History of the Walloon term
The history of the Walloon term and its derivatives begins in the medieval Latin after the lexical loan with the Francique of the very old Germanic word Walh , which in general designates the populations of languages Celtic and Romance with which the German ones had contacts. The semantic range of Walloon and its derivatives like the geographical derivative Wallonia was reduced with time to become a Autonyme and is reduced still nowadays.
History of the Walloon term
Germanic origins and Latin loan
The first mentions close to the French word Wallon which reached us are Latin, and speak clearly about its Germanic loan:
Igitur primus Adelardus nativam linguam not habuit Theutonicam, sed quam corrupte nominating Romanam, Theutonice Walonicam
As for first Adelard, its native tongue was not the Germanic one, but that which, while using of a vicious denomination, one calls Romana , while, into Germanic, one names it Walonica .
The sentence shows well the Germanic paternity of the term, which probably comes from francic from the time, itself going down from a very old word Walh which would date from the Proto-Germanic of 4th before Jesus-Christ. The adjective Walonicus or its alternative Gualonicus mean “in novel” and are used in opposition to the adjective Teutonicus which wants to say “into Germanic”, this discrimination is of linguistic and nonethnic nature as could show it John Ronald Reuel Tolkien in its test English and Welsch . It indicates the whole of the Romance populations of Gaulle, but its lexical field is reduced quickly to appoint only the speakers of a Langue of oil, i.e. those of the Neustrie as one can see it in another Latin text, where its employment shows that it probably returned in the Latin vocabulary of the time:
pro duobus magistris linguae Vallonicae, ex civitate, vel diocesi Tornacensi oriundis
pour two Masters of language of oil, originating in the city or the diocese of Tournai.
It is about one document concerning to the Évêché de Tournai where he is question of the granting of purses for studies of theology to the Sorbonne. It is not mentioned Germanic origin of the adjective Vallonicae what could show that it entered the Latin use in this bilingual diocese, with horse on Romance and tudesques areas.
First appearances in novel
At the end of the 13th century, in the Romance language words similar to Wallon start to appear, such as for example Walois in the Tournoi of Chauvency going back to 1285. Jacques Bretel, the author of this long poem, speaks there in these terms about a herald of Alsatian origin:
At the time started with fastroillier / And the good fransoiz essilier, / And of a walois all despannei / told Me " Well soiez your venei, / Lord Jaquenet, volentiers"
Alors, it started with baragouiner and to ransack good Francois, and in a walois all to skin, it said to me: " Well be you venei, Lord Jaquemet, volontiers"
“ And of a walois all despannei ” in certain manuscripts is replaced by “ in a novel all despannei ”. It describes the Romance language spoken in an area close to those where the Germanic one is spoken. One finds also Walesch (E) the female one of Walois in other writings, as in the Poésies of Gilles Li Muisis: “ Because I piers men walesch ”, “Because I lose my walesch of it”. Walesch wants to also say here the language of oil while having to Tournai the word Romance to speak about this one. One can also speak about Jean Wauquelin, native translator “of the country of Picardy” like it presents itself, which uses in 1447 in its setting in prose of the legend of Gerard of Roussillon the word wallec and two alternatives wallecq and wallet . It also has recourse to ro (U) man , frankly (H) ois , wallec and more commonly mother tongue to speak about this language than it does not distinguish nor between French and the dialect, or between a written and spoken form.
In 1477, in the Complaints presented to Marie of Burgundy , and in the answer of this one in the Grand Privilege one finds the walecques expression “ Pays ”.
Gysseling considers that “the form walesch certainly due to exist in Dutch about the 11th century. Only our older manuscripts, where the equivalent of " wallon" appears, date only from the 13th century, where they always give the form walsch " ”.
Albert Henry concludes that if the Walloon term could exist already at the time, which is not sure, there were competitors which could come from other different linguistic fields leant with Germanic areas and which seem-you it lived only on not very wide surfaces.
Henry also confirms that it is not question of an ethnic denomination here, but that the terms evoke only one reality of language.
Birth of Walloon
During the fifteenth century, the Walloon word eliminates all the others derived which competed with it and will express a strong vitality at the end of this century.
