See also: HongKong (homonymy)
HongKong (Chinese: 香港 , literally Port with the Perfumes ,) largest and is populated of both special administrative areas (CLOSE-CROPPED) of the Popular republic of China (RPC). It counts approximately seven million inhabitants.
HongKong is located on Eastern bank of the River of the Pearls, on the southern part of China and it is bathed by the southernmost China Sea. It is next to the province of the Guangdong in north. HongKong is the richest city of China; its economy is one of most liberal in the world. It is a financial and commercial pole of world scale.
British colony as from 1842, reassigned in China in 1997, HongKong keeps characteristics within the Popular republic of China. A particular fundamental law determines its political regime. She obeys the principle “a country, two systems”, which makes it possible HongKong to preserve her legal system, her currency, her political system, her international sporting teams and her laws on immigration. According to the terms of the declaration sino-British commune, China promised that HongKong would keep a relative autonomy until at least 2047, that is to say 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty.
The city counts: 20500 British residents (they were: 25500 in 1996). The majority are expatriates employed by multinationals or contractors installed with their family. Since the retrocession, the streets kept their double name, in English and in Cantonese, the cars run on the left and the clubs of golf fill the tank. However, on the economic plan, policy and cultural, the influence of the United States takes the step on that of the United Kingdom: the delegations of American diplomats are more frequent than those of Foreign Office.
Historydetailed Article: History of HongKong Although occupied since the Neolithic at least, the territory of what constitutes HongKong today remained out of the majority of the major events of the imperial China during all its history. It started to become a point of world attraction only at the 19th century.
In 1841, at the time of the First war of opium, English takes possession of the Île of HongKong, island of 80km ² located near Canton, large commercial port between China and Europe. It counts then approximately 6000 inhabitants, fishermen especially, and charcoal producers. The transfer is officialized by the Traité of Nankin (1842), the island becomes a advanced strategic Chinese ground station and an active commercial port. At the conclusion of the Second war of opium, China must give up the peninsula of Kowloon, which is in the north of the island (Convention of Beijing, 1860). As of these first decades, the population of HongKong increases quickly. Many people arrive from China, where rage the Rébellion Taiping makes: the census of 1865 counts 125.504 residents, including 2000 Europeans or American. In 1898, the British territory increases again, with what one called 1898 the Nouveaux Territories in by Emphytéose for a ninety years lease. Among the new acquired territories were New Kowloon and the island of Lantau, which according to the current language is not included any more in the new territories.
The population growth continues, and various economic activities develop. The population however remains rather poor on average. HongKong counts 1,6 million inhabitants in 1941. the territory very strongly suffers at the time of the Japanese occupation, and the population goes down again to 600.000. With the come to power of the Communists in China (1949) an surge of refugees occurs.
HongKong knows as from the years 1960 an economic advancement. This one is initially especially founded on the textile, then, as from the years 1970, finance occupies a major place in the economy of the territory. In the Years 1990, the Chinese president Deng Xiaoping had the idea to make use of the Chinese zones close to HongKong to encourage the investors to bring their technological capital and know-how, all in their offering a many, cheap and hard-working labor as well as a light taxation. It is the policy known as “a country, two systems”.
Following the agreement signed between the RPC and the the United Kingdom the December 19th 1984, called Joint Declaration sino-British, the territory of HongKong became a special administrative area of the RPC on July 1st, 1997.
HongKong was touched by the Asian crisis of 1997, then by the epidemic of SARS which made 293 dead in 2003.
Geographydetailed Article: Geography of HongKong
The emerged grounds of HongKong represent approximately 1100 km ². The island of HongKong represents only one small portion of it. There approximately exist also 260 other islands, but the essence of the territory is attached to the continent. HongKong can be regarded (2007) as the fourth city most populated of China, after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin. However, the population densities are very variable according to the zones. The areas of relief many and are populated little. The Tai Mo Shan, the culminating point, rises with 958 meters, it is towards North. In all, only a third of the territory is built. but in certain places, the densities are sometimes very high.
