The Fer with Cheval is a band of metal bent out of U serving to protect from wear the lower part of the shoes as the équidé S. the invention dates from the 9th century.
The Marshal-shoeing is the craftsman specialist in the door-fitting of the horses. Formerly sedentary and in addition Blacksmith, the modern Marshal-shoeing is specialized and moves its material from one site to another to shoe équidés where they are, even on their places of Pâturage.
HistoryThe Greek S did not know the fitting. Xénophon mentions the embatai , part of Cuir laced to protect the feet in the grounds Abrasif S. Towards 330 before JC, military operations of Cavalerie of Alexandre Large the had to be stopped to make it possible the horses to reform the horn their feet.
However, the opinion of Diderot in its Encyclopédie is different; however, Homère and Appien mention horseshoe, the first in the 151e worms of the second book of the Iliade , the other in its book of Bello mithridatico .
The Romain S invented the hipposandale : part of Metal recovering the horn and going up partly on the shoe, maintained by Lace S of Leather. It is mentioned that the Empereur Néron made shoe its iron horses of Argent, and its wife Poppée her mules of Or. The means of behavior is alas not specified. A modern form of the hipposandale exists nowadays but its use is marginal.
Excavations of the tumuli of warriors Mongolian S of this time found circular irons, fixed only on their edge of external support. At the beginning of the the Middle Ages, appears nailed iron. The Pinçon appears him about the 15th century.
The Maréchalerie is codified with Jacques de Solleysel (1664), has of Garsault (1771), Philippe-Etienne Lafosse (1803), and Claude Bourgelat (1804).
The 20th century sees with the appearance of new materials and Alliage S, the development of irons in Aluminum, in Plastic, the Amortisseur S containing Silicone and the resin S composite S to reinforce the wall of the shoes.
Parts of iron
- One describes with iron four parts, the grip (left before), the udder then the district (left side) and finally the sponge (left back). The edges of iron are called banks , the distance between banks is called cover .
- the vault is the internal bank of iron corresponding to the external bank grip.
- irons are bored holes intended to allow the passage of the nails. The end of the hole located towards the ground is called étampure , that directed towards the shoe is called nailhole . Iron is known as stamped with fat when the étampures are far away from external bank, stamped with thin in the contrary case.
- the let us grip are edges of iron, of triangular form, intended to stabilize the behavior of iron. Generally, former irons carry only one pinçon while posterior both.
- Of the mortises to cramps can be dug on iron; they are threaded openings making it possible to screw cramps on iron in order to improve the behavior on slipping ground.
- the trimming is the width of iron exceeding outside the foot and the ajusture the part of the iron which is not in contact with the shoe inside the foot. The ajusture is sometimes bevelled to relieve the support of certain parts of the foot.
- the former irons are of round form, almost equal width and length. The sponges are identical to those of the posterior ones.
- the posterior irons are more oval, and of share the fact that they have two in general let us grip at the level of the udder, it is possible thus “to move back” iron, i.e. to put it back foot. Thus, the horse is less likely to touch the former ones while moving.
- One distinguishes right irons from left irons by their branch interns right and stamped more with thin than the external branch.
The nails to be shoed comprise several parts:
- the head , made up of the striking intended to receive the blows of hammer, and the collet which will be inserted in étampure. The collet of the nail must be adapted to étampure and the groove of iron.
- the blade length adapted to the size of the foot is prolonged by the barley grain.
- the grain of barley is a bulge which makes deviate the nail towards the outside of the foot. The oblique part of the barley grain is called affilure , it must be placed towards the interior of the foot.
- once the planted nail, its external end is bent and cut thus forming the rivet .