The first known use of the term Wallon is established at Jean de Haynin in the form of Vallons where it is distinguished from the Liégeois. The chronicler tells a skirmish between the troops of the duke of Burgundy and the garrison inhabitant of Li2ege of Montenaeken about 1465: “ say Them Liegeois crioite " Healthy Denis and Sain Lambert" , Small valleys and Tiesons crioite " Mourregot". ”
According to Henry, it is characteristic to find in a Burgundian author this first mention of Vallons , which more is side by side with Tiesons . Its appearance is contemporary with the last appearances of the other equivalent terms, such as for example the term Wal (L) EC. " of language romane" in the Great Privilege of Marie of Burgundy. The first known certificate of the Walloon term with W, which takes the direction of " inhabitant of the Romance area of the Countries-Bas" , finds itself at Froissart a chronicler originating in the Area of Mons-Valencians which was officer in the armies of Philippe the Good and Charles Bold the, i.e. in the soil Picard and in Burgundian medium.
Wallon seems well to have been an semi-erudite creation, which replaced a former term of the same etymological origin, but with wal (L) EC. rather than with walois , on the model of tiesson … for which our more former witness is, as by chance, the hennuyer Froissart.
Walloon at the 16th century
The Wallon term becomes largely used at the 16th century, not only in the French language but also in other languages like Spanish and English. Its significance is on the other hand confused, in particular because a semantic contracting takes place: the difference between the regional French language and speeches is perceived and it is at the same time that the term dialect appears
Jean Lemaire of Belgians and regional meaning
Albert Henry estimates that “nobody left us on this Walloon word a testimony as precise and as invaluable as that of Jean Lemaire of Belgians, or of Dribbled, in the first book of its Illustrations of Gaulle and singularitez of Troye , published in 1510 or 1511”. :
We still say aujourdhuy the town of Niuelle estre in Romanbrabant, because of the difference of the language. Because other Brabansons speak Thiois or Teuthonique: Low Cestadire Alleman: And those which speak the old Gallique language that us Apollos Vualon or Rommandz: So like the French one of the Rose. And of the aforesaid the old Vualonne language, or French, we use in nostre Gaulle Belgium: Cestadire in Haynau, Cambresis, Artois, Namur, Liege, Lorraine, Ardenne and Rommanbrabant, and is much different from Francois, which is more modern, and more gaillard.
The Walloon language is thus regarded as a regional Romance language, which one finds in the countries of Romance language of the Netherlands. This definition is taken again in English in the dictionary of Oxford and the Henri VI of Shakespeare.
With this overall significance of regional speeches, certain contemporary authors with Jean Lemaire of Belgians will distinguish it, without being able to specify of it the geographical surface, others " dialectes" of oil, it is the case of Henri Estienne which marks the relationship between the Picard and the Walloon: “But, estoit the inconvenience of ceste pronunciation it is the certain only speech of Picardy by also including/understanding the Walloons, seroit a dialect which pourroit to enrich nostre François." language; ”, of Claude Fauchet which makes of the Walloon a rustic Romance , old language of oil, or of Pierre de Ronsard which considers the Vvalon and the Picard like only one language: “Oultre I you advertis not to make conscience give of use the antiques terms and mainly those of the language Vvalon and Picard, which remains us per so many centuries the naive example of the Francoise language, I hear that which had course after the Latin one did not have any more a use in nostre Gaulle”.
The meaning " of oil" and the meaning " bourguignonne"
The term is not only any more used by authors who are originating in the Netherlands. For example, in 1530, English Jean Palsgrave speaks about the Walloon in his Esclaircissement of the language françoyse but to indicate the language of oil or French language spoken in the Burgundian Netherlands. The Spanish historiographer Juan Cristobal Calvete de Estrella speaks about the difference between French of Paris and the lengua Valona , but he regards it as an alternative, if not delayed and corrupted, French language.
At that time, Wallon still indicates the Romance language in the areas of the linguistic border between the Germanic French language and languages:
L' the broadest meaning, that of Romance language or language of oil in the areas which confine at the linguistic border from the North Sea in Lorraine, subsiste.
