History of Pakistan
The British government directly exerts the power in India as from the Révolte of Cipayes of 1857 by revoking the prerogatives of the Compagnie of the Indies Orientales which was invested by it since 1756. Created in 1885, the Parti of the Congress represented all the religious communities, as well Hindu as Moslem, according to a principle of secularity. In reaction to this principle of secularity, the Moslem Ligue ( AlIndia Muslim League ) is created in 1906 for the safeguarding of the interests of the Moslems and a State reserved to the Moslems alone.
The name Pakistan has a discussed origin. It means “the country of pure” in Ourdou ( pak , pure and stan , country) but could also come from the acronym made up starting from the name of the provinces: P enjab, has fgania, K to ashmir, I ndus- S ind and Balouchis' TAN' .
Allotted to Syed Ahmad Khan (1817 - 1898), Moslem politician, former magistrate and creator of schools and universities, the idea of a separate State is formalized by the poet and philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877 - 1938) during a speech with the annual session of the Moslem League in 1930 held with Allahabad. The March 23rd 1940 with Lahore, the creation of a separate State becomes the official position of the Moslem League, which is chaired by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It is expressed in what will be called the Déclaration of Lahore.
On this subject, V.S. Naipaul, Nobel Prize of literature written, in its book Until the end of the faith :
The new State Pakistan had been created in haste and without true program. It could not accommodate all the Moslems of the sub-continent; it was impossible. Actually, there had remained more Moslems in India than there was in the new Islamic State. This one seemed rather intended to affirm the triumph of the faith, to plant a spine in the heart of old Hindoustan. Somebody remembered this sarcastic slogan of 1947: Goal kay rahé ga Hindustan/Bun kay rahé ga Pakistan , As sure as Hindoustan will be divisé/Le Pakistan will be founded.
(...) Pakistan did not have to pay the price of its existence: it became a satellite of the United States, its various modes supported during the cold war. It did not work out modern economy; it for of did not test the need. Instead of that, it started to export its population and changed, partly, in saving in transfer. (...) One had never really thought of the manner of directing the new country. All was to rise from the triumph of the faith. But the Islamic identity, causes so powerful dispute before the partition (...) could not with it only ensure the cohesion of the inconvenient double country. Bangladesh, having its own language and its culture, made soon secession; then all those which sought the political power in what remained of Pakistan competed of Islamism with their rivals.
One transformed without conviction nor convenience the codes inherited the British, main legists of the sub-continent. Islamic appendices there were grafted. (...) the system juric (...) déglingua a little more. The women's rights ceased being guaranteed. Adultery became an offense; that wanted to say that a man who wished to get rid of his wife could show it of adultery and to send it in prison. In 1979, one founded the Koranic punishments; and although it never had amputation there (the doctors opposed it), the people adored public scourgings and precipitated there.
Islam defines by its laws was restrictive, severe and simple. The texts were not always applied. Like public scourgings in 1986, they could be suspended (in spite of the popular request); or eluded, such those concerning alcohol and play. But the laws all remained in the books; and they changed the nature of the State. They encouraged the retrograde attitudes. (...)
