History of the video game
The first timesIn the Years 1950, while the computing systems develop small-with-small, three people can be credited to have had each one the idea to use them at ludic ends.
In 1951, Ralph Baer, an American engineer of the company Loral Electronics is charged to conceive “the best television of the world”. After reflection, it proposes to integrate a module of play into it, but this idea was refused by its employer. Thus, although not having really produced video games, it is generally credited as being the first anybody to have had the idea of a video game.
In 1952, A.S. Douglas of the Université of Cambridge in the United Kingdom is the first to carry out a video game on a EDSAC, a computer of the time, in order to illustrate its thesis on the man-machine interactions. It is about OXO , a crab-louse of which one of the players is controlled by the computer.
In 1958, Willy Higinbotham creates a play called Tennis for two to distract the visitors from the National laboratory of Brookhaven in New York. By connecting a Oscilloscope to a computer, Higinbotham proposes a kind of simplified tennis where two adversaries must return a ball above a net using two controllers.
These three events mark the first steps of the video game and finally the bases pose some (game console connected on a television set, use of the computer like adversary, external controls especially dedicated). Because of complexity and price of the computers at the time, it will be necessary to still wait a few years so that this ludic kind really starts in a practical and marketable form, as Borne of arcade or console of living room.
1961, a group of students of the MIT carried out by Steve Russell program a play named Spacewar on a PDP-1, the first minicomputer of the company DEC. The goal was not to create a play in itself, but to try out the possibilities of the new computer. Spacewar put in scene two spaceships, each one controlled by a player using joysticks created for the occasion, able to draw from the missiles; in the center of the screen, a black hole created a gravitational field and an additional danger. This play, unlike the preceding attempts, was quickly distributed with the new computers of DEC and was exchanged through the first steps of Internet. It is considered that it is about the first widely diffused video game and having had a real influence. Technically, the play weighed 9 KB and turned to 200 000 instructions a second.
Starting from 1965, Ken Thompson developed a Operating system based on Multics on behalf of the company AT&T, on the platform GE-645. Its motivation first was to make turn a play of its design named Space Travel , a simulation of our solar system. Although the play was never marketed (it cost 75$ per use besides) and that AT&T finally stopped the financing in 1969 of it, it is at the origin of the creation of UNIX.
In 1966, Ralph Baer (then at Sanders Associates ) created a very simple video game named Chase which could be played on an ordinary television set (an implementation of its idea first of 1951). Baer continued the development and produced in 1968 a prototype which can make turn various plays, preceding the modern game consoles.
In 1970 is born the play Beautiful Darwin with the Laboratoires. The principle: ends of data-processing code car-reproducers clash… A whole literature Cyberpunk , to start with “On the shock wave” of John Brunner (1974), will be born from this play for programmers (in 1984, famous Core War , it is a certain success and is always played 15 years later).
In 1971, Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney create a play of arcade paying based on Spacewar and names it Computer Space . Nutting Associates buys the play, engages Bushnell and manufactures 1 500 machines, first terminals of arcade of series of the video game. The play is not a success, probably because of its catch in complex hand.
In 1972, Nolan Bushnell creates the company Atari and develops the same year the first video game with great success: Pong . It is about a play based on tennis, each player controlling a metal disc which he can move from top to bottom on the screen. The ball is launched starting from the medium of the screen in a random direction and the players must return it. The programming, still rather summary, does not implement a potential adversary managed by the computer. All the parts must thus be played two. Atari sells 19 000 machines, thus beginning the passion from the public for the terminals of arcade, and is imitated soon by several competitors.
It is also in 1972 that the first game console for private individuals is marketed: the Magnavox Odyssey, based on work of Ralph Baer of 1968. It is a console intended to be connected to a television station. Built mainly starting from analogical electronics components, she was not a great success, although several companies proposing of the similar products (whose Atari) had to pay expenses of authorization during a certain time.
Lastly, always in 1972, William Crowther, a programmer amateur of roleplays, develops on PDP-10 of its company a software which it calls Adventure or The Colossal Undermines , the first Jeu of adventure video. It will be necessary to await 1977 and the explosion of microprocessing so that Scott Adams, between 1977 and 1985, carries out the migration of the kind towards the individual machines.
Exidy' S Death Race (1976) causes the first controversy on free violence in the video games, the object of the play being to crush “gremlins” - which resemble pedestrians - using a car.
