Herschel Feidel Grynszpan (born the March 28th 1921 with Hanover, in Germany and probably deceased between 1944 and 1945) was a young person Juif Polish which, in 1938, assassinated Ernst vom Rath, the adviser of the embassy of Germany with Paris. This act served as a pretext for Adolf Hitler for launching against the Jews of the operations of great scale which will succeed, three days later, with the Nuit of crystal.
Born in Hanover in 1921, Herschel Grynszpan is the sixth of a Fratrie of eight children. His/her father Sendel Siegmund Grynszpan and his mother Rifka Silberberg, both originating in the area of Radomsk in Russian Poland, leave in 1911 (one year after their marriage) the Russia to settle in Hanover. After the restitution in Poland of its territorial sovereignty by the agreements of Versailles, they take nationality polonaise.
The family saw with difficulty incomes of a workshop of tailor. The crisis of 1929 does not arrange anything and the father is obliged to give up his graver until in 1934 and to make some secondhand trades for survivre.
The March 31st 1938 the Grynszpan family falls under the blow from a law from the Polish government which has withdrawn nationality with the Poles installed abroad for more than 5 years and having lost any bond with Poland.
After returnbeing returned nursery school, it enters in 1926 to the elementary school of Hanover where it remains until in 1935 without to have reached the final class, only for lack of heat. It is a child brawler and with the bad caractère.
To its exit of the school in 1935, it leaves the May 10th for the Yeshiva Solomon Breuer to Frankfurt, where it intends to learn Hebrew to leave in Palestine. It arises the April 15th 1936 and returns of it in his parents. It intends to await its visa for Palestine in an aunt with Brussels.
Herschel is Polish citizen born in Germany, and has a Polish passport established for two years. It must ask the German police force a visa for Belgium. Having always the desire to emigrate in Palestine, it will make the meeting of a person in a synagog which will change the course of its vie.
“a boy as you does not have to remain in Germany where a Jew is not a man but is treated like a dog. ” He advises to him to go to France. The uncle Abraham of Paris wants the recevoir. well
In July 1936, it leaves for Brussels, where it is accommodated by family, Zaslavsky, with 37 rue des Tanneurs where it remains a few days. September 15th, it crosses the border and is found clandestinely in France. Of October 1936 with August 1938, Herschel will try to obtain correct documents.
The stay in Paris
The uncle Abraham signs with the Police headquarter a certificate of lodging by which it is committed ensuring the subsistence of his nephew and to teach him a trade. With the wire of the months, and expiry of its passport and its visas, it will at the same time find prohibited stay in four countries: France, Belgium, Poland, Allemagne.
Each week Herschel Grynszpan receives 30 to 40 francs for the assistance which it gives to the workshop clothes industry that his/her uncle carries out. It will benefit from the delights of Parisian life, where it privileges idleness and the distractions with work. It often takes part in exits organized by sporting groupings or Jewish newspapers. It often leaves with his friend Nathan Kaufman who lives in the same district as lui.
the August 11th 1938 it receives an order of expulsion in the four days. It obliges his uncle to place it in a Chambre of good on the 5th floor of the 8, Rue Martel.
Thursday, November 3: Herschel receives a chart of his/her Berta sister teaching him expulsion from its family towards the Polish camp of Zbąszyn. An idea obsesses it: to avenge its family.
- Friday, November 4: It reads the news which reports the situation of the Jews expelled thanks to the newspaper Yiddish the " Pariser Haint" that his/her uncle receives.
- Saturday, November 5: Its day is agitated, it turns and turns over in its head the events of Zbonszyn. He wants to make pay the Germans.
- Sunday, November 6: It reproaches his/her uncle and his aunt their lack of compassion with regard to their co-religionists. The uncle Abraham is annoyed: “If you are not content, you have to only leave. ” Herschel from goes away while claquant the door in spite of the reasoning of his/her beautiful aunt. It leaves with his friend Nathan, they separate with 19:30. Herschel takes a room with the " Hotel of Suez" , 17 bd de Strasbourg. On the register it gives a false identity, that of Halter, Heinrich.
