History of Japan
Prehistory and origins
Paleolithic preceramic period
See also: paleolithic preceramic Period of Japan
The age of the first settlement of Japan is discussed. The figure of - 200 000 years was advanced during some time following the exceptional discoveries of the Archéologue Japanese Shinichi Fujimura, but it proved that it had fraudulently introduced objects into old levels. He was uncovered in 2000 but certain works on the history of Japan do not take account of this questioning and are with being read with precaution.
Ages of - 30 000 or - 40.000 years (site in the prefecture of Miyagi) seem probable.
It is known that at the beginning of this period the Japanese islands were connected between them, and with the unintermitting , by the Glace until in 13 000 before J. - C. approximately. The cast iron of the Glacier S of the end of the Pléistocène isolated and recreated current form of the Archipel.
It is known however that the Japan board of the time controlled neither the Céramique, nor the sedentary Agriculture but exploited the Obsidienne.
See also: Period Jōmon
The origins of Japanese civilization are registered in the legend. The February 11th 660 before JC is the date accepted traditionally for the foundation of Japan by the Empereur Jimmu. It is at least in this manner that the Japanese history is reported in the first writings dating from the VIe and 8th century, shortly after adoption of the Chinese written form and of the Bouddhisme. At that time, the emperors fought for the capacity. And, in order to legitimate their place on the throne, they ordered the creation of mythological collections of poems explaining why their capacity came from Amaterasu, the goddess of the sun which gave birth to Jimmu Tennō, recognized like an ancestor of the imperial family.
The emperors were the leaders symbolic systems, whereas the true capacity was generally held by the powerful noble ones of the Court, regents, or Shogun S (military governors).
The Chinese sources seem more credible by describing a country named “Wa” directed by various families having each one their gods. Recent anthropological studies suggest that the first colonists of Japan would come from Siberia and/or of Polynésie.
See also: Period Yayoi
Tōkyō appears. Towards -300, a new migratory flux whose origin is discussed touches the plain of Yamato around Nara. These populations develop the culture of the Riz, the work of the Bronze, the trade with the continent and the company of clans. They reign on all the southern part of the country by leaving north to the Aïnus. They create the Yamato culture and the Shintoïsme which are at the origin of the Japanese imperial line (oldest of the world) via the goddess of the sun, Amaterasu.
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Yamato Period]] ''' ([] - [])
The Yamato period is the beginning of a true State. It is divided into two under-periods, on the basis of arrival of Buddhism. This period is composed mainly by the Period Kofun and the Period Asuka. The Kofun period marks the birth of true a company accompanied by bases Culture lles by the invasion of riding with the will to create a Japanese State. The Period Asuka is marked by the arrival of the Bouddhisme to the Japan, in 538.
Time of Nara
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Time of Nara]] ''' ([] - [])
Time of Heian
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Time of Heian]] ''' ([] - [])
The imperial court knows its period of peace. Its arts, particularly poetry (manyoshu) and the literature, resplendissent.
Feudal periodSeveral eras cover this feudal time, in which powerful local families, Daimyō, share the capacity with the lords of wars.
Time of Kamakura
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Time of Kamakura]] ''' ([] - [])
Restoration of Kemmu
See also: Restoration of Kemmu
Time of Muromachi
See also: Time of Muromachi
See also: Time Azuchi-Momoyama
Time of Edo
See also: Time of Edo
The administration of the country is shared by two hundred Daimyō.
During this period, the trade and the cities develop.
Contact with the OccidentDuring the 16th century, tradesmen come from the Portugal, Netherlands, of England and Spain unloaded in Japan, with the Christian missionaries . During the first part of the 17th century, the shogunat Japanese suspecta that they were the premises of a military conquest by the European forces and ceased finally any relation with the foreigner excluded certain contacts restricted with merchants Chinese and Dutch with Nagasaki (precisely on the island of Dejima). This insulation lasted 200 years, until Commodore Matthew Perry force Japan to open with the Occident with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
Into only a few years, the renewal of the contacts with the Occident transformed the Japanese company deeply. The shogunat was forced to resign and the Emperor took again the capacity.
