, in parallel, for the Autonomie of Hungary within the Empire). 18th century, Habsbourg played the " Despotic enlightened " and Reforming S (granting for example more rights to Serf S Slavic or Rumanian S), while the Hungarian nobility had the appearance of a force Réactionnaire which carried out a war of Sédition between 1703 and 1711, under the orders of noble Transylvanian: François II Rákóczy. But at the 19th century, the combat against the Austrian Absolutisme was transformed into a popular combat for freedom: the Hungarian revolution of 1848 against the Habsbourg (cf Ferdinand Ier of Austria) and the war of 1848 - 1849, led by Kossuth, could be choked only by the joint offensive of the Austrian troops and Russian. Following these events, Habsbourg abolished in Transylvania the Servage of the orthodoxe majority which, under the control of Avram Iancu, had hesitated to support the Révolutionnaire S Hungarian against the orthodoxe Russians. Habsbourg granted finally Civil laws with the Serbes, the Ruthènes (Ukrainian) and with the Rumanian .
Empire of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918)Beaten by the Franco-Italian coalition (Battle of Solférino, 1859) and by the Prussia (battles of Königgratz, also called Sadowa or Hradec-Kralové in Czech - 1866), Austria passes with the Hungarians a compromise: in 1867 the Croatia and the Transylvania are abolished, and form with Hungary an autonomous kingdom (Transleithanie) within the Empire Austro-Hungarian (the remainder of the Empire is the Cisleithanie). This compromise, favorable to German-speaking and the magyarophones, makes lose with the slavophones and the romanophones any hope of autonomy within the Empire, which accentuates their tendencies irredentists (in favor of a fastening to other countries). This double Monarchy Austro-Hungarian, (François-Joseph of Habsbourg being emperor with Vienna and King with Budapest), hard until the fall of the Empire, at the end of the First World War. Hungary separated from the Austria the October 31st 1918.
The Republic of Hungary (1918-1919)The 16 November 1918 is proclaimed the Republic Hongroise.L' heart of the new democratic regime is the count Mihaly Karoly. It fulfills for a few months the functions of Prime Minister and president. A French commission, directed by the geographer Emmanuel de Martonne, trace new borders of Hungary, while following the limit of the rural areas to Hungarian majority of the center of the country, but without taking account of the cities (almost everywhere with Hungarian majority) nor of the zones Magyarophone S offset (in the east of the Transylvania for example). Very disappointed territorial losses imposed on his country, the count Karoly prefers to resign.
The republic of the Councils (1919)In March 1919, the Communistes reverse the government, and in April, Béla Kun proclaims the République of the Councils (cf working Conseil), which in vain tries to reconquer the borders of 1918. This government did not last a long time; to the orders of the French mission Berthelot, the Rumanian army enters to Hungary and occupies Budapest; the communist forces are overcome, and the Soviet mode is reversed the August 6th 1919. The Alliés give the capacity to the forces Légitimiste S, carried out by (ex-) the Admiral Miklós Horthy. The archduke August Joseph becomes regent of the country. Between August - November 1919 Budapest east under Rumanian occupation.
The restored kingdom (1919-1949)In January 1920, of the elections are held to elect an assembled unicamérale. The admiral Horthy is elected regent. In June, the Traité of Trianon is signed: it officializes the borders of the Hungary news. Compared to kingdom of pre-war period, the size and the population of this Hungary news are reduced of approximately two-third, the totality of the Minorité S Rumanian E, Slovak, Croatian, Serb making the choice belong in other States, according to the principle (stated by the US president Woodrow Wilson) of the " right of the people to have them-mêmes". But several million Hungarian is found thus minority in new countries, and Hungary claims a revision of the borders. Major claim of Hungary of the Years 1920 and 1930, the question of the borders will push Horthy to seek German alliance.
Miklós Horthy reign with capacities Authoritative S during most of the period among the two world wars, and installs a mode Nationaliste and irredentist in Hungary folded up on the memory of the large kingdom of pre-war period.
Horthy is combined with the Nazi Germany in the years 1930, in the hope to reconsider the territorial losses which followed the First World War. Hungary is rewarded by Hitler by territories belonging to the Czechoslovakia, the Yugoslavia and the Romania, and takes an active share in the Second world war. However, in October 1944, alarmed by the return of the Romania in the Allied camp , Hitler replaces Horthy by the collaborator Nazi Hungarian Ferenc Szálasi and its Parti the fléchées Crosses, in order to prevent that Hungary does not join it also the Allies.