Albert Henry gives as example the testimony of Ambroise Paré which speaks in its Voyage about Metz in 1552 about an Italian captain present at the Siège about Metz which parloit strong good German, Spanish and Walloon, with his native tongue .
But Henry by quoting Maurice Bossard also supplements this long border as far as Switzerland with texts of the country of Montbeliard, and texts of the Genevese François Bonivard which uses Walloon and Walloon language to indicate at the same time the " French spoken in the territories bordering on the countries on language allemande" , the " French of Switzerland romande" , or the " Franco-Provençal dialect (of the Valaisans) " , and even the " roman". This use would be according to them a loan since works of Jean Lemaire of Belgians who was not taken again any more by Bonivard after 1551. They notice nevertheless that this loan subsite in the scientific language until the beginning of the twentieth century, testifies the Grammaire to it to the Walloon patois of the canton of Poutroie (Schnierlach) of the Simon abbot published in Paris in 1900.
For the Burgundian meaning, i.e. based by the geographical extension of the Burgundian Netherlands, it is still specified at the 17th century by the Resident of Douai Louis de Haynin, lord Of the Horn:
the Belgian according to whether it is, for the present, is a large country between France, Germany, and the sea Océane It usually my-left in two areas almost esgalles, it is to be scavoir in German or Flemish Belgian Walloon and Belgian, according to aucuns. The Walloon one has as provinces Artois, Lille Douay and Orchies differently known as Flanders Gallic or Walloon: Cambresis, Tournesis, Haynaut and Estat de Valencennes, Namur, Lothier or the Walloon Brabant, Luxembourgues and Liege.
This meaning will persist until the 20th century, less in the use that in the encyclopedias, that it is for the Wallons or the Wallon, such as for example in the Larousse of the 20th century of 1963 : " Walloons, population of the south-Eastern half of Belgium (with share the district of Arlon in Belgian Luxembourg) and overflowing on the French departments bordering on North, Aisne and Ardennes" , the same thing for the dialect.
Jules Feller still writes in 1920, cité by Henry who states not to be able to confirm it, that
Aujourd'hui still, not only the population of Romance Belgium, but still beyond our borders, that of the French Flanders, Lille, Douai, Arras, Valencians, Cambric, Avesnes, of Thiérache, Rethelois, of Ardenne, give itself the name of Walloons, declare speech the wallon.
but Albert Henry concludes nevertheless that in 1963, the Burgundian meaning given by Feller does not exist any more and that the word Wallons is used “to designate the inhabitants of the Wallonia”.
Walloon and Romance
Albert Henry gathered a documentation which attests equivalence of the Walloon word with Romance but that this last is much former to Walloon . He gives for example the examples of the the Walloon Brabant and the Walloon Flanders which do not replace names like Roman country of the Brabant , Roman the Brabant or of Flanders gallicanne that as from the 17th century century. He also gives the counterexamples of the Romance part of the Duché of Luxembourg, Roman Country of Luxembourg , and of the country gaumais, the Romance Ground , which remains the Romance part of the Archevêché of Trier.
Walloon at the 17th century
The semantic contents of the Walloon term move little during the seventeenth century, but one makes more and more the difference between French language and Walloon speech. Albert Henry gives as example a quotation of Dominique Bouhours which judges that “a hollandois has well the mine to confuse François with the Walloon” in connection with Érasme which had criticized the French language. However Henry estimates that it is “often difficult to know if it is necessary to understand by Walloon a dialect clearly perceived like such, or a François very regionalized.”
At the same time, one finds the Walloon term in other situations and it passes even in other languages.
The Walloon infantries of Charles Quint, downward from the Walloon companies of the Dukes of Burgundy especially raised in the Netherlands of Romance language, will allow at the end Walloon to be by their excellent reputation known in all Europe and even in the New World. The Walloon sword , ancestor of the riding saber, will be used in many armies. Their role for Spain was important, so much so that Gaspar de Guzmán, count d' Olivares judged that “the safety of Spain depends entirely on the presence of these Vallones ”.