The island of HongKong, the first territory colonized by the British, makes a little more than 80 square kilometers. The north of the island, in particular what forms Central now, was urbanized in first. It is a particularly dense and developed district today, in particular like tertiary center. It is there that are the skyscrapers emblematic of HongKong. More inside the island, the Pic Victoria rises with 552 meters, one finds residences of great luxury in this zone.
A little in north the island, to which it is connected by tunnels, is Kowloon, where the résentielles densities are particularly high. A new district of offices, Union Public garden, is there also in construction, it will shelter the higher building of HongKong. More in North still, in the New Territories, the densities are overall raised, but in rise.
In the west of the island of HongKong, the island of Lantau, vastest of the territory is. The densities are much lower there than the average. The International airport of HongKong, open in 1998, is near to this island, directly in North, which has on it repercussions.
The climate of HongKong is a subtropical climate at dry winter (Cwa according to the Classification of Köppen).
The winter (January and February) is cloudy but the rain is very rare there; the average temperatures are of approximately 17°C.
Spring and the summer (Mars at October) are hot, wet and rainy; the average temperatures go from 20°C (Mars) to 29°C (July). From June to September the temperature exceeds 30°C almost the every day and the rain is abundant.
The autumn (November and December) is regarded as the most pleasant period: time is sunny and the temperatures are soft (15-25°C).
HongKong often undergoes typhoons. The September 18th 1906, a typhoon or large (Tai) wind (Foun) and a Tsunami made 10.000 victims.
Political organization, legal and administrative
detailed Article: Political organization of HongKong
HongKong is directed by a chief of the executive which is with the head of the government. The station is occupied by Donald Tsang. He was elected the June 16th, 2005 and finishes the mandate of Tung Chee Hwa finishing on June 30th, 2007 according to the interpretation of Appendix 1 and article 46 by the Standing Committee of the Popular national assembly
The government is composed of 14 ministers responsible in front of the chief for the executive. It is assisted of a council, the executive council . The Parliament adopts the laws but does not control the executive. It is composed of 60 members, a half being elected by the vote for all in geographical districts, the other being elected in districts known as “functional” made up according to the branch of industry.
The important parties are the democratic Alliance for Progress, pro-Beijing and the democratic Alliance for the Improvement of HongKong, favorable to independence and the democracy.
Legal systemUnder the terms of the fundamental law of HongKong and Joint Declaration sino-British, HongKong has a legal and legal system distinct from that of continental China.
HongKong thus kept the tradition of the Common law established at the time of British colonization whereas continental China obeys a system of civil law. Moreover, the rules of the common law and the laws in force before the retrocession remain valid except if they contradict the fundamental law. HongKong does not obey the national laws of the Popular republic of China except exceptions (defense, foreign affairs)
Article 84 of the Fundamental law of HongKong authorizes the courts hongkongais to refer to the decisions returned by the other courts of common law, according to the principle of the preceding . Articles 82 and 92 authorize the invitation of judges of other jurisdictions of common law to be taken part in the procedure of the final Court of Appeal of HongKong and to sit like judges HongKong.
The legal system hongkongais consists mainly of a final Court of Appeal which replaces the Judicial Committee off the Privy Council, the High court, made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of first authority and the Short District which includes the family Court.
The judges of the final Court of Appeal are named by the chief of the executive hongkongais. The fundamental law of HongKong can be interpreted by the Standing Committee of the Popular national assembly. This capacity was called upon three times.
As in the United Kingdom, the lawyers hongkongais can be Barrister S or Solicitor S but cannot cumulate the two functions. The great majority are solicitors which graduate and are governed by Law Society off HongKong, whereas the barristers are it by HongKong Bar Association.
