The horse-drawn traction , more rarely called equine traction or equestrian traction , is the use of horses as forces traction of the Véhicule S. It was largely used formerly in all the fields of transport (carriage of people and goods, agriculture, armed (in particular for the traction of artillery). Nowadays, it strongly regressed in the developed countries where its principal use is confined with the leisures and the Sport, but is used still much in the third world.
Tanks in Antiquity
- During the Antiquity, the Attelage was done by means of a strap passing in front of the neck of the animal, thus the horse was strangled by the effort, and its capacity of traction was limited. Also it was an important technical evolution when, as from the 10th century, one invented the collar of attachment, which, making carry the point of effort on the shoulders, allowed a much better output. That at the time constituted a true revolution in the capacities of Transport.
Another progress was the establishment of the Relais of station, where the Diligence S could replace, to regular intervals, their horses tired by fresh horses. That enabled them to ensure a mean velocity going up to 120 kilometers per day. This means of transport knew its apogee about 1800.
Use in Agriculture
Equine traction, except in certain areas where prevailed bovine traction, was the principal method of traction until in the first years of after Second world war; above in 1946.
The use of the horses in agriculture largely developed at the XIXe century and during the first half of the XXe century, which saw the development of a mechanization adapted to the horse. Then it almost completely disappeared in the countries developed with the motorization (tractor S, Motoculteur S, motorized machines…). That allowed augementer in a significant way the Productivité of agriculture in these countries thanks to the increase in power thus allowed and, in parallel, by the release of the surfaces devoted to the food of the horses (culture of oats in particular). Horse-drawn traction is however always used though marginally for certain particular agricultural productions: Vine growing, Truck farming, Unloading of wood.
This mode of traction remains long-lived in the countries of the Tiers-monde where it is even often promoted because of the rises of productivity which it allows compared to the manual work of the ground.
Devices being able to be tractor drawn
Vehicles: to see List of the horse-drawn vehicles
- mowing turn-about plow
- rake with hay
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