Always with the background from now on, the integrist ones - encouraged by the extase of the creation of Pakistan and, then, by Islamization partial of the right - endeavoured to bring back the country more behind, until the seventh century, the time of the Prophet. Their program was as nebulous as that which had governed the birth of Pakistan even: a vague concept of regular prayers, Koranic punishments, to cut the hands and the feet, to veil and cloîtrer women, and to give to the men luxurieux rights at the same time on four women, of which they could use and get rid with their liking. And one thought that kind, starting from a company over-devout and closed men without instruction delivering itself religieusement to the vice, the State would be rectified and the power would be to him dévoulue, as it had granted to the Islam of the whole beginnings
The creation of Pakistan had been proposed for the first time in 1930 by a poet, Mohammed Iqbal, at the time of unn congress of the League. Its speech is of a tone more measured and apparently more reasoned than the slogans of 1947, but the impulses which found it are the same ones. Iqbal came from a recently converted Hindu family; and perhaps only a new convert could speak thus. Islam has nothing to do with Christianity, known as Iqbal. Far from being a religion of the deprived conscience and practice, Islam is accompanied by some " concepts juridiques". These concepts have a " dimension civique" and create a certain type of social order. L'" ideal religieux" social order cannot be separate. Consequently, the construction of a republic on national bases, if that implies the disappearance of the Islamic principle of solidarity, is quite simply inconceivable for a Moslem . In 1930, national republic meant Indian republic, purely and simply. It is an extraordinary speech for a thinker of the twentieth century. What Iqbal says confusedly, it is which the Moslems can live only with other Moslems (...). What actually underlies this claim of Pakistan and a Moslem republic, (...), it is the refusal by Iqbal of Hindu India. Its listeners included/understood it undoubtedly (...). In the speech - capital - of Iqbal, this republic is a poetic abstraction. It should be accepted confidence. The name of the Prophet is even called upon indirectly in support of its legitimacy. This speech does not miss irony today. Pakistan, with its creation, deprived the Moslems remained in India of their civic rights. Bangladesh is independent today. In Pakistan even one speaks about dissolution. The new Moslem republic appeared similar to the old system, that which knew Iqbal: useless to go much further to find people as private of word and representation as in 193O, when Iqbal made its speech.
Birth of PakistanThe Second world war constitutes a lever for the Indian nationalists, vis-a-vis a British government which wishes the Indian co-operation during the conflict. Gandhi and the Congress launches the movement Quit India which the Moslem League does not join formally. One period of uncontrolled violence opens in India, poked by the terrible repression of the movement of civil disobedience of Gandhi and worsened by a catastrophic famine which will make two to three million died in the Bengal in 1943.
Partition and independence
Decided to leave the India since 1945, the British are confronted in 1946 with the multiplication of bloody clashes between the Muslim community, on the one hand, and the communities Sikh and Hindu, on the other hand. The Moslem League, which continues to claim the creation of a distinct State in the zones with Moslem majority, gains the majority of the Moslem districts to the elections of 1946. The British decide in favor of the partition of the country, in spite of the opposition of Nehru and Gandhi. Under the terms of the Indian Independence Act voted by the British and come Parliament into effect the August 15th 1947, the transfer of sovereignty is achieved in a separate way for India and the new State of Pakistan on August 15th, 1947 to 00:00. Pakistan as India become independent States, members of the the Commonwealth.
The new State is immediately divided into two areas distinct, distant of 1 700 km: Eastern Pakistan, which will become the Bangladesh, and Western Pakistan composed of the Sind, of the Western Panjâb, the Baloutchistan, the frontier provinces of the North-West and a certain number of small States.
The partition with India involves gigantic displacements of population. More than six million Indian Moslems take refuge in the new state while a roughly equal number of Hindus and sikhs leave the Panjâb for India on background of violence and of massacres which make more 500 000 victims. The Community question will not be settled besides by these exoduses, a third of the Moslems continuing to live in India.
Development of the State and question of the Cashmere
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, called Qaid-i-Azam ( Light of the Nation ), becomes General governor of the new State, its Prime Minister is Liaquat Ali Khan. Pakistan starts its national life without qualified civils servant and administrative infrastructure in the impromptu capital of Karachi. It is however necessary to deal with the refugees, to start an autonomous economy, to institute and involve an army in a geographically burst country.
In parallel, the Hindu leader of the Jammu-and-Cashmere, the mahârâja Hari Singh, of the Dogrâ dynasty, asks for the assistance of the Indian army: the small State is the subject of incursions of tribes pathanes come from Pakistan and supported by part of the local population. The mahârâja decides, the October 26th 1947, to be attached to India whereas 78% of its subjects are Moslem. Pakistan does not accept this decision which marks the beginning of a sequence of conflicts indo-Pakistani whereas India occupies the two-thirds of the Cashmere. One cease to it fire is negotiated under the aegis of UNO, it comes into effect on January 1st 1949. The proposal of UNO to organize a referendum remains vain. A temporary line of demarcation is adopted, called “line of control” or LOC ( Line off Control ): the two-thirds of the Cashmere form the Indian federate State of the Jammu-and-Cashmere (capital Srinagar); Pakistan manages the last third, which takes the name of Azad Cachemire (“free Cashmere”, capital Muzaffarabad) and the Territoires of North (capital Gilgit).