Administratively, HongKong is divided into 18 districts:
Central and Western (中西區)
- Eastern (東區)
- Islands (離島區)
- Kowloon City (九龍城區)
- Kwai Tsing (葵青區)
- Kwun Tong (觀塘區)
- North District (北區)
- Sai Kung (西貢區)
- Sham Shui Po (深水埗區)
- Sha Chock (沙田區)
- Southern (南區)
- Tai Po (大埔區)
- Tsuen Wan (荃灣區)
- Tuen Mun (屯門區)
- Wan Wine storehouse (灣仔區)
- Wong Tai Sin (黃大仙區)
- Yau Tsim Mong (油尖旺區)
- Long Yuen (元朗區)
HongKong east indeed composed of several cities including Kowloon, Tsuen Wan and Sha Chock, three of the greatest communities of the administrative area. Nevertheless, these cities do not have administrative authority and they are sometimes divided between the districts.
to see city population:: population of the districts at the 7/1/2005
Subway of HongKong, or MTR
- HongKong trams, inaugurated in 1888.
- International airport of HongKong
- Wearing of HongKong
- Kowloon-Canton Railway, or KCR, the urban network of trains.
See also: Economy of HongKong, List of companies of Hong-Kong
HongKong has one of the most liberal economies of the world and is primarily exempted taxes. It is the 11th commercial entity and the 13th financial center in the world. International center of the trade and the Finance, HongKong had in June 2005 more consulates than any other city in the world: 107 compared with 93 for New York.
Honk Kong is the richest city of Asia with a GDP per capita of 310.021¥. It is largely higher than that of Shanghai which is only of 46.586¥. It is comparable with that of the Western nations with PIB/hbt of 37.400 USD against an average of 30.000 USD for the four larger European economies.
The growth was of 8,9% in the Années 1970 then slows down After the Asian Crise of 1997, unemployment rate reaches 9% of the active population in 2003. But the economy rebounds quickly with a growth of 10% in 2000. The objective of the monetary policy hongkongaise is to maintain stability monetary. Being given its opening towards outside, it is a question in practice of maintaining foreign exchange rate with 7,80 dollars hongkongais for 1 American dollar. Since 2005, the exchange is done between 7,75 HK$ and 7,85 HK$.
HongKong has limited natural resources and most of food and raw materials must be imported. In fact, the imports and exports are higher than the GDP of HongKong. The city is very related to the Popular republic of China for the trade and the investments even before the retrocession of 1997. Its close links with China and its autonomous statute offer to HongKong the role of intermediary between continental China and Taiwan.
The service sector accounted for 86,5% of the GDP in 2001. Thanks to a sophisticated financial sector and with powerful communications, HongKong is the Asian seat of many multinational firms. In 2002, the irruption of the SARS and a world deceleration slow down the growth with 2,3%. A sustained high growth begins again quickly thanks to various factors:
- increase in external and local demand. The consumers hongkongais took again confidence, and exports are supported by the weakness of the Dollar hongkongais.
- the surge of the tourists coming from continental China. The RPC authorizes since July 28th, 2003 certain Chinese to visit HongKong apart from voyages organized in groups.
- the installation of an agreement of free trade, the CEPA.
Beside Singapore, South Korea and of Taiwan, the economic development of HongKong did of it one of the four Asian dragons.
According to the Bank of businesses Merrill Lynch, athmospheric pollution in HongKong strongly decreases the competitiveness of HongKong, in particular vis-a-vis Singapore. The workers hong-kongais and their families preferring to leave HongKong to preserve their health.
detailed Article: Demography of HongKong
HongKong is the fifth urban Aire of China (Liste of the towns of China per many inhabitants). Considered independently, HongKong east one of the territories most populated in the world with a density of 6 700 habitants/km ². If account is held that, because of the reliefs, only one fifth of the territory is constructible, the urban concentration thus reaches on average more 30 000 habitants/km ².
The population of the city undergoes an ageing common to the worldwide: in 2033,27% of the population will have more than 65 years according to the South China Morning Post . Birth rate is one of weakest world (9,3 per thousand inhabitants). Much Hongkongais left in front of the surge the peasants the interior and to flee atmospheric pollution
The Western theater and the Cantonese opera coexist on the scenes.