It will be locked up in its room until the following day.
- Monday, November 7: In the small hour, it writes a letter of good-bye to his/her parents with the back of a portrait of him.
After a breakfast taken with the hotel, it goes to 8:30 in an cutlery-arms manufacture, " The Expert swordsman " located at the 61 Holy Suburb Martin.
Mr Carpe, the tradesman, advises a Révolver to him gauges 6.35mm, more handy than a automatic pistol.
It pays 210 francs the weapon, plus 35 francs the box of cartridges by showing its passport polonais.
While leaving, it goes to the brewery " All-goes-Bien" Boulevard St-Denis, moves towards the toilets to the basement and load the Barillet of five cartridges. It puts its weapon in the inside pocket of its veste.
It leaves the brewery, takes the Ligne 8 with Strasbourg St Denis, changes with Madeleine for the line 12 and goes down to Solférino, very close to the Ambassade of Germany.
It is 9:35 approximately when Herschel arrives at the 78, Rue of Lille, in front of the embassy. It returns by the public door where the woman of the caretaker receives it. He asks to have a discussion with the private secretary of the ambassador in order to give an important document to him. He crosses the main courtyard and climbs large which leads to the first stage.
After having declined the offer of the usher to give itself the file, the third adviser Ernst vom Rath, receives it in its office.
Les two men sat face to face in front of the office; after vom Rath asks for the object of its visit to him, Grynszpan rises, leaves the pocket of the jacket its revolver and exclaims: “You are dirty a boche and in the name of twelve thousand Jews persecuted here the document. ”
In same time it draws 5 times. The man collapses but finds the force to call the Help!. Herschel is arrété by the personnel and given to the policeman François Autret in faction in front of the embassy. Seriously wounded, vom Rath is taken along to the private clinic of Alma, street of the University.
“I shot five blows from revolver at a man alone who was in the office to be avenged for the Germans. I did that to avenge my parents who are unhappy in Germany. ”
Here what Herschel Grynszpan says to the police officer who brings it to the police station, Rue of Burgundy.
When the police chief is on the point of receiving the deposition of the accused, a civil servant of the embassy arrives, and against all the procedure rules questions Grynszpan: ; Why did you shoot at the embassy secretary? : To avenge me for the persecutions inflicted by these dirty boches. ; Why do you believe yourselves in charge of this revenge? : Because expelled Polish is my co-religionists. ; You are Jewish? : Yes.
During the excavation, one will find the chart of good-bye written in the morning with the hotel. This chart will be used by the civil part to prove the préméditation.
After having enregitré the first consents, the police chief carries out the reconstitution. The way is remade in company of Grynszpan, which is confronted with his/her uncle, the arms manufacturer and the tenant of the hotel. However he will refuse to go to the embassy of Germany of fear of being retained there. In the official report the murderer recognizes the facts. The following day afternoon in front of the examining magistrate, it will try to modify the bad impression of the day before:
“I acted neither by hatred nor by revenge, but by love for my father and my people who undergo amazing sufferings. I deeply regret having wounded a man but I did not have an other means of expressing my will… It is not a crime to be Juif. We are not dogs. The Jewish people have also the right to life. ”
The other truth
- the young killer will be allowed freely without to have had to fill of form.
- It will require to see this private secretary and not the ambassador.
- Of the testimonys deposited at the time of a lawsuit to the parquet floor of Essen proves that Grynszpan and vom Rath had met by attending the Parisian homosexual medium, with the " Ox on the roof " inter alia.
- Of the sources reveals that vom Rath suffered from a MST on its return of Calcutta.
With the autumn the 1942 preparations of the lawsuit will be stopped without motivations officielles.
However, since 1938 André Gide wrote:
What will say Abetz and Aschenbach
- According to Ernst Achenbach which was embassy secretary in the Thirties: he would have to accommodate on November 7th, Herschel Grynszpan when this one was apprétait to make the murder against vom Rath. The only fact of having been late this day there and to be replaced by this last would have saved the life to him.