More than 450.000 Jewish and several hundreds of Tziganes perished in Hungary horthyste and under the mode of Szálasi.
The popular republic (1949-1989)The August 20th 1949, the Communist party abolishes officially the Hungarian Monarchie (in fact, regency), by proclaiming the Popular republic of Hungary . The last king of swears , not reigning, Othon II is of this deposed fact. The Hungarian people, like his neighbors, choke under the cane of a dictatorship relentless which does not have a " populaire" that the name, and in 1956, the Insurrection of Budapest leads to the nomination of a communist Prime Minister Réformateur, Imre Nagy, and on the withdrawal of the Warsaw Pact. The military intervention of the Soviet Union leads to the deposition and the execution of Imre Nagy. Years 1960 until the end of the Years 1980, Hungary could appreciate its particular status among the countries of the Eastern bloc, under the capacity of the communist leader discussed János Kádár, which was named in the wake of the Soviet tanks and ensured its capacity during repression, but followed then a policy increasingly moderate and economically open. At the end of the years 1980, Hungary was with the head of the movement for the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, and gently directed all towards a pluralist Démocratie and a market economy.
The republic (since 1989)The October 23rd 1989, the President of the Republic, Mátyás Szűrös puts an end to the popular republic and solemnly proclaims the news République of Hungary . Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Hungary developed closer bonds with the Western Europe, joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union on May 1st 2004. With the Poland, the Slovakia and the Tchéquie, it forms the Groupe of Visegrád.
Bibliography and sources
- Miklós Molnar, History of Hungary , Paris, 2004, Editions Perrin, Tempus collection.
- Stake Lendvai, the Hungarians , the Editions Black on white, 1999, transl. franç.2006.
- Andre Farkas, Budapest, 1956, the tragedy such as I it saw and lived , Tallandier, 2006.
Relations with the European Union
- December 16th 1991: Signature of the Agreement of Association;
- November 26th 1992: Transmission near the General secretary of the European Union the means of ratifies Agreement of Association ;
- 1993 : Coming into effect of the Agreement of Association;
- March 31st 1994: Application to join presentation;
- March 31st 1998: Opening of the negotiation of adhesion;
- December 13rd 2002: Closing of the negioziati of adhesion during the European Council;
- April 14th 2003: The European Council approves adhesion;
- April 16th 2003: Signature of the Treaty of Accession;
- December 23rd 2003: Transmission near the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the République Italian of the means of ratifies of Treaty of Accession ;
- May 1st 2004:: Hungary becomes member of the European Union;
See also: Political of Hungary
The President of the Republic, elected by the Parliament every 5 years, has a role especially ceremonial. It has the capacity to appoint the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses his Ministre S and has the exclusive right return them. Each person named for a ministry passes before one or more parliamentary committees in opened advisory hearings, and must be formally approved by the President.
The National Assembly of Hungary (the Országgyűlés ), Unicaméral E, includes/understands 386 members. She exerts the Legislative power as a voter of the laws of governmental or parliamentary initiative. A party must gain at least 5% at the national level to form a parliamentary faction. The national parliamentary elections take place every 4 years (the last took place in April 2006).
The Constitutional court (15 members) judge of the constitutionality of the laws.
Hungarian political life and political parties of 1998 to 2006
The coalition of left to the capacity
A left coalition is with the capacity since 2002. This coalition includes/understands the MSzP (Hungarian Socialist party) and the SzDSz (Union of the Free Democrats).
MSzP follows a liberal policy, pro-European. To locate it politically, one can say that MSzP takes as a starting point the model of Tony Blair. To include/understand the political tensions in Hungary, it is important not to forget that MSzP is downward old sole party (Communist party), and that the great majority of its frameworks come from it, where they often occupied of the important stations.
The SzDSz is a Liberal party. Liberal as for his economic doctrines (some would even say, “ultra liberal”), it is it also with regard to the security questions; SzDSz defends the women's right, of the Homosexuel S, the ethnic minorities, is more tolerant as for the consumption of soft Drogues, etc… SzDSz is regarded as the “Party of the Intellectuel S”, and is resulting from the Dissidence years 1970-80; it is one of the formations known as " historiques" who took part in the change of mode of the years 1988-89.
The relations between the two parties of the coalition are not always easy; MSzP has a weight much more important with the Parlement, whereas SzDSz counts only some deputies: with the last elections of 2002, it, with sorrow, crossed the threshold of the 5% enabling him to be represented at the Parliament.