Methods of fitting
- fitting with the Frenchwoman : iron is heated then adjusted with the plantar turning of the foot. The horn being insulating, iron can be posed hot, to make it possible to rectify its turning after checking at the time of posed. The Marshal-shoeing is made assist by an assistance (“content of feet”) which maintains the shoe with the hand while making use of a leather thin strap.
fitting with English the : the Marshal-shoeing bottle pincers only, hot or cold, by maintaining the shoe on or between the knees. This method of fitting spread in France. In addition to the economy of a person, it allows marshal-shoeing to have a good vision of the shoe.
fitting with work : The horse is immobilized in a frame by means of straps. This technique hardly is used, it was useful mainly for the heavy oxen and horses. She is regarded as very coercive and reserved for the difficult cases or the heavy horses which did not learn has to give the feet suitably, as that arrives sometimes in the young draft horses.
See also: Marshal-shoeing
Various types of irons
covered irons less thick in general, allow a better protection of the foot. They can be widened as a whole or only in one part (half-covers, covered out of grip, sponge, etc).
- released irons are narrower and light, they are mainly used in race.
- nourished irons are thicker than the normal, they can be with commercial the i.e. constant thickness or nourished out of grip, udder, internal or external branch. These irons are used to cure defects of balance or to protect from the sensitive feet
- truncated irons in various parts are used to protect the members from the horses which forge (touch sponge of former iron with the grip of posterior) or are reached (are wounded the members with their iron).
- irons with slipper or désencasteleurs have bank interns thicker than external bank to make it possible the heels to deviate.
- irons with board have sponges joined together by a metal bar allowing a good support the level of the fork. They are used in the fitting of the disease naviculaire.
- irons schneider have a board joining together sponges and a second, perpendicular to the first fixed to the vault, is used in fourbures.
- the oval irons or egg bar shoes relieve the posterior part of the foot.
- irons with all feet are used like help in excursion. They are articulated out of grip and are bored many étampures, in order not to have to transport a complete iron set.
- the reversed irons whose grip is directed backwards are used to support the course of the tread.
- the irons out of standard plastic Easywalker (TM) can allow a better comfort and a lightening of the fitting.
- of leather the plates or plastic can be interposed between iron and the shoe. They play a part of protection of the plate and damping. silicone can also be injected under the plate to reinforce the effects of them.
- the irons in M : with the rising of the foot, iron draws a M whose median branch supports the fork; they are used in the treatment of fourbure and strongly relieve the horse.
Accidents of fitting
the puncture is the penetration of a nail in the sharp parts of the foot.
- the enclouure is a puncture not rectified with often formation of an abscess.
- the tight foot is the consequence of an iron too stitched close to sponges and not making it possible the fork to play its shock absorber part.
- the heated or burned plate is due to the too long-term application of a too hot iron.
See also: Foot (horse)
One says “Not foot, not horse”, which summarizes the importance of the health of the feet of the horse to provide a work. The horseshoe plays a part of protection of the shoe and the saving of a premature wear. According to the speed of growth of the horn and conditions of use of the horse, the fitting will have to be renewed all the 6 to 8 weeks. In nature, a horse does not need iron because the speed of growth of the horn is equal at its speed of wear.
One took the practice to shoe the domestic horse, subjected to working stresses (to carry a rider, to move on abrasive grounds as sand). Certain domestic horses do not require iron with the posterior feet.
The horseshoe is regarded as an object having virtues amulet. This legendary virtue undoubtedly comes owing to the fact that a stray horseshoe was resold with the Forgeron and thus made it possible to collect some hard cash of them. The horseshoes, because of cold hammering that they undergo, were remelted for various uses. The worn and reforged horseshoes were named piece bourru . Iron as a metal would protect from the bad influences and misfortune. One also sees in his shape the initial one of the Christ or the crescent of the moon, symbol of fertility and chance. To carry happiness, iron must be placed sponges upwards: “so that happiness does not fall”! Preferably it is also necessary that it is found by chance on the road, and still provided with its nails.
Another origin of this tradition is the legend of Saint Dunstan, blacksmith who will become archbishop of Canterbury into 959. The devil having led its horse to him to shoe, Dunstan nailed iron on the foot fourchu demon. That Ci had to promise, in order to be released, never not to enter a house protected by a horseshoe.
AstronomyThe nebulous of the Horseshoe is one of the names of the nebula M17 located in the Sagittarius.
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