Herbert George Wells
See also: Wells
Herbert George Wells (born the September 21st 1866 in Bromley in the Kent, dead the August 13rd 1946 with London) is an especially known British writer today for its novels of Science-fiction. He was however also the author of many novels of social satire, of works of futurologies, political and social reflections as well as popularizing works touching as well with biology, with the history as with the social questions.
BiographyHe was a very prolific author who as well wrote realistic novels as of the science fiction, like tests on the history of the humanity or the future trend of the company. Herbert George Wells was a convinced Socialist. After 1900 its works were done increasingly political and didactic. Now only its first science-fiction novels are still read.
Childhood and youthHerbert George Wells was the fifth and last child of Joseph Wells, a gardener and player of Cricket become tradesman, and of Sarah Neal, old a servant. He was born with Atlas House , 47 High Street, Bromley, in the Kent. Its family belonged to the little silver plated middle-class. A heritage made it possible the family to buy a porcelain store which was never prosperous. Joseph was obliged to sell beaters and balls of cricket to nourish his family. He also received weak remunerations at the time of the matches in which he took part.
An incident to Herbert George Wells whereas it did not have that seven years only was determining for the continuation of its life. Because of an unfortunate accident which has occurred on a sports ground, there had to remain confined to bed a certain time with a broken leg. It spent time by reading novels and was impassioned for the other worlds to which access its new readings gave him. It is at this time that it took taste with the writing. Later the same year, it entered to the Thomas Morley' S Commercial Academy , a private school founded in 1849. Teaching very erratic, was more particularly centered there, as Wells told it later, on the calligraphiée writing and calculations useful for the only business men. Wells continued its schooling until 1880 there. But in 1877, a new incident darkens the youth of the author: following a fall his/her father fractures a leg and must give up his sporting career which represented a considerable share of the incomes of the family.
Incompetent to longer support their dependant, the Wells parents had the idea to place their boys like apprentices in various trade associations. Thus, of 1881 to 1883, Herbert George Wells made a training as fabric merchant at Southsea Drapery Emporium . This experiment inspired its novels entitled later to him The Wheels off Chance ( the Wheels of fortune ) and Kipps , which describes the life of a commercial fabric apprentice who comments in manner criticizes the distribution of the richnesses in the world.
The Wells parents did not get along very well - it was Protestant and him free thinker -, so that his/her mother turned over to work like chambermaid to Up Park , a country house of the Sussex, a function which authorized it to take along neither husband, nor family. Then, Sarah and Joseph lived separately, without however divorcing, nor to have any other connection. Herbert George Wells benefitted neither from his training as fabric merchant, neither of his training as assistant chemist, nor of his experiment as auxiliary teacher, which obliged it to turn over regularly in his/her mother to Up Park, until it finds more stable a situation. H.G. Wells benefitted from its stays with Up Park to plunge itself in the books of the superb library of the place.
Years of studies
In 1883, its employer returned it, asserting that it was not satisfied with his services. But the Wells young person was far from being dissatisfied with this reference which marked the end of its period of training. Later the same year, he became assistant of teaching to the Midhurst Grammar School , in the Sussex of the West, until he takes down a grant to the Normal School off Science of London (which will be called thereafter the Royal College off Science and will depend on the Imperial College of London) where he studies the Biologie with Thomas Henry Huxley, but also geology and astronomy. Huxley gave in particular courses of comparative anatomy in which he was a large specialist. The last year to follow its course was for Wells most significant of all its education. It will also mark its romantic writing since it will draw from biology, in particular from the evolution and the comparative anatomy many literary creations. As former student, it will then help to create the Royal College off Science Association of which he will be the first president in 1909. Wells studied in its new school until 1887 with an allowance of blackjack shillings per week thanks to its grant.
These years mark the beginning of its interest growing for a possible reform of the company. It began its approach of the subject by studying the République of Plato, then turned to the more contemporary ideas of the Socialisme such as they were expressed within the Fabian Society and in various readings with the Kelmscott House , the residence of William Morris. It also counted among the founding members of the magazine The Science School Journal , a periodical which enabled him to express its own ideas on the literature and the company. The school year 1886-1887 was its last year of studies. In spite of its success with the examinations of biology and physics, its failure with the examination of geology cost him its passage in higher year and its grant. Herbert George Wells found himself then without income. His/her aunt Mary, a cousin of her father, invited it to remain at it initially, which saved the search for a housing to him. During its stay in his aunt, it nourishes an interest growing for his Isabel cousin.