In 1977, Atari launches its console Video Computer System , famous thereafter Atari 2600 . In 1979, the company Activision is created by a group of dissatisfied programmers of Atari. It is about the first third developer of video games.
1978: first appearance of Nintendo in this field with a terminal of arcade copied from the play éponyme, Othello . It is also the year when arrives Space Invaders in Europe. With the Japan, the first polemic around the degradation caused by the video games takes seat around this play. It had also been marked at the time to have caused a rupture of coins of Monnaie. It is also in 1978 qu ' appears in the United States the Magnavox Odyssey ² which succeeds Odyssey and which also leaves to Europe under the Philips mark, under another name: Videopac G7000 .
Beginning of the golden age of the arcade
The industry of the play of arcade enters a golden age in 1978 with the exit of Space Invaders of Taito . The play is such a success that he convinces of tens of manufacturers to penetrate the market by producing their own video games.
In 1979, Atari publishes Asteroids , its greater business success. Among the other traditional ones of this time, one can quote Lunar Lander , Night Driver , Missile Command , Berzerk , Breakout or Battlezone .
Video game on computerPoint of the sight of the consumers, the majority of the developments of the time occur on the terminals of arcade and the game consoles, however, the quick change of the personal computers in second half of the years 1970 makes it possible their users to program simple video games. Quickly, several of these plays (generally of the clones of the plays of arcade) are distributed by all kinds of channels, their source code often printed in books (the BASIC Computer Ranges of David Ahl, for example) or magazines ( Creative Computing in particular), which made it possible to type it at home.
Another means of distribution rested on the sending by the post office of diskettes, cassettes or cartridges, which created a small industry where programmers amateurs sold diskettes in plastic bags and sent them to their purchasers. Richard Garriott, for example, distributed this way several specimens of Akalabeth , the ancestor of the series Ultima , before the play is not published.
Years 1980At the beginning of the Years 1980, the video games are mainly played on terminals of arcade and the individual consoles, which are not spread as much, support only one limited number of plays, often badly adapted. Competed with by the personal computers, the Krach of the video game of 1983 starts. The video games then will develop mainly on the personal computers. Icons of the video game however will be born during this period. As from the moment when the market of the game consoles will start again, thanks to Nintendo in 1985, a distinction will be systematically carried out between plays on console and plays on computer.
Beginning of the year 19801980
- CAP-Man is published on terminal of arcade and becomes the most popular play of the moment. 100.000 machines are sold in the United States.
- the version on the Atari 2600 of Atari of Space Invaders is the largest sale of the year.
Ken and Roberta Williams launch Mystery House on APPLE II, the first graphic play of adventure: the description of the place running is not only any more based on a text, but on the posting of an image (a line traces a profile) to the screen. They will connect the successful series like King' S Quest , Space Quest , Leisure Suit Larry , etc During this time Infocom continuous to produce textual plays of adventure of great quality, but loses little by little its public. At the end of the decade, LucasArts between concerned and takes the changing with Maniac Mansion and Zak McKracken and the Alien Mindbenders , introducing a novel mode of play which is released from the keyboard to privilege the use of the mouse.
- the sales turnover of the companies of video games reaches 5 billion dollars in the United States.
- Shigeru Miyamoto is charged to improve Radar Scope , a play of arcade of Nintendo which was not sold the US market of course. Instead of that, Miyamoto decides to make another play: Donkey Kong , which is instantaneously a success.
- Coleco publishes the Colecovision , a console containing cartridges. Nintendo entrusts to him the license of Donkey Kong . Midway publishes ms. CAP-Man , Namco , Super CAP-Man .
- General To consume Electronics publishes the console Vectrex which proposes vectorial graphics.
- Commodore leaves the Commodore 64 and uses a very aggressive sales strategy. The market of the plays on console, already weakened by a dispersion of the formats and a low quality, crumbles with the end of the year.
Appearance of the personal computersThe diffusion with large scales of the microcomputers starts. The video games adapt to this new support (APPLE II, ZX80, Commodore 64, MSX, Amstrad CPC, etc). They are then especially plays of arcade to the elementary graphics whose loading, starting from audio cassettes, can be very long.