One of the oldest mentions of the Walloon guards is the hardly flattering one of Pierre Pithou in his Satire Ménipée :
O Paris, which are not any more Paris, but spélonque a '' of bestes savage, a Spaniard citadel, Wallons and Neapolitains, a asyle and seure reprocesses robbers, murderers and assassinateurs, want you never to feel your dignity, and to remember which you esté, at the price what you are
Bossuet in its Oraison for the prince de Condé will pay a more glorious homage to this military formation: “The enemy army is stronger, it is true; it is made up of these old Walloon, Italian and Spanish bands, that one had not been able to break hitherto”.
The Walloon term is used in the military field still a long time, the Régiment of the Walloon guards will be with the service of Austria during all the 18th century and in Spain until 1822.
The calvinists of the southernmost Netherlands and the North of the France flee the wars of religion and number of them settles abroad, particularly in the United Provinces where they are called reformed Walloon ( Waalse hervormden ) and where they create Walloon churches ( Waalse kerken ) but also in England.
Walloon of Sweden:
Walloon of Sweden:
Because of economic difficulties and the wars of religion, five to ten miles people of the South-east of the southernmost Netherlands, Principality of Liege and Lorraine emigrate in Sweden under the impulse of Louis de Geer to work there in the industry of iron. Swedish names them the Valloner .
By the importance and the prestige of the Walloon guards at Spain, the Walloon term was quickly borrowed in the language of Cervantès, and by Miguel de Cervantes itself:
En Spain, it is the linguistic loan which expresses in the way more striking the fame of the Walloon regiments. In the second part of the Don Quichotte and in some of his New specimens , Cervantes, so fine expert of all the richnesses of his language, even newest, makes use of the substantive valona , which indicates a particular collar of shirt, a reduction of fabric or lace, undulating substantive " species of culotte" and of the expression to the valona , characterizing either these breeches, or way of having the feathers on a hat: with the valona " with the wallonne" , i.e. " with the manner of the soldiers belonging to the regiments wallons" , and not " with the manner of Wallons".
Albert Henry has, in his book Histoire of the words Wallon and Wallonia , indexed a certain number of uses of the word valón and his derivatives in some works of Cervantes, in particular the Don Quichotte or the Rinconete and Cortadillo .
Walloon at the 18th century
To illustrate the use of the Walloon term at the 18th century, Albert Henry gives the testimony of an English historian of the time. According to Henry, James Shaw made an error as for the origin of Walloon , but saw well that the term aimed at a linguistic difference:
Il has there a really remarkable distinction in the Provinces of the Netherlands Autrichiens. Some are Flemish, the others are called Provinces Undulating. The difference in language causes this distinction. The language undulating which is spoken in the Provinces which bear this name, differs primarily from the Flemish language that one speaks in the other Provinces. It is the old Francoise language left the ruins of Latin under Charlemagne , and one it parloit to France like in the Provinces undulating, during the centuries which followed the reigns of this Monarch. This old language was named Romance or Gallic, and the name of Small valley in drift . France by a graduated refinement purified this Gaulois old man, and changed it into a softer language and more elegant than one speaks today in this kingdom; but the Provinces undulating of the Netherlands kept their old harder, but bold and energetic language. the Counties of Hainaut and Namur compose the Countries Small valleys with Artois which is not any more one Austrian Province. the name and the language small valley also extend to part of the close Provinces. The portion of the Brabant which borders Hainaut and the Namurian one, is named the Brabant small valley. Resemblance of language paroit to have influenced in many occasions. In the wars lit by the tyranny of Philippe Second, the Provinces undulating more attached to the old religion separated the first from the other Provinces, embrassèent the proposals of Prince de Parme, and were reconciled with Spain. The troops undulating raised in countries where the trade is less in force, and whose territory touching in France was often the theater of the war, were re-elected by their martial spirit, and composed the flower of the armies of Philippe and his descendants.