“Grynszpan had shot several blows from revolver at the adviser vom Rath who turned the back to him to fill the usual form with the unknown and not convened visitors. The majority of the balls were lost in the wall, but one of them reached the adviser so that it was to die two days later of this wound. This young civil servant, at this early hour, made only one replacement with the Protocol department. It was an adversary of the national socialism, it had tendency to ideas mystical and seeing even in Hitler " Antéchrist" … The search for possible accomplices did not give any results and one did not manage to establish if Grynszpan had acted of its own boss or were only one emissary. ”Let us note that the police officer in load of the investigation for the German part was the police chief Karl Boemelburg especially come from Berlin and who will be the future section head IV of BdS in France, i.e. Gestapo.
Tesnière judge accuses Herschel Grynszpan of assassination and two days later of premeditated murder.
It is imprisoned with the Prison of Fresnes.
Initially, it will be assisted by the lawyers Henri Szwarc and Vesinne-Larue, chosen by its family. Then, on the councils of the world Jewish Congress and the Federation of the Jewish companies of France, his/her uncle Solomon requires of Maître of Moro-Giafferi to ensure his defense, assisted by Me Weill-Goudchaux and Me Fränkel.
With Moro-Giafferi Master
Very honoured Main with Moro-Giafferi
please excuse me to write to you in German, that comes owing to the fact that I cannot write French, I ask you to accept the load of my defense at the time of my lawsuit in the hope which you will want to reach my prayer well, I have the honor… HG
It is Maître Moro-Giafferi which will ensure its defense like that of his/her accused uncle and his aunt, them, of enfreinte to the decree on the police force from abroad. The defense of Grynszpan is not facilitated by the report/ratio of the doctors psychiatrists:
“While strictly placing us on the psychiatric ground , we did not find any element pathological sufficient which can involve from the mental point of view an attenuation of its responsibility. This one must be regarded as whole. The young person Herschel Grynszpan was not in a state of insanity at the time of the act within the meaning of the article 64 of the penal code… It is a normally intelligent boy, it has even a certain smoothness and it is not particularly suggestible. He judges with much relevance certain situations, for example, when we ask him why he did not commit suicide: it is because, he says, it reflected that at our time the death of a Jew would not have raised the world, thus the goal of his protest would not have been reached. ”
Dr Genil-Perrin, Dr. Ceillier, Dr. Heuer experts close the Civil Court of the Seine
Thanks to the call launched by the journalist American Dorothy Thompson to sensitize the opinion with the business, this one will collect funds which will be used to support the heavy financial expenses of lawyers.
Correspondence and newspaper held in prison by Herschel Grynszpan
; The 12/20/1938: Grynszpan requires of Moro-Giafferi to make him a visit. ; The 12/24/1938: Grynszpan writes that it received the visit of Weill Goudchaux and that it thus obtained the setting in bail of his uncle and his aunt. ; The 1/25/1939: it informs Moro-Giafferi that, for certain reasons, it must write a letter with an English journalist. He kindly requests to him to give him a council and to say to him what he must answer. ; The 3/3/1939: he writes on a tone humble and obséqieux that Moro-Giafferi is its first and its only defender and will remain it, and that he likes it of all his heart. He adds: I have only one request to make you, it is that you came to visit me in my prison. ; The 3/19/1939: he writes on a disillusioned tone that he awaited this day even the visit of Moro-Giafferi, which had been announced to him by Soffer and Weill Goudchaux. He hopes that he will make this visit in the week. ; The 3/26/1939: Grynszpan receives a long time announced visit of Moro-Giafferi, and speaks about it with joy in a letter of March 27th. ; The 5/8/1939: it expresses its disillusion again not to have received this day the visit of Moro-Giafferi. ; The 12/14/1939: he asks a visit by telegram urgently. ; The 1/1/1940: it sends its wishes of the new year. ; The 1/16/1940: he threatens to make a misfortune if he does not receive the visit of his lawyer. ; The 1/23/1940: it at the latest fixes an ultimatum at its lawyer for his visit, required the 10/02. ; The 1/31/1940: he still writes and asks last once a visit before the 10/02. ; The 2/5/1940: he writes that the time expires the 10/02 and threatens to change defender. ; The 2/29/1940: he threatens to make the hunger strike on March 1st. ; The 3/4/1940: he reminds Moro-Giafferi that he had promised a handing-over in bail to him. If it does not have an answer before the 15/03 it will change defender, even if he must regret it later. ; The 3/10/1940: “I declare for the last time that if the request concerning my setting in bail is not deposited, I will see myself forced to change defender. ” ; The 3/25/1940: he says that Moro-Giafferi promised to him to pass to see it with the return of its voyage, but he did not do it. ; The 4/10/1940: “If my business does not interest you any more, say it to me and I will take the necessary measures consequently. ” ; The 5/1/1940: Grynszpan writes that one considered his transfer to the Prison of Health. ; The 6/3/1940: He requests an interview because he would have a communication very important to make his lawyer.