The revival of the game consolesIn 1983, Nintendo, Japanese company which had a name in the charts to be played and the field of the plays, leave the Famicom, individual game console. Its starting is slow, but the plays suggested make increase the request. In 1984, Sega leaves the Super Mark III, or Master System, its competitor. It will never exceed the 11% of market shares. Indeed, the Famicom, become BORN with the the United States and in Europe is practically alone with each launching and profits from the massive support of the third editors. The video games leave the crisis, thanks to a production and an innovation which make increase the request. the icons Mario, Donkey Kong, Metroid, The Legend off Zelda draw the machine upwards. The BORN will be sold with more than 50 million specimen until in 1990.
At the beginning of 1990, the market consoles still is dominated by Nintendo and its Famicom, opposed to the Master System of Sega. But Nintendo still has the support of the editors. In 1990, the sales of Nintendo fly away thanks to Super Mario Bros. 3 . And it is not only the hit of a machine which perforates the records of sales. This emblem of the increase of the sales of video games encourages SNK to leave the two versions the Neo-Geo, console and arcade. But the failures are numerous, like the commercial failure of the TDCI (compact interactive disc) of Philips. To counter Nintendo, Sega develops the Genesis, a very powerful console for the time, and creates its icon, Sonic. In 1991, Nintendo leaves the Super-BORN. Its late exit is compensated by the tactics of Nintendo: only the plays make sell the console. Exit of the first play of combat with success, Street Fighter II of Capcom, on Super-Born. Super Mario Kart , Final Fantasy VI , Super Metroid , Super Mario World will push the sales of the console thanks to graphics higher than Génesis. Those will do nothing but increase during the life of the console to reach tops in 1994 with Donkey Kong Country of Rare, subsidiary of Nintendo.
In 1991, whereas the world of the play of adventure seems forever dominated by LucasArts, the company Cyan invents, with Myst , a new type of adventure, making of the nine with old man, a play with the first nobody, comprising few animations, but images which seek the hyper realism. The play is intriguing, fascinating and allows an immersion never yet reached, in particular thanks to puzzles and enigmas whose complexity increases adventure progressively. It will be one of the most sold video games of all times.
The goal was to assemble the levels of a fortress Nazi E for finally facing the chief führer in person while having at its disposal several different weapons, energy of the simple gun to the Gatling. The difference of Myst he is played in 3D real-time , which gets to the player a greater liberty of action. The Jeu of subjective shooting makes it possible to the player to be better identified with the hero whom it directs is a particularly immersif kind. It was the first FPS ( first person shooting ) in the world.
This immersivity will be really exploited a year later, in Doom (always of Id Software), where the aspect of the monsters, the sound environment and the play of the lights more worked, will contribute to create an atmosphere particularly distressing. Doom will be followed of a foultitude of plays of subjective shooting approaching the concept with more or less of success, of which most famous and succeeded remain inter alia: the series of the Duke Nukem , Blood , Quake , Unreal , Half-Life (of which one of the modifications, Counter-Strike , is the most popular play the network). With the difference of Doom and Wolfenstein 3D , of which the characters and the objects are sprite in 2 dimensions, the new generations of Jeu of subjective shooting (or FPS for First Persson Shooter in English) are entirely in 3D: decorations, characters, objects…
In 1993, Westwood Studios leaves Dune II , regarded as the first Strategy game in real-time (or RTS for Real Time Strategy in English) modern, because introducing original concepts still of topicality. The player directs a camp having at his disposal of the men and the money being used for building buildings, harvesting the spice (which generates money) and producing an army intended to overcome the opponents directed by the computer. The goal of the play is to become the Master of Arrakis, the only planet producing of the spice in the galaxy; environment and the history are drawn from the famous book written by Frank Herbert: Dune .
The same people will repeat later with the series of the plays Command & Conquer .
In the same kind, in 1995, a newcomer, Blizzard Entertainment, leaves Warcraft: Orcs & Humans , plunging the player in a fantastic world where the orcs clash and the human ones. Two continuations like another series of strategy, StarCraft , will follow, always with enormously of success.
Nintendo starts in 1990 a work with Sony to develop an extension with plays on CD to Super-BORN, the “play-station extension” (abrévié PSX). Common work develops, but Nintendo withdraws finally collaboration, under the pressure of its chairman, for problems of illegal copying and loading, which was to discourage the player. Sony, wanting investment for nothing, decides to continue work alone, to develop its own console. It will become simply the PlayStation which leaves in 1994 (but the abbreviation remains PSX000). Nintendo will develop consoles cartridges, of which a virtual helmet, the Virtual Boy, a bitter failure. The Nintendo 64 leaves too tardily to counter PlayStation. However plays like Super Mario 64 or The Legend off Zelda: Ocarina off time will mark the players.