Walloons and Inhabitants of Li2ege
The distinction between Walloon and Liégeois , which began with Jean de Haynin about 1470, is always of setting until the end of the 18th century. This distinction was studied by Jean Stengers in an article that Henry regards as decisive. With regard to the distinction, Albert Henry quotes for the 17th century Spanish Alonso Vasquez, the Father Louis Hennepin in 1697; Braunius in 1700. In the Dictionary of Trévoux of 1752, one defines Wallon , - onne by " who means Gaulois, with all the people of the Netherlands whose natural language is a François old man: such are those of Artois, Hainaut, Namurian, Luxembourg and part of the Flanders and Brabant". Dom Jean François gives the same definition in its Romance Dictionnaire of 1777.
While being based on work of Stengers, Albert Henry declares that before 1770 “one does not find only one use concrete of Wallon to indicate, at the same time, the " bourguignons" and " principautaires" ; but the distinction, it is in a well defined category of documents that it appears, of the " texts which see the things of outside, i.e. outside of the Netherlands of the South and Principality of Liège." ”
He also adds that the distinction between Wallons and Liégeois is political, and not linguistics:
On guesses that this phenomenon is related to the political independence of the principality of Liege until 1793. Extremely probably also, enrôlement of the Inhabitants of Li2ege, on the one hand, and of the Novels of the Netherlands, on the other hand, in different armies he played a big role in the birth and the strengthening of a distinction which, linguistic point, did not have any raison d'être.
On the other hand, when the Walloon term is used to only speak about the language, it is not isolated for the Inhabitants of Li2ege, including by themselves. Walloon and Walloon language appear in many texts of the 16th century in the 18th century, of which certain inhabitant of Li2ege, to sometimes designate regional French, sometimes the patois. And at the 17th century, the principality distinguishes its " even institutionnellement; wallonnes" cities; and its " thioises" cities;.
Walloon at the 19th century
French occupation, then the Dutch mode and finally Belgian independence change the political and linguistic environment considerably old Austrian Netherlands. And that has reflected on the semantics of the Walloon term , without speaking about the increasingly precise dialectal specification.
With the independence of Belgium, the semantics of the Walloon is defined more and more compared to this new State. The former meanings become obsolete and remain only in expressions of historians.
The new concept of Wallonia is born in second half of the 19th century is essential and with the political assertions of the Walloon Mouvement, the Wallons will not symbolize soon any more like said Albert it Henry, Walloon militant, that “the men born in Wallonia and who live there or who, emigrated to Brussels at the adulthood, are always the aware and the desire to remain, sentimentally and culturally, which they were.”
The term Wallons is then used in opposition at the end Flemish , within the framework of this linguistic cleavage in Belgium.
Dialectal precise details
It is during the 19th century that the direction dialectologic of the Walloon word will be specified, not without confusion and sorrow. For the linguists, and Henry recognizes it, it is difficult to know so in the old texts one speaks by the Walloon term about a dialect or a form more or less regionalized about French. Moreover, the question arises if the authors of the time were really aware of distinct realities. For as much, Henry finds that certain authors speak about a dialectal reality, like Henri Estienne
But as of the last quarter of this century, the lexicographers amateurs and the philologists of former French will feel the need for a terminology more exigente for all the dialects. The first to take retreat on this level and to put order are the German philologists, the Belgians and the French will be long in taking conscience of the dialectal differences fully. One of the first great distinctions of the Walloon dialect is that of the German philologist Altenburg who specifies that the surface of the Walloon cannot be restricted with the inhabitant of Li2ege nor to extend to the Picardy one.
Joseph Dejardin in 1866 also circumscribed the Walloon and the “ Wallonia with the patois of the provinces of Liege, Namur and Luxembourg” and in 1892, J. Simon delimits with precision by a series of Isoglosse S on a chart in the west of the " quadrilateral wallon" the zone of transition between Walloon and Picardy.
It is there the last semantic contracting which with undergone the Walloon term and also the word Wallonia with dialectal reality, while keeping a broader direction within the framework of linguistic cleavage in the Belgian policy.
History of the geographical alternatives
The principal geographical alternative is the substantive Wallonia which is very recent, at least in French.
Walloon provinces and the Walonia of the 16th century
Henry suspects that “it is as from this sixteenth century that the expression Walloon provinces takes care sometimes of political contents, when it evokes, in the Netherlands, the community of French language continuing opposite the whole of the provinces thioises.” It is for example the case of Thierri d' Offegnies, a deputy of the Hainaut, which speaks about it in this direction in a report/ratio with the General states in connection with a “particular league between the Walloon provinces”.