The opposition present at the Parliament joins together the two principal parties of the old preserving coalition to the capacity of 1998 at 2002. The Fidesz (Union of the young democrats carried out by the very charismatic Viktor Orbán) and MDF (Hungarian Democratic Forum).
Fidesz is indissociable of its leader, Viktor Orbán, very popular among the electorate of right-hand side. It is a Conservative party with tendency Nationaliste. Fidesz is more skeptic vis-a-vis the European Union than the left, it intends to preserve the " traditional values hongroises". Of a liberal party of Center right, it was gradually transformed into conservative party with nationalist tendency during its mandate of 1998 to 2002. Fidesz is resulting from dissidence; during the regime change, it was only one small part which became extensive especially in the years 1990.
MDF is a Christian conservative party , often considered as a little more in the center that Fidesz. The MDF was, with the liberals of SzDSz, one of the principal craftsmen of the regime change. It is this Party which gained the first free elections.
The relationship between Fidesz and the MDF is rather similar to those existing between the two parties of the coalition of left. Fidesz became hegemonic and hardly makes mystery want " absorber" the MDF. As for the MDF, its political influence did not cease decreasing: now the MDF is credited only with 2 or 3% with the voting intentions, and much are intended to say that if the MDF arrives at the 5% enabling him to enter to the Parliament, that will be one of the principal surprises of these elections.
Hungarian parliamentary life
In fact, the Hungarian parliamentary life takes the form of a system with two parties (Bipartisme). The MDF not being likely already practically any to return to the Parliament, and the liberals of SzDSz which can well not reach the bar of the 5%, that would leave face to face the two great parties: MSzP and Fidesz. Already were excluded from the parliamentary life the " Left the small holders " (old Left country) and the party of Extreme right-hand side (MIEP), for, in 2002, to give a Parliament with only 4 parties represented.
Hungarian political life
The political life in Hungary is unusually characterized by relationship violent one and heinous between the left and the right-hand side. The population takes part in this political struggle with excess. At the time of the legislative elections of 2002 the country was truly divided into two. The importance given to these elections largely exceeded its real stake. Viktor Orbán then invited to make stopping with the return of the " communistes" , supposed to sell the country abroad and to betray the Hungarian communities living in the adjoining countries - the question of the Minorité S Hungarian women then had a great importance in the political debate (population of Hungarian language living in Transylvania, Romania, in Slovakia and Serbia). As for the left, by pointing out the calls of the foot of Orban towards the extreme-right-hand side of the MIEP and its increasingly nationalist speech, it exhorted the population to defend the democracy against the tendencies extremists of the right-hand side.
Since, the situation calmed down much, even if the tensions remain strong. Fidesz mainly gave up its nationalist rhetoric. Although the party never admitted this analysis, much consider that its defeat of 2002 is due to the fact that it frightened its electorate, center.
In 2006, the Hungarian line expected to turn over to the capacity after 4 years in the opposition. Majority in the surveys until March, Fidesz however lost the elections. This failure constitutes a first in the Hungarian political life since the democratic transition, insofar as an outgoing government - this time the coalition of center-left formed by the MSZP (socialist) and the SZDSZ (liberal) - succeeds in being maintained with the capacity. Many analysts allot this new electoral failure of Fidesz to its incapacity to resolder itself after 2002, and especially to populist rhetoric that these principal leaders never have completely abandoned during the last years.
Following the victory of the left, the Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány (arrived at the capacity in October 2004, following alleged a " coup" reversing Peter Medgyessy, organized in the rows of the MSZP), in reforms to vocation especially Néo-liberal E launches out. Since the beginning of the year 2006, the Budget deficit of the country is likely to harm the operation of sound Public service and to blame the Compétitivité of sound economy. These reform S, marked in particular by a rise of the Taxes and important Dismissal S in the Public office, is largely discussed, not only in the rows of the right-wing opposition, but also within the Socialist party because in total contradiction with the electoral promises.