In 1997, Origin and EA Games create Ultima Online , one of the first plays Heroïc Fantasy with persistent universe. When the player, connected to a waiter, disconnects himself the universe of the play continues with évoluer.
Left in December in Japan, the play of automobile race Gran Turismo imposes new standards as regards made visual, of physics and contents. There remains the play more sold on PlayStation. The series of Polyphony DIGITAL becomes the new reference of the kind on console.
In 1998, LucasArts renews the kind by producing Grim Fandango , a play of adventure where the posting of the places and characters is similar to Alone in the Dark (characters in 3D on fixed precalculated decorations). However, in spite of some successes like The Longest Journey , the play of adventure seems to be on the downward slope.
This same year, one finds Blizzard Entertainment which produces back-to-back two plays which will remain in the history: Diablo and StarCraft . Diablo is a play of the type Hack' slash , erudite mixture of roleplay, adventure and heroic fantasy where the player controls a character of which it can make evolve/move competences with the combat or in sorcery like his gained combat equipment progressively and of the piled up objects. The rejouability, environment, the incredible number of different objects and the total freedom left to the player explain his success. Success which will be confirmed besides with the continuation Diablo II , one of the most sold plays histoire.
Metal GEAR Solid popularizes the Jeu of infiltration. The title of Konami combines a system of innovative play to a history rich in bounces distilled through long kinematic S. Its creator, Hideo Kojima, becomes a popular figure at the community of joueurs.
This same year, the Dreamcast of Sega is marketed in Japan. First “128 bits” to be born, it is also the last console produced by Sega. She will propose some memorable titles like Soul Calibur or Shenmue before disappearing in 2002.
In 2000, Sony lance the PlayStation 2. Strong of the popularity of its predecessor, the console is very quickly made a reputation thanks to its power and its rich and varied game library including/understanding many exclusivenesses. Leader of its generation, PlayStation 2 is also the most sold console history with more than 110 million units run out throughout the world.
In October 2001, the exit of GTA3 creates sensation. The play of action is characterized by the liberty of action suggested and its nonconformism, sometimes prone to controversy. The title is a fulgurating success which will be also by the following episodes. Large Theft Car: San Andreas (June 10th, 2005) remains the largest business success of the sixth generation of consoles.
Beginning of XXIe century
- Microsoft enters on the market of the video games on console while launching the Xbox.
- Nintendo leaves the GameCube.
- Nintendo leaves the successor the Gameboy, the Gameboy Advance, rétrocompatible with the catalog of its devancière.
- Sega stops the production of Dreamcast and announces its abandonment of the market of the hardware comforts.
- Fumito Ueda develops the oneiric play of adventure Ico (video game).
- Microsoft: Exit on March 14th of Halation Fights Evolved on Xbox the play which will redefine FPS on consoles.
- Microsoft repurchases Rare.
- Nokia leaves the N-Pledge, Cellphone including functionalities of Game console.
- 3DO files for bankruptcy.
- Nintendo leaves the Gameboy Advance SP.
- Infogrames repurchases the name of the mark Atari.
- Nintendo leaves DS to Japan and the USA.
- Sony leaves PSP to Japan.
- Acclaim files for bankruptcy.
- Microsoft: Exit on November 10th on console of Halation 2 , continuation direct of Halation Fights Evolved. It will gain a success even more important than his big brother.
- Left on November 16th Half-Life 2 , which will meet a success equal to that of its predecessor
- Nintendo leaves DS to Europe.
- Titus Interactive and Interplay are liquidated by the bankruptcy court.
- Electronic Arts aquiert 19,9% of the capital of Ubi Soft and becomes the majority shareholder about it.
- Nintendo leaves the successor the Game Boy Advance SP, the Game Boy Micro.
- Microsoft leaves its console new generation, the Xbox 360.
- Nintendo lance the Wii everywhere in the world. (on December 8th in Europe)
- Sony lance the PlayStation 3 in America and in Japan.
- History of the video games on PC of 1981 to 1992
- History of the Video game - by kind documented by many media: vidéos, images, bonds direct towards oldies.
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