History of the Latin America
Although little documented, the Histoire of the Latin America prehistoric is as old as that of Europe.
The precolombic history most known treats Maya S, INCA S, and other Andean civilizations which could be finally very advanced for the time. But the arrival of the Iberian Conquistador S, and of the infectious illness which they carried generated the collapse of the local empires, and finally colonization hispano-Portuguese.
Towards 1800, the French and American revolutionary ideas encouraged the search of independence, but Simón Bolívar does not succeed in preserving a plain Latin-American entity. The XIXe century erases the vassal model/lord by that of the Caudillo where the rich person is powerful and this time no moral duty towards the poor one has. The XXe century is dominated by the weight of the the United States, while XXIe century starts with the will of unification and new assertion.
The XIXe century, a post-colonial company
The independence of the countries of Latin America finally allowed the dislocation of the structures and old balances, justice and the capacity are monopolized by new " propriétaires" and a new right supporting the property.
The Ejido S are put on sale, those which held the ground become about it owners by their purchase, the poor pass from the tender to the lord to the tender economic, without rule confusianist of mutual respect between superior and vassal. Profitability pushes to buy/exploit all the grounds: the poor do not have any more a ground of reserve .
However, in the companies from Latin America post-independent, 2/3 of the interior products gross are the fruit of farms or breedings, thus monopolized by these owners.
These great landowners control the local activity completely since being there the principal employer and the independent source of income. They thus control also the local policy. But this fits in a company of workers paupers and little politicized who see these local leaders like legitimate.
This saving in great field is adapted to the international market economy, from which it draws its incomes, and undergoes the fluctuations of price. The inequality of the condition of their workers encourages them with the free competition with the more levelling states.
Mongrel reality is completely denied on the level of the powerful ones, except in Mexico. The official culture is exclusively European, catholic, positivist, except in Mexico.
In spite of the proclamation of constitutions inspired of the constitutions American and French, the lack of implication of the populations leaves the application to middle-class men who do not have there really interest.
After the attempts at a Large Colombia, of an center-American Republic, the United States of America of the South, the fuzzy nature of the borders pushes with many inter-official conflicts, whereas the interior of the countries is often agitated by the fights between federalists and centralists who assert themselves finally only by the action and the military repression of the opponents. There remains difficult to define a national space , a nation reflecting the state, since these states even are identified only thanks to their roots European, Spanish or Portuguese, and that their official population division the same language and the same origins.
The modernization of the networks is mainly justified by the need for control on the whole of its territory, and the fast capacity of action at its borders.
This militarization of the Latin-American company pushes with the recurring emergence of Caudillo S, of the military chiefs whose takeover is legitimated by their aptitudes of war leader, of man of action. They entrust the local authority to Corronel', local leaders, holding their capacity of their personal richness and their political fidelity with the chief.
The modes are is presidential, little liberal and rather democratic; that is to say members of Parliament more liberal, less democratic and oligarchical. In both cases, the opinion of the low-people is decreased. The vote is in any event often conditional, supporting a political life limited to an oligarchy.
The political life, except the caudillos, is occupied by the conservatives and the liberals, who in both cases do not have an industrial relations policy. And the popular insurrections, when they are expressed, are often instrumentalisées, and repressed: 100.000 died at the time of a Colombian revolt about 1890.
Only some States manage to have a certain democracy: The Uruguay, and partially the Argentinian , the Chile, the Costa Rica and the Colombia. The others are clearly oligarchists, sometimes with a popular support.
Economically, the Latin America is certainly dependant on Europe, and if independence to leave room to a dependence increased towards England, the XIXe century sees especially the increase in the dependence on the investment coming from the United States.
- Estancias and Haciendas: large farms based on the breeding
- Fazendas: sugar/coffee plantations
- Ejidos: collective ownership, guaranteeing certain rights has each one of the member of the community.
- Property: the good of only one person, who it only has rights there.