The democratic attempt (1947-1958)
From the start, the country suffers from instability to the political plan and is confronted with great economic difficulties. Jinnah dies in 1948 and the Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan is assassinated the October 16th 1951 by an Afghan fanatic . The country suffers from an absence of leaders that neither the Prime Ministers Nazimuddin (1951 - 1953) and Muhammad Ali (1953 - 1955), nor the General governor Ghulam Muhammad (1951-55), manage to fill.
A strong dissatisfaction gains Eastern Pakistan, which feels little taken into account by a very distant federal government geographically. The Moslem League there essuie of the electoral routs, in particular in 1954: new elections are organized which lead in 1955 to a new National Assembly which is not dominated any more by the Moslem League. Chaudhri Muhammad Ali becomes Prime Minister and Iskander Mirza General governor of the country. The Parliament works out a news Constitution.
Pakistan becomes the first Islamic Republic in the world after the promulgation of this Constitution the March 23rd 1956 and Mirza is elected president on a purely provisional basis. But political instability remains in the absence of a clear majority with the Parliament which involves frequent changes of government, instability which also nourishes generalized corruption of the political circle and persistence of precarious economic conditions, in spite of the international assistance.
Vis-a-vis impossibility of reducing agitation to Eastern Pakistan, president Mirza turns to the general Muhammad Ayub Khan, commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The October 8th 1958, Mirza repeals the Constitution and proclaims the martial law.
Law of the weapons and creation of Bangladesh (1958-1972)
The Ayub mode
Twenty days later, the soldiers force president Mirza with the exile and the general Muhammad Ayub Khan takes the control of the military Dictature. An important batch of reforms is committed: land reform (9 000 km ² redistributed with 150.000 farmers), economic development plan, restrictions on the Polygamy and divorce and, in 1962, a new Constitution which institutes in particular two official languages, the Bengali and the Ourdou. Islamabad becomes the national capital and Dhâkâ, in Eastern Pakistan, the legislative capital.
The disorders persist in Eastern Pakistan where the Ligue Awami federates dissatisfactions with the detriment with the Moslem League. In spite of some diplomatic projections, the relations with India are always execrable, partly because of the question of the Cashmere and partly because of the Community conflicts which continue to tear India, in particular in the Madhya Pradesh where several thousands of Moslems are massacred in 1961. The relations with Afghanistan are also degraded between 1961 and 1963 after a series of frontier incidents, poked by the the USSR which wishes the creation of independent Pushtunistan.
After an episode of open war in 1965 with the Cashmere, president Ayub Khan and Indian the Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri agree in 1966 in the Déclaration of Tachkent, under the auspices of the Soviet Union, though the problem of the Cashmere is not solved. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto resigns of his post of Foreign Minister and is opposed to Ayub Khan and the abandonment of the Cashmere. It is at the origin of “Pakistan Peoples Party” (Left the people Pakistani), known under the name of PPP and close to socialist philosophy.
Third indo-Pakistani War, civil war and creation of Bangladesh
With the elections of 1970, the Awami League of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman gains one crushing success while seizing 153 of the 163 seats allotted to Eastern Pakistan, however that the PPP of Bhutto dominates the remainder of the Parliament. The entry in session of the new National Assembly is pushed back twice by Yahya which ends up cancelling the results of the elections. The Awami League is prohibited and, shown treason, Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman are imprisoned in Western Pakistan.