Via one of its lawyers, it sends a written letter to the Minister for justice to engage in the French Army. Without success.
With Fränkel Master
I have the honor to state to you that I have just addressed the following letter to the Minister for justice:
“Sir, I know that France crosses the tragic hours. I thus allow myself to ask you to agree to authorize me to engage me like volunteer in the French Army. I would like to repurchase, by my blood, the act which I have made and to repair the trouble thus that I caused with the country which granted its hospitalité.
Recevez, Sir, Ministre… ”
I request from you, dear Maître, to agree to transmit to the press this letter to the Minister. With my anticipated thanks, please approve,… HG
From Paris to Berlin
After being itself made represent by a lawyer of the Embassy, the civil part decides the nomination of the lawyer auxiliary Friedrich Grimm of the services of Joseph Goebbels. This one will name the French lawyers Maîtres Maurice Garçon and Maurice Loncle to represent the Reich.
Moreover, the adviser Wolfgang Diewerge, is named by Goebbels to follow Grynszpan business and to organize propaganda in France. In January 1939, the Franco-German relations being good, Grimm tries to hasten the lawsuit, but two months later all will be called into question by the invasion of the Czechoslovakia. The defenders wish in their turn to advance the lawsuit. But to the wire of the political adventures, comes the day from the invasion of Poland and the entry in war of France against III Reich. The requests for setting in freedom for Herschel all will be refused, it will undergo thus twenty month of detention préventive.
- on June 1st 1940 the government must organize the fold of the administration and the evacuation of the prisons. The Court of Paris moves with Angers. The prisoners will be moved in the south of the Paris region; for Grynszpan, it will be the prison of Orleans. It is evacuated of force with 96 fellows-prisoner towards the Prison of Bourges where their convoy will be attacked by German aviation.
- the June 17th 1940 in complete confusion, the prisoners are delivered to themselves, but some whose Grynszpan, prefer to join Bourges and to deliver itself.
- the June 18th in the morning the chief warden of the prison requires what it is necessary to do of the new prisoners. On order of the Prefect, it is asked not to mention the name of Grynszpan on the registers of the prison and to let it leave on the free road Chateauroux. It goes to the prison of Chateauroux but it is slackened, and Grynszpan will only set out again and free with Toulouse. But, after fifteen days of freedom, not knowing anybody and being completely stripped, it knocks on the door of the prison of Toulouse. Paradoxically, it will be found in the same area where his/her uncle and aunt took refuge as his lawyers of which Moro-Giafferi which will remain with Aiguillon in the Lot-et-Garonne. Unfortunately, it will not know anything of it.
- the June 19th the Nazis always track it, they find its trace with the prison of Bourges but it already left.