Meiji restorationThe restoration Meiji of 1868 initiated many reforms. The Feudal system was abolished, and of many Western institutions were adopted, of which a legal system and of government as well as other economic reforms, social and military. They transformed Japan into a power on the world scene known under the name of Empire of Japan.
Wars with China and RussiaThese transformations gave rise to a strong ambition, which was transformed into war against the China (1895) and the Russia (1905) in which Japan gained the Korea, Taiwan and other territories.
Alliance britanno-Japanese woman
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Taishō Era]] ''' ([] - [])
First World War
See also: Contenu=Voir also ''' [[Era Shōwa (2)]], [[Shōwa Era]] Cet article also presents in detail the economic history of Japan of the beginning of the Showa Era until [] ''' ([] - [])
Beginnings of militarism
The beginning of the era Shōwa saw the Japanese State falling under the influence increasing from the military expansionism. In 1931, Japan took possession of the Mandchourie which accepted the name of Manzhouguo. The latter was regarded consequently as a colony as well as the Korea. Japan withdrew SDN in March 1933 following a resolution requiring of him to withdraw itself from Mandchourie.
In 1937 the invasion of China had extended the Japanese empire along the coast and on the course of the Chang Jiang where the imperial armed was devoted to many exactions against the civilians, in particular to Shanghai, Nankin, Canton and Wuhan. During this invasion, the imperial District-general guaranteed massacres as well as the use of the chemical weapons.
A armed conflict with the Soviet Union puts a term at the expansionist ambitions of the Empire in north.
1st conflict Free-Japanese (1940)detailed Article: War free-inhabitant of Thailand
De Pearl Harbor in Midwaydetailed Articles: Expansionism of Japan Shōwa, Campaigns of the Pacific
In 1941, the Emperor Shōwa lance the war of Large Eastern Asia ( Dai Tô-A sensô ) which begin with the Attaque on Pearl Harbor and the invasion of the Malaysia in December 1941. This event makes leave the the United States their neutrality to take share with the Second world war. Japan continues its conquest of the Southeast Asia by invading Singapore, the Filipino , the Indonesia, the New Guinea-News-Guinea) to the septentrional border of the Australia and in the archipelagoes of the Pacific Ocean. The Japanese are stopped in their projection towards the west by the British army based in India and settle durably in Burma.
De Guadalcanal with Iwo JimaAugust 1st
2nd conflict Free-Japanese (1945)After being itself involved in French Algeria, the Task force of the Far East of the French Union with the orders of the General Leclerc, fights battle to the Japanese forces in order to release French Indo-China. August 1st
See also: Acts of capitulation of Japan
Japan is finally overcome in 1945. The larguage of two atomic bombs, the first on Hiroshima on August 6th and a second on August 9th on Nagasaki. (See the detailed article atomic Bombardments of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.)
A deleguation of the Japanese government goes on the bridge of the American Cuirassé US Missouri to sign, in front of the generals Alliés MacArthur and Leclerc, the terms of a unconditional surrender, then with the the United States, the September 2nd 1945.
A new statute for the emperorFor fifteen centuries, the role of the emperor had been that of an imperial leader. As from the Meiji restoration, he had become a true Head of State, ordering Army and Navy. With the constitution of 1946, the Emperor Showa renonça with his executive powers of divine right, henceforth making only name the Prime Minister and the president of the supreme court. The role of the emperor is defined in chapter I of the Constitution of Japan of 1947. Article 1 defines the emperor as the symbol of the State.
Occupation at the end of the Eighties
See also: Occupation of Japan
After the occupation
After 1952, its economy is restored and allowed the return of prosperity on the islands.
See also: Era Heisei
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