Jean Germain announces that at the 16th century, one finds the term Walonia on an engraving which it allots to Jean-Jacques Boissard going back to 1581 and illustrating the costumes of the time. One sees there a plebeius civis in Walonia leaves Belgarum beside a Lorraine woman ( Mulier Lotharinga ), of a woman of Hainaut ( Mulieris in Hannonia gentilis habitus ) and of a French woman of Picardy ( Franca mulier in Picardia ). On the other hand, engraving does not make it possible to give a direction and a localization exact of this Walonia , Germain is questioned:
Il is already interesting to note that “ in Wallonia leaves Belgarum is opposed or at least is distinguished clearly from “ in Hannonia ” and to “ in Picardia ”. Is it necessary to see, in this difference in terminology, an opposition? Or does one have to conclude that - being the only representation of the man compared to the three women - the term “ in Walonia leaves Belgarum ” includes, in his meaning, Hainaut, Picardy and - what would be more astonishing - Lorraine?
Territorial organization of the monks at the 17th century
At the 17th century, one reorganizes the ecclesiastical provinces and one creates the new ones évêchés in the Netherlands. The pontifical constitution holds account then not only limits of the political provinces but also of the language of the population. One thus sees several religious orders establishing at the 17th century of the distinct provinces compared to the political provinces and naming variously Romance gallo-Belgium , gallo-Belgian , and a little later, wallo-Belgian or wallo-Belgium . The term Wallonia , also under various C-Ws communication, appears at the time of this ecclesiastical reorganization.
In fact the case about the Capuchins creates on the occasion a Provincia Walloniae or Wallonica as of 1616 and attested in 1618 and 1622. The novelist Jean Germain studied some their charts in a scientific article called " the “Latin” prehistory of the word Wallonia ". These charts were gathered by Julien Lambert, a historian of origin inhabitant of Li2ege of Nivelles.
For their charts, the Capuchins used is the substantive Wallonia / Vallonia or the adjective wallonica / vallonica . And the geographical extension of the province in question varies according to the charts.
The terms exist only in Latin language, and nothing makes it possible to say that the equivalent term existed in novel, even if Jean Germain or of the Walloon militants as Jose Fontaine imagines “an awakening of the same cultural or linguistic membership”.
Before the invention of the term Wallonia to indicate the Romance grounds of the southernmost Netherlands or Belgium, one uses Périphrase S like Walloon country or Walloon ground . One can quote Jules Michelet which uses Walloon country :
Quoi of French than this Walloon country ? It is necessary well that it of either thus so that, there, precisely, with the hardest combat of the races and the languages, among the noise of the forging mills and the arms manufacturers, in his so pure charm our old genius mélodique.bursts
These expressions remain all the same of topicality and continue to be used, in particular for their poetic, such as for example by Jose Fontaine:
On passed in addition to. As of the return of Léopold III, tens of attacks to the explosive destroyed railway lines and powerplants. 500.000 strikers made enter most of the Walloon country in dissidence.
Birth of the word Wallonia
The word Wallonia such as we know it in French goes back to November 1842, and is not related to the Latin Wallonia according to Albert Henry: “It seems that this form Wallonia had any correspondent nor no descent in the speeches vernacular”, and that is confirmed by Germain: “It is certainly not question of calling into question the opinion of Albert Henry according to whom there are no direct family ties of relationship between this “Wallonia” and political and cultural Wallonia emerging at the 19th century in the context of the Belgian State recently created.”.
The first mention of the term Wallonia appeared in a philosophical Essai of etymology of a philologist and Namurian anthropologist, the abbot Honore Chavée:
La famous (it is often unjust) for a long time does not have a voice to proclaim the preeminence of Germany in the field of philology, and does not repeat the great names that France, or, to speak just, Wallonia can register in the temple of the érudition.