The XXe century under American influence
Years 1900-1920A turning is signed with the American intervention with Cuba, in 1898 and the Amendement Platt of 1902, which authorizes the the United States to intervene in Cuba if that seems necessary to them. The old woman Doctrine Monroe, who slows down the European interventions, is thus replaced by a Doctrine of Big Stick, plus interventionist for the defense of her interests.
In Colombia, the concession of the Panama Canal is repurchased in 1903, but the Colombian elites oppose this American seizure. A Panamanian insurrection then appears, armed with marked military material of the sign " US" , independence is imposed, and Panama becomes an ally of the United States.
With the Mexico, Porfirio Díaz having promised into 1908 to withdraw capacity. Francisco I. Francisco Madero, a moderate liberal who wants especially to calmly modernize the country to avoid a socialist revolution launches in an electoral campaign to defend the liberal ideas with the elections of 1910. But Díaz organizes a seventh faked election, which launches the Mexican Révolution. Risings are organized and of the key leaders appear: Pancho Villa in north, Emiliano Zapata in the west, and more moderate Madero. The United States releases finally Porfirio Díaz, in 1911, which must resign the May 27th, and to flee with the profit of Francisco I. Madero, which becomes president the November 6th 1911. Madero undertakes a beginning of democratization, but little is made in the direction of the agrarian claims, and Zapata continues the revolution. The February 18th 1913 Adolfo of Huerta, a preserving general organizes with the support of the United States a coup d'etat: Madero is cut down the 22. Other revolutionary chiefs: Pancho Villa, Zapata, and Venustiano Carranza reject this usurping which is released soon by the United States, dissatisfied with its dictatorial behavior. Zapata and Villa, allies, take Mexico City in March 1914, but in this working city they are not on their ground and prefer to be withdrawn towards their respective bastions. This allows, after the escape of Huerta in July 1914, Carranza to carry out a combat for the victory. It then organizes the rebellious repression of the armies of Villa and Zapata, in particular by the effective general Álvaro Obregón who gains decisive victories in 1915, takes Mexico City and becomes de facto president in October 1915. The Mexican constitution of 1917 is proclaimed, but little applied.
Under the orders of Carranza and with supports American military material, Obregón continues its military pressure on the rebels. Zapata is finally assassinated the April 10th 1919. Carranza, the president, is assassinated the May 15th 1920, leaving the place to Obregón, which is elected president. Finally in 1923, it is Pancho Villa which is assassinated.
Mexico is finally pacified by the accession with the capacity of a liberal, but not very inclined soldier to satisfy the agrarian aspirations of the agricultural work force.
See also the article Mexican Revolution
Years 1930-1960The arrival of Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 allows to the policy of Good neighborhood and tolerates certain nationalizations and attacks with the American interests, the Platt amendment is repealed, releasing Cuba. The Mexican president Cardenas nationalizes certain American large companies, creates the Pemex, and redistributes quantity of ground.
Cuba theoretically dedicated primarily to the culture of the sugar since 1860, of which 82% go from now on on the US market, is however described as being the brothel of the United States, where any pleasure is as much as one is rich. The United States intervenes several times to stop all popular attempts at rising, and to maintain governments cuban their being favorable. The country has a socially advanced constitution, but remains deeply corrupted, and a great part of the goods and sugar exploitations are with the hands of American companies. Since 1933, Fulgencio Batista is the key man of Cuba. Its authoritative takeover in 1952 does not lead to a wretched dictatorship, but to a dictatorship where corruption perdure, and the American presence increases. Certain revolutionists, such Fidel Castro, organize a revolution to restore a democratic state and to release themselves from the American presence.
Left Mexico on a ship named Ganma the December 2nd 1956, the 82 barbudos of Castro are finally tiny room to 13, and carry out a guerilla of mountain, whose principal action was a work of propaganda, for example via Radio Rebelde . Increasingly powerful vis-a-vis a démotivée cuban army, the guerilla conquers Cuba of October 1958 at January 1st 1959.