Under the name of Bangladesh, Eastern Pakistan declares its independence then the March 26th 1971. He sees himself imposing the martial law and is occupied by the Pakistani army. The civil war bursts: 10 million refugees precipitates in India, out of the hundreds of thousands of civilians are killed. India supports Bangladesh and sends troops the December 3rd 1971. After a fifteen day old war, which is the Third War indo-Pakistani between the two countries, the Pakistani troops go the December 16th 1971 and one cease-fire is issued on all fronts. A signed agreement with Shimla in July 1972 will make it possible to alleviate the tensions. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman is released and authorized to return to Bangladesh. Pakistan will recognize Bangladesh in 1974.
Ali Bhutto (1972-1977)
Following the defeat vis-a-vis in India, Yahya resigns of its president's functions for the benefit of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. In 1973, a new Constitution is adopted, of federal type. The president's function becomes purely honorary, the main part of the capacities rests between the hands of the Prime Minister. The National Assembly elects Bhutto at the post of Prime Minister by 108 votes out of 146.
As of 1972, Bhutto starts a vast program of nationalizations relating in particular to basic industries and implements ambitious a Land reform. All the banks are nationalized on January 1st 1974. The soldiers are withdrawn from the political stations décisionnaires but, as a sign of appeasing, the budget of Defense is changed to 6% of GDP. Dissatisfactions however emerge: the heads of undertakings feel the nationalizations hard; the monks do not accept this socialist policy.
Last nine important opposition parties make alliance against the PPP under the name of “Pakistan National Alliance” (National alliance of Pakistan) or PNA. With the general elections of 1977, the seconds of the history of Pakistan, the PPP however largely carries it, with 150 seats out of 200. The PNA violently disputes these results marked, according to him, by the fraud and the pressures. Demonstrations and riots are started in the country.
The military regime Zia (1977-1988)
Process of Islamization
Bhutto is stopped, considered and condemned to died for the alleged murder of the father of one of the dissidents of the PPP. After having promised elections during several months, the Zia general announces finally in 1979 the dissolution of the political parties. Bhutto is carried out by hanging the April 4th 1979.
Zia starts a true Islamization of the country. Gradually, various taxes of religious origin are introduced, with the example of the Zakât ( zakāʰ , زَكَاة), obligatory alms instituted by the Coran. A federal court of the Chariah is created to rule on the businesses according to the precepts of Coran and the Sunna. The blasphemies against Mahomet are punished of died and either of the life imprisonment. A Majlis-i-Shoora replaces the National Assembly in 1980, losing its legislative functions to become an assembly of council of the President. The Arab and the Islamic studies become obligatory matters in the majority of higher educations. The media are also aimed by this process with setting-up of Arabic tv news, the presenters forced to cover their head, and the diffusion of the Adhan to the radio and on television to call with the prayers. In the army, the theologists obtain the rank of officer in order to attract the best elements of the universities and the religious institutions. These initiatives of Zia in favor of an Islamization of the country have a long-term impact. The tax zakat is always in force as well as a great number of other texts.
The parties of the center and left, under the impulse of the PPP, create the Movement for the restoration of the democracy (“Movement for Restoration off Democracy”), or MRD, the February 6th 1981. The MRD claims the end of the martial law, new elections and the return to the Constitution of 1973. In 1984, Zia launches a national Référendum on the question of the Islamization of the country by raising a juridically complex question: it returns in fact to ask whether it is desirable that Pakistan is an Islamic state, and in the event of affirmative vote places Zia in position of president of the Republic of Pakistan for 5 years. The mechanism is thus close to true a Plébiscite. The referendum is held in December 1984 and seen the victory of yes, in spite of the boycott of the MRD.
Restoration of an constitutional order
The elections of 1985, also boycotted by the MRD, allow the restoration of an National Assembly equipped with legislative powers, president Zia-ul-Haq appoints Muhammad Khan Junejo Prime Minister the March 20th 1985. The martial law is raised. In spite of significant efforts, Junejo does not manage to reform the control of the State taking into account the influence of Zia from which it vainly tries to be detached. Passed to the Senate the November 14th 1985, the 8th amendment with the Constitution indeed gives to the president the right to name the Prime Minister, the governors of provinces, the high-ranking magistrates. It can ask the Prime Minister to obtain a vote of confidence of the Parliament and to name a government by interim. The capacity more discussed of the president is that discrétionnaire to dissolve the National Assembly. These modifications change the nature of the mode radically; of parliamentary nature, it becomes presidential.