LanguagesThe Cantonese is one of the official languages of HongKong. He is spoken and taught in the schools. Its use is generalized as well in the family life as in the social life. The influence of the media and the musical culture of the Cantopop ensure an important place Cantonese as much in HongKong that with the close Guangdong and that in the Chinese communities of overseas (San Francisco, Vancouver, Toronto, New York, Los Angeles and the Malaysia). HongKong became the arts center of the Cantonese surface, having détrôné Guangzhou where this language does not have any official statute vis-a-vis the Mandarin.
The English is rather widespread. He is spoken especially in the commercial reports/ratios and with all the foreigners in general. The government hongkongais has a policy of bilingualism in posting (bilingual road signs, subtitles of films projected in room or with the TV, etc). He is taught in all the schools since the primary education, of many television commercials encourage Hongkongais to learn English to communicate with the foreigners and to make brilliant studies. It is estimated that a third of the population is able to usually use it. The fraction of native english-speaking is negligible. However, the return of HongKong to China caused an renewed interest for Mandarin. One easily finds methods of languages to learn English and Mandarin; on the other hand, Cantonese is often regarded as " useless with apprendre" by the Westerners, who prefer to him Mandarin spoken in continental China. Dialects are spoken has HongKong by populations like Tanka, Hakka, Hoklos, some are drawn from Cantonese like Po One.
See also: Cantonese Kitchen ~ Chinese Mythology ~ Media in HongKong
Higher educationdetailed Article: Education in HongKong
There are eight universities and of many centers of higher education
- City University off HongKong
- University Lingnan
- University Baptist of free HongKong
- University of HongKong
- Chinese University of HongKong (CUHK)
- HongKong Polytechnic University (HKPU)
- HongKong University off Science and Technology (HKUST)
- University of HongKong
- HongKong Shue Yan University
- Other institutions
- The HongKong Institute off Education
- College Chu Hai ** Hongkongais Institute of professional training
SportOld British colony and special administrative zone within China, HongKong generally takes part in the international sporting events under her own banner. Two Olympic medals for HongKong: a gold medal with Atlanta in 1996 in Board with veil female Mistral (Lay Lee Shan) and a money medal for the double Sirs in Table tennis in 2004 with Athens (Lay KB Chak and Li Ching)
The territory must accommodate the tests of horsemanship within the framework of the Olympic Games of summer of 2008 with Beijing.
Space is limited to HongKong. The densities are strong and of many spaces were conquered on the sea. HongKong is known for the big number of its scrapes sky. Some, located on the island of HongKong are particularly famous, as the Bank off Clouded Tower, drawn by I. Mr. Pei and the Two International Finances Center with Cesar Pelli.
According to the classification of the real group Knight Frank and of ISIC Private Bank, HongKong is the fourth most expensive city of the world (behind London, Monaco and New York) with regard to the prices of the real estate (: 19700 euros per square meter in the smartest districts).
HongKong is a crossroads of several Religions resulting from various cultural centres:
- religions of the Chinese World
- Buddhism Mahayana or Large Vehicle
- Aw Boon Haw
Natives of HongKong
- Amanda Lear
- Andy Lau
- Chow Yun-Conceited person
- Jackie Chan
- John Woo
- Leung Kwok-Hung
- Maggie Cheung
- Nicholas Tse
- Stephen Chow
CodesHongKong has as codes:
- B-H, BK and B-L, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- HK, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- HK, according to the standard ISO 3166-1, code alpha-2,
- HKG, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- HKG, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- VH: according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- ZZZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- ZZZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- the Commonwealth
- English Company of the Eastern Indies
- HongKong Observatory
- , Official site of the government of HK
- Site explaining the advantages of HK at the legal and tax level and its importance for the trade with China
- Film on HongKong
- Tv news on the retrocession
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