But Castro, who affirms himself initially like nonSocialist, engages finally his country in the land reforms and the nationalizations of May 1959 and especially December 1960 which push John Kennedy to intervene, it is the episode of the Baie of the pigs, the April 16th 1961. But instead of bringing back Cuba in the American sphere, that radicalizes its position, and Cuba proclaims its socialist character, approaches the Soviet Union, and arms itself, driving with the Crise of the missiles of Cuba of October 1962.
The authoritative Latin America (1970-1980)August 1st See also it, Chilean coup d'etat of September 11th, 1973, against Salvador Allende, Argentinian coup d'etat of 1976, and the Opération Right Causes in Panama.
Democratization since 1990August 1st
Diplomacy and democratization with XIXe and XXe centuryWith 19th and the whole beginning of the 20th century the British , Frenchwomen and Spanish companies were the principal investors in Latin America, they thus ensured the local governments according to their interests. The governments letting their countries be exploited with the profit of the European nations were favoured. When the USA replaced these nations, making of the Latin America their exclusive domain, the economic interests made only change hands, the strategic interests remained the same ones: to support elites owners local productions with their profit and that of the USA. It was not the hour of generosity towards the Amerindians, their aspirations were stopped by violence of the local elites, and with the agreement of the USA. In the years 1930-1960, the democratic currents, in favors of the white middle-classes, ran up already against the elites and the interests of the USA. In the years 1960-1980, the situation of Cold war returns the USA hyper-reactionaries, the Socialist governments, favorable to the middle-classes, starting to listen to the “indigenous minorities” are systematically reversed by military coups d'etat, the such Chilean coup d'etat of September 11th, 1973, astounding Salvador Allende. This totalitarian period, of removals, tortures and disappearances current, supported by the tolerance of the USA saw the total disappearance of the Amerindian opinion on the political scene, since this scene even had almost disappeared.
Years 1980 saw the weakening of the Eastern bloc, the USA thus became favorable to a democratization of the area. Little by little, losing their external support, the dictatorships had to be done more tolerant, then passed the hand to timid democracies, always under protection of the USA, therefore vassalized. The states became democratic, but managements remained guided by the popular USA, pressures pushing with a more autonomous management. The true change seems to be made starting from the September 11th, 2001. The USA, all with their war against terrorism have less the means of supporting the authoritative States what leaves from now on a broader freedom of expression in these countries. Thus, these countries are democratized more, better: the Amerindian populations, feeling that they can finally play on the political scene, are politicized. The Amerindians invest themselves thus more and more and recently in the political life of their country. After some posts of minister, the election of Evo Morales to the presidency of the Bolivia, in December 2005, sees the first Amerindian reaching the high position of the State in this country. In Bolivia, 55% of the population are fully of Amerindian origin, Amerindians and mongrels account for 85% together there.
The fall of the Soviet Union with favoured democratization, the Attentats of September 11th, 2001 supported a freedom of expression, allowing true a politization of the Amerindians who have little by little the means of being listened. The Latin America “(bitter) indianise”.
American doctrines and policies having carried on the Latin America
- Doctrines Monroe: " America with the américains" , refusal of the European interventions.
- Doctrines of Big Stick (1890-1920): the USA can be the police force of the neighboring states, with an aim of defending the US interest.
- Convention Drago (1902): recourse to the possible force to recover a debt
- Doctrines Tobar (1907): not recognition of the coups d'etat
- Doctrines Wilson: crusade for the democracy.
- Doctrines of Good neighborhood (of Hoover to Roosevelt): a diplomacy of equal to equal with its neighbors
- Doctrines Reagan (the Eighties): to fight against any Communism and socialism, in particular by coups d'etat.
- Currently: to have positive ratio with the Latin America, second world oil zone and to preserve their neutralities vis-a-vis the American actions anti-integrist.
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