The tensions on the Afghan question accumulate between president Zia and the Junejo Prime Minister. In 1979, when the Soviet forces had invaded the Afghanistan, Zia had been posed in rampart against the Communisme and the country faced a massive surge of Afghan refugees. The the United States had answered the Soviet invasion by granting enormous assistances, financial and material, with the mode Afghan anticommunist and the moudjahidinnes but also for the benefit of Pakistan itself, benefitting from the statute of “ Most Favored Nation ”, with which the army becomes equipped better. In parallel the constitution of an axis China-Pakistan anxious and Moscow and Washington. The democratic evolution of the mode is explained besides undoubtedly by the American pressures accompanying the payment by the assistances. However, the massive exodus of the Afghan civilians in Pakistan involves terrible difficulties for a country with the precarious economy and the unstable political organization. Junejo tries to reach a national consensus, by consulting the whole of the Pakistani political clouts, including Benazir Bhutto which succeeded his/her father with the head of the PPP. This step is disapproved by Zia. The Junejo government falls with the first pretext, after having tried to launch an investigation into the military fiasco of Ojheri Camp close to Islamabad of the April 10th 1988, which resulted in the death of a very great number of civilians. The Zia general uses his constitutional capacity with the reason which the Junejo government cannot function any more in accordance with the Constitution taking into account the degree of the legal and public disorders. The whole of the federal and provincial assemblies are also dissolved, with their directions.
A dramatic turn of events upsets the political scene however: the August 17th 1988, the plane transporting president Zia, the American ambassador Arnold Raphael, the American general Herbert Wassom and twenty-eight officers Pakistani are crushed after a visit on a military base. In accordance with the Constitution, the president of the Senate, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, is invested capacities by interim and announces the behavior of elections for November 1988.
A dubious democracy (1988-1999)
The PPP gains the elections of November 1988, without profiting however from an absolute majority. Thanks to the support of small parts, Benazir Bhutto is named Prime Minister. It is the first woman of an Islamic State to exert this responsibility. In spite of a strong popular legitimacy, Bhutto is confronted with many difficulties: inter-ethnic disorders violent one in the areas, persistence of the problems related to the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan, continuous tensions with the India which pain to be solved diplomatically. The soldiers hesitate to support a mode which has all the appearance of corruption and inefficiency. The government coalition is surbedded, the small parts vote a motion of distrust, and a conflict bursts between the president Ghulam Ishaq Khan and its Prime Minister about the appointments of the soldiers of high ranking and the high-ranking magistrates. The August 6th 1990, president Khan dismisses Bhutto and its ministers, dissolves the National Assembly and the assemblies of province.
The elections of November 1990 see the victory of the coalition carried out by Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, former minister as a chief of the Panjâb and leader of the Islamic Democratic Alliance , or IJI (Islamic democratic Alliance). The IJI has a majority of the three-quarters with the National Assembly, controls the four Parliaments of province and profits at the same time from the support of the soldiers and the president Ghulam Ishaq Khan.
Sharif implements a programme of privatization, deregulation and encouragement to the private sector and the overseas investment to stimulate the growth. The effects of this program are however decreased by the drastic reduction of the American assistance under the terms of the Pressler Amendment , which has the aim of preventing the continuation of the project of Pakistani nuclear armament. Parallel to the government action of modernization of the economy, the Parliament approves in May 1991 a bill reinforcing the statute of the Charia ( šarīʿaʰ , charî `has شَرِيعَة) in the country.
The government coalition does not manage however to reconcile the contradictory objectives of the parties which compose it, of the accusations of corruption are launched against the Sharif Prime Minister. This one is dismissed by the president Ghulam Ishaq Khan in April 1993 for bad administration, corruption and Népotisme. The supreme court breaks this decision in May 1993 and restores Sharif and its government. The crisis is solved by the resignation of the two men the July 18th 1993.