The term indicates the world " roman" , used in opposition to Germany. The author undoubtedly melts on the old meaning of the Walloon word . Two years later, the same word is used to speak about Wallonia that Albert Henry - Walloon militant - regards as true. It is about François-Charles-Joseph Grandgagnage, writer and magistrate of Namurian origin and which is the uncle of Charles Grandgagnage, the initiator of Walloon philology. He writes the term by twice in his article Two wallonades new by the author of Alfred Nicolas :
Mes dear Walloons, by all the Saints of Wallonia, I entreat you; be thus yourself; and when one makes sonnets in Paris, made well quickly another thing, precisely because one makes some in Paris. It is not made over there that Tug boats, but I agree that the sonnets, the eternal sonnets are infinitely more faciles.
Oh! well definitely here us are plunging in full water of Wallonia. But I do not know; I test an indefinable feeling. It is faintness, sorrow and sadness. It is an emotion which does not have a name in the language of the men.The word is written under two different C-Ws communication, which makes it possible Henry to wonder about the possible symbol of the birth of the mot. But it indicates “this time, more or less clearly, the Romance part of the young unit State Belgium .”
The term seems to be in the beginning a word of philologists and historians who use it in reviews like the Revue of Liege or within the framework of the Société inhabitant of Li2ege of Walloon literature .
should be awaited 1886 so that the word is known apart from the specialized circles. It then acquires a certain visibility thanks to Albert Mockel which adopts it like titrates for its literary review Wallonia that it launches this year to Liege. As from this moment, the word Wallonia indicates “Romance Belgium in the south of the border which separates the Flemish patois from the Romance dialects, of Ploegsteert until the Hertogenwald.”
Wallonia, concept of the Walloon movement
See also: Wallonia
With linguistic cleavage and the emergence of a Walloon Movement in the Belgian policy, “conceptual and emotional contents” of political nature is added to the word Wallonia . According to Albert Henry, “three moments especially animated a latent conscience, because they touched at the same time the reflection, the affectivity and the imagination” of the Walloon movement and charged the terms Walloon and Wallonia :
- in 1940, Germany within the framework of the Flamenpolitik returns the prisoners of war " flamands" in their family while they will retain the prisoners " wallons" in the camps of captivity and work;
- in January 1961, “the strikes, sometimes violent, especially in the provinces of Liege and Hainaut - first demonstration really popular of a Walloon political will”.
Wallonia and dialectal Wallonia
See also: dialectal Wallonia
With the last semantic contracting, the Wallonia term can only restrict like the Walloon term with the Walloon language strictly speaking while keeping the direction related to the Romance Belgium or that of political and identity Wallonia of the Walloon movement. Work of Alphonse Maréchal, of Charles Bruneau, the charts of Elmer Bagby Atwood and Louis Remacle made it possible to circumscribe the dialectal Wallonia as names it Albert Henry even if other linguistics like Jules Feller and Joseph Dejardin
For the absence of recognition in the legal texts of the term Wallonia , Albert Henry questions itself:
is there this
Mais a product of nostalgia unitarist, Walloon region , expression affectivement neutral, evoking much less the concept of alive entity that the term Wallonia , much charged with rancours, desires, passions and history…?
Other family members lexical of Walloon
Walloon (N) ade : account in French worms, defined by Joseph Grandgagnage like a “small national poem, which seeks to celebrate our charming landscapes, but especially to awake the beautiful ones and noble memories of the beloved fatherland.”
- Wallingant : “formed on the model of flamingant , he says that which follows an active policy, inspired above all by the consideration of Wallonia and its interests”. With given Wallingantisme .
- Wallonner : uncommon verb nowadays meaning " to have the pasty speech, like Wallons" found in the New Universal Larousse of 1949 and in other older dictionaries. Unknown in Belgium.
- Wallonisme : " turning or word suitable for the wallon" in the linguistic or philological terminology.
- Walloniser : " to give a termination or a Walloon inflection (with French) ".
- Walloniste : " scholar, philologist who, in Belgium, studies the dialects wallons".
In a “late note”, Albert Henry advances that at the 19th century until the Second world war, the Walloon term substantivized is also used in shipping to indicate “a wood barge (oak and elm), without skittle, flat-bottomed and on right board, which was reserved for the inland navigation in the department of North, in Western Flanders and Hainaut (?).”
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