Otto Abetz will telegraph this:
End of course in Berlin
Once in Berlin, Herschel is questioned in a lenient way have regard to its importance for propaganda of Joseph Goebbels. It will be tranféré the January 18th 1941 with the Concentration camp of Sachsenhausen where it will profit from a preferential mode compared to the remainder of the deportees, for lawsuit with large spectacle envisaged by the mode. It will share its captivity with the former chancellor of Austria Kurt von Schuschnigg. During the summer 1941, it is put in detention at the prison of the Gestapo of Berlin-Moabit.
The German law not making it possible to consider a crime political committed abroad by a stateless person, the ministry for Reich will turn difficultée by accusing it for high treason. Propaganda fixes the date of the lawsuit at the February 18th 1942, where it envisages to make testify the French former minister Georges Bonnet. But with this date will be held another important lawsuit in France, that of Riom; who will oppose the plans of Goebbels; Hitler and will fix another date to him: the May 11th 1942. It is at this time that Herschel Grynszpan throws a paving stone in the pond: he will claim to have had homosexual relations with vom Rath what will block the court system.
; Goebbels will write in its newspaper: “Grynszpan found the argument insolate according to which it would have had homosexual Rapports with the adviser vom Rath. It is naturally about a shameless lie. But it is well found and if the thing were brought back in a public lawsuit, it would become surely the principal argument of the unfavourable propangande.”
Its fellows-prisoner of Sachsenhausen will confirm with the release, that Grynszpan had invented this history.
Its death probably took place in this camp between 1944 and 1945, the S not leaving any chance to their enemies.
Il was however announced like living to Paris in 1957 (cf " Herschel Gruenspan lebt! " article of Kurt. R. Grossmann in Aufbau , New York, May 10th, 1957, quoted in R. Hillberg in destruction of the Jews of Europe , T. III of the French edition.)
Adolf Eichmann on Grynszpan
Grynszpan known as… in… it was in full war… in… during the war - it was to be into 43 - or 44 - I was hardly - in 43 Grynszpan was… it is that: I received some… some… during my service I received an order that Grynszpan was in detention with the Prinz Albrechtstrasse 8, and it was to be examined more in detail on which was had been in slide. Consequently I ordered to bring Grynszpan not, not as that - consequently Krischak gave orders - Krischak managed the file - of apmener Grynszpan and… in both cases it would have been without interest, I said it myself. I remember still exactly, that I was curious to see what Grynszpan resembled.
For this reason, I can still remember that very well, and I still said: They have - more or less thus - if they did not discover this during all these years, then it would be also… this examination will be also without interest, this would be useless, but an order was an order. Grynszpan - (er) - Krischak questioned it and took notes. Nothing, obviously, emerged from all this thing and I have simply say to Krischak that if it had completed the interrogation, I wanted that one brings it to me on the floor, I it wanted - for once - to really see the Grynszpan man. I wanted to speak to him. And I did it, I exchanged some words with Grynszpan. It was very laconic (abweisend) and abrupt, was indifferent and gave short answers to all the questions. I wanted to ask him, since I did not know any more the unit of the file, where it had been and of the things of this kind. As a whole it presented well, it was small - it was a little boy - I absolutely have - I do not know if I am right but that I remember it - such one… it was like one by the services of Krischak. It was a short report/ratio - because it left anything there.
; Know what it arrived to him thereafter? : Not, I do not know. ; Was it held in a camp, or, or it was cut down, or another thing? : Apparently in a camp It was not retained in prison, so that I believe. ; Thus…: I was not authorized on this subject… ; You-do not be you not later interested so that it had arrived to him - or by chance you understood something? : Not, it is… it is… it completely is disappeared… completely disappeared from my memory. Perhaps that it was a short moment before my departure for… for… perhaps which it was at the end of 1943… I do not know. I do not know what… what arrived to him. I did not understand anything moreover. I did not understand anything moreover on top. No level I can… I cannot remember me. I do not know either where… where there remained the remainder of time, until the day when I received it… where the service accepted the order to question him with regards for possible sympathizers.
See also: Amorce=Articles related:, Anti-semitism, Night of crystal
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