Return of Benazir Bhutto (1993)
The country knows a short interim with the government of Moin Qureshi, former vice-president of the the World Bank, which succeeds in adopting in very little time a train of economic reforms and social which make the admiration of the international community and are strongly constant with the internal plan.
The elections of the autumn still bring back Benazir Bhutto to the post of Prime Minister the October 19th 1993 with the support of a new government coalition, more fragile than the preceding one because of the necessary support of several independent small parts. This return of the PPP in the forefront is still reinforced by the election of Farooq Leghari, near of Bhutto, at the position of president. This majority is however strongly fought by the party of Nawaz Sharif - which launches several general strikes in the country - and quickly discredited by a dubious provincial administration. In 1995, forty officers are stopped, shown to prepare an Islamic revolution. To the international plan, Bhutto manages to approach the the United States but the continuation of the program of nuclear experimentation revives the tensions with India. Bhutto is again dismissed in 1996: president Leghari reproaches him facts of corruption and a bad economic management.
Return of Nawaz Sharif (1997)
The party of Nawaz Sharif largely gains the elections of February 1997, it obtains a majority of the two-thirds to the National Assembly. Sharif sticks as of March 1997 to reduce the 8th amendment of the Constitution, arms formidable with the president enabling him to dislocate elected governments and to name at the high stations of the soldiers. The supreme court blocks these initiatives, it starts again an investigation for corruption against the Prime Minister. The reform causes finally the fall of president Leghari, who resigns in December 1997, and the revocation of the president of the supreme court. Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, near to Sharif, is elected president in 1998. The expression of the political rights is gradually restricted. A denigration campaign is launched against the opponents with the mode, the press is muzzled, of the famous journalists are stopped and beaten. On the international plan, India carries out five underground nuclear explosions in May 1998 which causes in answer series of tests nuclear to Pakistan, in the Balouchistan. The United States imposes economic sanctions on the two States. New a conflict with India about the Cashmere bursts at the summer 1999. Combatants cashmiris, supported by the troops pakistaises, launch a series of victorious raids close to the town of Kargil. After weeks of engagements, the combatants end up withdrawing territory under Indian control in August 1999. October 12th, 1999, after Sharif tries to dismiss the general Pervez Musharraf, chief of staff of the armies, a military coup d'etat carried out by this last drives out the Prime Minister and suspends the Constitution: martial the law term is not employed but it is well a new period of military domination which starts.
The mode of Pervez Musharraf (since 1999)
Nawaz Sharif is shown of treason then condemned in April 2000 to the life imprisonment. The sorrow will be commuted in December 2000 and Sharif exiled to Saudi Arabia. Musharraf proclaims president in June 2001. After the terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001 in the United States, organized by the Islamic movement Al-Qaida, one waited until the American government raises the economic sanctions against Pakistan, but it will do nothing but spread out the refunding of the debt, it however encourages it with the co-operation to fight against Bin Laden and the mode Taliban in Afghanistan. The fastening of Pakistan to the American interests causes severely repressed islamist riots, in particular in edge of Afghan border, where a strong community of refugees saw. In January 2002, Musharraf criticizes the religious extremism and its effects on the Pakistani company; it decides not to more tolerate any group engaged in terrorism. A plebiscite held in April 2002 legitimates its position for 9 years with the head of the country, though the sincerity of the poll was seriously questioned. Musharraf imposes in August 2002 nearly about thirty amendments on the Constitution which reinforce its capacity and take part in a weakening of the opposition. The elections of October 2002 are a success for the PPP of Benazir Bhutto; the PMLQ ( Pakistan Muslim League-Qaid ) which supports Musharraf arrives only in second position however that an anti-American islamist coalition occupies a strong third place. Musharraf is the subject of two attempted murders in December 2003, month during which it makes an agreement with the Islamic parties to reconsider the amendments partially to the Constitution. The Pakistani economy is in signal 3 of the economies with the fastest growths. Market index KSE (Karachi Exchange Stock) was declared the market index most powerful in 2005.