The political situation degenerates on September 17th, 2006 when these electoral lies are revealed at the great day by the diffusion with the radio of remarks made by Ferenc Gyurcsány at an internal meeting of the Socialist party in May 2006, that is to say one month after the electoral victory of the Socialists:
“We have shit (...). Nobody in Europe made similar conneries, except us (...). It is obvious that we lied throughout the last eighteen months… We did everything to keep secret at the end of the electoral campaign that for which the country requires really, which we intend to do after the electoral victory: we all knew it, after the victory, it is necessary to put ourselves at work, because we never had problem of this scale”
Demonstrators mass before the Parliament in Budapest and immediately ask for the resignation of the Prime Minister and the behavior of new elections. Among these demonstrators, sympathizers of Fidesz, but also of the nationalist members of groups like the HVIM whose President of the time, László Toroczkai, will invite crowd to express in front of the building of the châine of MTV television following the refusal of this chain to diffuse a petition asking the President of the Republic to dissolve the Parliament and to organize new elections. This demonstration in front of the MTV building will degenerate into confrontations violent one between police force and demonstrators and confusion of the building.
In the months which will follow, other mass demonstrations against the government will know bloody events, in particular on October 23rd, 2006, that is to say 50 years exactly after the insurrection of Budapest of 1956 against Communism.
See also: Economy of Hungary, List of Hungarian companies
The departments of Hungary are with the number of 19 . They say " megye " (delivery " mèdiè") in Hungarian.
Significance of the armorial bearings
The Armoiries became officially those of Hungary in 1990.
Order of appearance of the elements:
the Cross of Lorraine: Hungarian national symbol, since 1200 on the armorial bearings. Symbol of the kings of Anjou, of which the Dynasty assied on the Hungarian throne at the 14th century with Charles-Robert Ier (Károly Róbert Ier).
- three hills: Product of the dynastic relationship with Naples (Italy) at the 13th century. At the beginning, the cross of Lorraine rested on three feet. Then, these three feet became white hills and still changed to give those which we have today.
- red and white bands: end 12th, beginning 13th: they are the colors, laid out thus, of the banner of Árpád conquering Hungarian territory in 896.
- the crown under the cross of Lorraine: It has been there for 600 years.
Note: The legend wants that the cross surmounting the crown of king de Hongrie is leaning because of the voyage animated between Rome and Hungary. The Pope Sylvestre II having made send the aforementioned crown by an escort to horse. Damaged during this voyage, the crown would have been brought thus to the king Etienne Ier (István Ier). It could also be a question owing to the fact that when the Turks invaded the country it would have been buried to be hidden but deformed.
The most important religion in Hungary is the Catholicisme (67,5%), as well as a minority considerable calvinist (20%). The other minority religions include/understand the Musulman S (5,8%), the Luthérien S (5%) and the Juifs (0,2%).
See also: Demography of Hungary, Magyar
; Census of 2001 The population is in constant reduction since the beginning of the years 1970 and one estimates that it will count 6-7 000 000 inhabitants about 2050.
95 to 98% of the population speaks the Hungarian, a Finno-ugric language completely different from the languages of the adjoining countries. There are several ethnic minorities, like the Roms (6 to 8%), the German (2%), the Slovaque S (1%), the Croatian (0,8%), the Rumanian (0,3%).
Several important Minorité S Hungarian women lives at the border of the adjoining countries, in particular in Slovakia, Romania (Transylvania) and in Serbia (Voïvodine), which is not without causing some diplomatic problems because of the Nationalisme posted by the line Hungarian Populiste (proposal to grant the statute of Hungarian citizen to nearly 1,5 million Magyars which live abroad, proposal already disallowed at the time of the Référendum of the autumn 2005). The country also counts to a small Muslim community estimated at 60.000 people.
