History of the psychoanalysis
The history of the psychoanalysis starts with work of Joseph Breuer then with those of Sigmund Freud and is continued nowadays, even if several concurrent theories were born.
Time of Freud
1883-1900: first stepsIn 1883, Joseph Breuer told with Sigmund Freud, then Neurologue, how it had dealt with one of its patients, Bertha Pappenheim under the pseudo Anna O., which suffered from hysterical disorders . This patient came simply " to tell a histoire" in connection with its hallucinations, eye troubles, paralyzes… After such a consultation, the symptoms, according to Freud, would have attenuated before disappearing, so that Anna O. that named the talking cure (cure by the word). It, thereafter, was established that this method was not of any effectiveness on the state of the patient who, actually, worsened until requiring her internment.
In 1889, Freud will work according to the cathartic therapy of Breuer with a new patient.
In 1893 appear preliminary Communications, written by Freud and Breuer, which describe the principle of pathogenic memories and the abréaction, cathartic therapy. The sexual etiology of hysteria is not any more doubts.
In 1894 the terms of névropsychoses of defense and Libido appear.
1900-1920: seek and divergences
One frequently dates the birth from the psychoanalysis at the year 1900, date of publication of the Interpretation of the dreams , test which made scandal. It is as this year as Ida Bauer, more known under the name of Dora, begins a cure with Freud.
In 1901 is published the Psychopathologie of the daily life .
1902: Freud is named extraordinary professor by the emperor François-Joseph. This year marks the end of the correspondence between Freud and Wilhelm Fliess. Lastly, the psychological Société of Wednesday is born.
The year 1905 sees the publication of the witty remark and its relation with unconscious the and especially the Three tests on the sexual theory .
Freud starts to analyze the man with the rats, Ernst Lanzer, in 1907.
April 27th 1908 takes place the first of the international congresses of abstract psychanalyse.présentations of case (like that of the small Hans ), near Sándor Ferenczi, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, and others. In September 1909 Freud, Ferenczi and Jung leave in America.
Foundation the API one and scissionsIn 1910, on an idea of Ferenczi, Freud the International Psychoanalytical Association bases, under the presidency of Jung. It takes in analysis the man with the wolves.
As of 1911, Alfred Adler leaves the API one, being interested in the socius, external standards from which organic characteristics determined the mental diseases. In 1912, it is with the turn of Wilhelm Stekel to leave the API one.
In 1911 divergences irreconcilable of sights appear with Jung. This one publishes the first volume of Symboles and metamorphoses of the libido , which Freud answers by publishing Totem and taboo in 1912, leading to the psychoanalysis way of the study of the religions. The review Imago appears. This same Jung year publishes the second volume of its metamorphoses where it knows that its approach of the sacrifice could not be allowed by Freud.
It is in 1913 that is created the secret committee composed of Karl Abraham, Sandor Ferenczi, Ernest Jones, Otto Rank and of Hans Sachs. Associated max Eitingon with it. The purpose of this committee is to defend the psychoanalysis of the sights of Jung and its friends.
Pierre Janet presents, with the international congress medicine, in London, a talk in which he criticizes the theories of Freud.
In 1914, Carl Jung resigns of his position of president; it will found the analytical Psychologie.
See also: History of analytical psychology
In 1919 creates for itself the Swiss Société of Psychoanalysis.
First World WarDuring the First World War is created psychoanalytical companies in America, in the Netherlands, and in Spain. Ferenczi is seen granting a university pulpit in Hungary, during the mode of Bela Kun.
After the first war, Freud will be marked. It will work out a Seconde topics, will postulate a Pulsion of died and a Compulsion to repeat; but the death instinct will not be accepted by all and remains, nowadays, discussed.
In 1920 creates for itself transitory the psychoanalytical Société of Geneva.
In 1926 is founded the psychoanalytical Société of Paris.
Sandor Ferenczi dies in 1933.
In 1933, Wilhelm Reich writes an important work " The psychology of mass of the fascisme" (" Massenpsychology of Faschismus" ) in connection with the mode hitlérien. The Nazis regard the psychoanalysis as a " science juive". In 1934 Wilhelm Reich is excluded from the IPA.
Freud publishes in 1937 finished Analyze and analyzes infinite, or it takes again certain questions raised by Ferenczi.
After FreudSee also: schools of psychoanalysis
The success of the psychoanalysis does not decline with dead of Freud. Like the alive one of its founder, criticisms will hardly weaken more.
1940: it is the beginning of what will become the institutional Psychothérapie.
In France, there was no psychoanalytical activity during the Occupation. In fact, the British Psychoanalytical Society remains the only bastion of the psychoanalysis in Europe… They are there that will be held, starting from 1942, the oppositions between Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the Middle group.
This year 1942 sees the creation of the Asosiación Psicoanálitica Argentina (APA). In 1943, it is the Svenska Psykoanalytisk Föreningen (SPF) which is born.
The reign of IPAIn 1949, Guy Leclerc publishes in Humanity the article the psychoanalysis, basic ideology organizes and of espionage . The French Communist party begins its countryside against the psychoanalysis, turning in the history of the Freudo-Marxism, and more largely of the Psychanalyse to France.
With the immigration of many psychoanalysts of front Europe, during and after the war, the psychoanalysis takes much importance in the USA. The Ego-psychology will develop to with it much but also other currents (freudiens, kleiniens, etc).
|Random links:||Celtic cross | Madagascar (film) | Guivat-Haïm | Sulpicia Dryantilla | Michael Gira | Cailles_communes|