Stakes and perspective of today
Pakistan until today never succeeded in establishing a stable democratic regime for the good one and simple reason which no democratic institution was left in Pakistan at the beginning British. Since the partition in 1947, military oligarchy regularly imposed its will (while answering the urgent calls of the members of the opposition) while being based, sometimes in an obscure way, on a fundamentalist Islamic tendency, when this tendency was not openly encouraged, during the Zia mode for example.
Cashmere and nuclear armament
The disagreement concerning the Cachemire opposes India and Pakistan since the partition. India, which refuses any local referendum, asserts the Cashmere in its entirety by making the point that the basically federal and laic character of its organization enables him to accommodate any Muslim population. Pakistan is shown to carry out a war in writing pad in incentive the islamist combatants and helping them via its secret services, the Interservices Intelligence Agency (ISI). On its side, Pakistan considers that the population with very strong Moslem majority gives him a natural legitimacy on this territory.
Two of the three wars that were carried out both State were justified by the question of the Cashmere. Moreover, as it was known as higher, the race with the nuclear armament is explained primarily by the existence of this disagreement: means of dissuasion making it possible each country to adopt an arrogant posture, the nuclear weapon constitutes also a major threat for the whole of the sub-continent and world balance. A major armed episode was avoided of accuracy between December 2001 and October 2002 after India mobilized troops along its border with Pakistan following the terrorist attack on its Parliament with New Delhi.
For the first time in October 2002, free elections were held with the Jammu-and-Cashmere, giving the capacity to the separatists. The average rate of participation however amounted only to 44%, so that the value of this poll gave place to debates. Pakistan announced on November 23rd, 2003 a unilateral cease-fire on line of control (LOC), immediately accepted by India. In December 2003, Pervez Musharraf is declared ready to give up temporarily one of the oldest Pakistani claims, the behavior of a referendum to the Cashmere, if this abandonment is likely to support a Pacific regulation of the conflict. After, India implied that there existed well a problem concerning the territory of the Cashmere, which could mean that it is ready to admit that this one did not make necessarily integral part of its borders.
The Earthquake of October 8th, 2005 made, according to a still provisional assessment at November 1st 2005 73 276 died and 69 260 wounded in Azad Cashmere. The country required the international assistance and his Indian neighbor, who would count approximately 1 500 killed, opened the border and envoy of the helps: 25 tons of material of help (in particular food, covers and drugs) initially by air forwarding, then by means of two other forwardings per train, crossing the common border. The India also promised a help of 25 million dollars in Pakistan. Perhaps these cooperation actions humanitarian will have a positive influence on the future of the bilateral relations of these countries.
Afghanistan, Al-Qaida and islamist problems
The situation of Pakistan to the international plan radically changed since the attacks of September 11th, 2001 in the United States. The mode then becomes the object of all the attentions and has an financial aid of a level ever reached: for a country of which 43% of the public expenditure are devoted to the payment of the foreign debt, the choice of the co-operation with the United States on the face of the fight against Al-Qaida and the Taliban S Afghan is impossible to refuse, even if Pakistan largely supported the mode taliban. Pakistan appears being, certainly, for many observers  a privileged, financial and operational base, islamist terrorist movements in the world. As of January 2002 however, Pervez Musharraf expresses its wish to see the country returning to a more distant attitude with Islam, within the framework of a social compromise with the religion, without questioning of this membership founder. Islamic Republic, Pakistan is indeed deeply divided between her adhesion with Islam and her historical tolerance with Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand, and the economic and financial needs which lead it to arise in faithful ally of the United States and to take part in the tracking of the Al-Qaida leaders on her territory.
Pakistan is regularly the object of attacks allotted to the islamist ones: the army and the police force are the target of attacks in the North-West, close to the border with Afghanistan. On July 17th and 27th 2007, two attack-suicide with Islamabad made 27 died on the whole. September 4th, 2007 at least 24 people are killed in two explosions in the suburbs of the capital
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