the Rubik Cubes by Ernő Rubik
- the Ball point pen by László József Biró
- the Vitamine C by Albert Szent-Györgyi
- the clamp, introduced in Europe by the riding S Magyars at the 10th century
- the modern Allumette by János Irinyi
- Endre Ady - Poet (1877 - 1919)
- Béla Balassa - economist (1928 - 1991)
- Bálint Balassi - Hungarian Poet of the Rebirth (1554 - 1594)
- István Bibó - Historian, Political economist (1911 - 1979)
- Béla Bartók - Type-setter (1881 - 1945)
- János Bolyai - Mathematician (1802 - 1860)
- Brassaï (Gyula Halász) - Photographe (1899 - 1984)
- Robert Wrapped (André Friedmann) - photographer (1913 - 1954)
- Michael Curtiz (Mano Kertész Kaminer) - Cinéaste (1888 - 1962)
- György Cziffra - Pianiste (1921 - 1994)
- Paul Erdős - mathematician (1913 - 1996)
- Peter Esterházy - writer (1950)
- Sándor Ferenczi - Psychoanalyst (1873 - 1933)
- Annie Fischer - pianist (1914 - 1995)
- Ferenc Fricsay - Leader (1914 - 1963)
- Refusals Gábor - Physicist (1900 - 1979), Nobel Prize 1971
- Zsa Zsa Gabor - Actress (1917)
- Alexandre Hollan - painter (1933)
- Harry Houdini (Ehrich Weiss) - magician (1874 - 1926)
- Jenő Hubay - Violonist Virtuoso (1858 - 1937)
- Gyula Illyés - poet, writer (1902 - 1983)
- Miklós Jancsó - scenario writer (1921)
- Joseph Joachim - violonist and Pedagog (1831 - 1907)
- Attila József - poet (1905 - 1937)
- János Kádár - Politician (1912 - 1989)
- Imre Kálmán (Emmerich) - Type-setter of Operetta S (1882 - 1953)
- Frigyes Karinthy - Novelist (1887-1938)
- Count Mihály Károlyi - politician (1875 - 1955)
- Andre Kertész - photographer (1894 - 1985)
- Imre Kertész - Novelist (1929)
- Zoltán Kocsis - pianist (1952)
- Zoltán Kodály - type-setter and Musicologist (1882 - 1967)
- Arthur Koestler - (1905 - 1983)
- Ferenc Kölcsey - creative of the National anthem (1790 - 1838)
- Sándor Kónya - Tenor of opera (1923 - 2002)
- Alexandre Korda (Alexander) - producing and Realizer of cinema (1893 - 1956)
- Lajos Kossuth - politician, National hero (1802 - 1894)
- Dezső Kosztolányi - writer (1885 - 1936)
- Gyula Krúdy - writer (1887 - 1933)
- György Kurtag - type-setter (1926)
- Peter Lax - mathematician (1926)
- Ödön Lechner - Architect (1845 - 1914)
- Franz Lehar - type-setter (1870 - 1948)
- György Ligeti - type-setter (1923 - 2006)
- Franz Liszt (Ferenc) - type-setter and pianist (1811 - 1886)
- Peter Lorre (Laszlo Löwenstein) - Acteur (1904 - 1964)
- Bleated Lugosi (Blasko) - actor (1882 - 1956)
- Georg Lukács - Philosophe (1885 - 1971)
- Sandor Marai - novelist (1900 - 1989)
- Eva Marton - Professional singer (1943)
- Mihály Munkácsy - painter (1844 - 1900)
- Josef Nadj - Dancer, Choreographer (1950)
- Imre Nagy - politician, Chief of the government during the Insurrection of Budapest in 1956 (1896 - 1958)
- John von Neumann (Janos Lajos Neumann) - mathematician (1903 - 1957)
- Eugene Ormandy (Jenö Blau) - leader (1899 - 1985)
- Sándor Petőfi - poet, Cantor of the nation, national hero (1823 - 1849)
- Ferenc Puskas - Footballer (1927 - 2006)
- Miklós Radnóti - poet (1909 - 1944)
- François II Rákóczy - prince of Hungary and Transylvania (1676 - 1735)
- Fritz Reiner - leader (1888 - 1963)
- Frigyes Riesz - mathematician (1880 - 1956)
- József Rippl-Rónai - painter (1861 - 1927)
- Miklós Rózsa - type-setter of Film music S (1907 - 1995)
- Ákos S. - Jazzman (1966)
- Georg Solti (György Steiner) - leader (1912 - 1997)
- István Szabó - Scenario writer (1938)
- Thomas Szasz - psychoanalyst (1920)
- Count István Széchenyi - Politician, modernisator of Hungary (1791 - 1860)
- Georg Szell - leader (1897 - 1970)
- Albert Szent-Györgyi - Biochemist (1893 - 1986), Nobel Prize 1937
- Antal Szerb - writer (1901 - 1945)
- Leó Szilárd - Physicist (1898 - 1964)
- Leopold Szondi - Psychiatrist (1893 - 1986)
- Béla Tarr - scenario writer (1949)
- Edward Teller (Teller Ede) - physicist (1908)
- Victor Vasarely - painter and Plastics technician (1908 - 1997)
- Ibolya Virag - editor, literary Translator (1950)
- Mihály Vörösmarty - Poet (1800 - 1855)
- Eugene Wigner - physicist (1902 - 1995)
- Ephraim Kishon (Ferenc Kishont) - writer (1924 - 2005)
- Official site of the Hungarian government
- Official site of the Tourist bureau of Hungary in Belgium
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