Marriage and connectionsIn 1891, Herbert George Wells married his cousin Isabel Mary Wells, but left it in 1894 for one of its coeds, Amy Catherine Robbins, which he married in 1895. His second wife gave him two wire: George Philip (known under the nickname of Gip ) in 1901 and Frank Richard in 1903.
During its years of marriage with Amy, Wells maintained the connections with a great number of women, of which the activist American of the birth control, Margaret Sanger. It had a girl, Ass-Jane, with the writer Amber Reeves in 1909 and one son in 1914, Anthony West, with the novelist and Féministe Rebecca West, of twenty-six years its junior. Although Amy Catherine was informed of some of the extra-marital connections of her husband, it remained married in Herbert George Wells until her death, in 1927. Wells also had a connection with Odette Keun and Moura Budberg. “I was never large romantic,” wrote Wells in An Experiment in Autobiography (1934), “although I liked very deeply many people. ”
The artistHerbert George Wells also expressed himself by the drawing. Its sketches frequently decorated the covers of its own books. Its drawings covered a large range of subjects, energy of the political comment to literary criticisms while passing by more romantic subjects. During its years of marriage with Amy Catherine - that it called Jane -, it drew a great number of scenes in connection with their marriage. It was for this period that it called its drawings of the “picshuas” (a humorous deformation of the English term pictures ). These picshuas was the subject of in-depth studies by its pupils and a work was devoted to them.
The author of playsIn the search in a way more structured to play war games, Herbert George Wells is the author of Floor Games (1911), followed by Little Wars (1913). Little Wars is generally recognized today like very first the wargame miniature with figurines and Wells is regarded as the father of the wargame with figurines.
The writerThe first best-seller of Herbert George Wells was Anticipations , appeared in 1901. It is perhaps its work most explicitly futuristic, it carried the subtitle “an experimentation in prophecy” ( An Experiment in Prophecy ) when it appeared first of all by episodes in a magazine. This book is interesting at the same time for its good intuitions (the trains and the cars resulting from the migration of the populations from the downtown areas towards the suburbs; the restrictions morals declining when men and women seek more sexual freedom) and for its errors (“my imagination refuses to see an unspecified submarine making another thing that to choke its crew and to sink at the bottom of the seas”).
Its first novels, which one called at the time of the “scientific lovesongs”, inaugurated a great number of topics become great classics in Science-fiction, such as for example the Machine to explore time , the invisible Man and the War of the worlds (all three carried to the screen), and were often regarded as largely influenced by works of Jules Verne. But Wells refused itself the title of Jules Verne English as he explained it in a foreword why he wrote for a republication of his scientific novels ( scientific lovesongs ) in 1933. Wells opposed its works of imagination and the science fiction novels of French. Its inventions did not have for goal to show what was going to really occur, but with simply taking possession of the reader by the romantic illusion. He compared to his novels with the Ass of Gold of Apulée, with the True History of Lucien de Samosate, with Peter Schlemil of Adelbert von Chamisso and with Frankenstein of Mary Shelley. Wells also wrote other novels, nonfantastic, which accepted very warm welcome on behalf of criticisms, such as for example Tono-Bungay and Kipps . Wells was also the author of several dozen news and novellas, most known being The Country off the Blind (1911).
Even it is not a question itself of a science-fiction novel, Tono-Bungay makes a big part with the radioactive decomposition. This one plays a role-key The World Set Free (1914). This account contains what can be regarded as its best prophetic intuition. The scientists of the time knew that the decomposition of the Radium released from energy with weak radiation during thousands of years. The rate of radiation was too weak to have any practical utility, but the total mass of released energy was enormous. The novel of Wells turns around a not specified invention which accelerates the process of radioactive decomposition in order to produce bombs which explode with a power worthy of ordinary explosives, but which continue to explode during days and days. Leó Szilárd recognized that this book inspired to him the theory of the chain nuclear reaction.
Wells wrote also specialized works. Its work in two volumes most famous was The Outline off History (1920) which inaugurated a new era of historical popularization bound for the general public. The professional historians accommodated it with caution, except for Arnold J. Toynbee which qualified the work of better possible introduction to the world history. Many other authors proceeded in this way of the vulgaristion. Wells proceeded in this way in 1922 with a popular work, but much shorter: has History Shorts off the World , and two other long treaties, The Science off Life (1930) and The Work, Wealth and Happiness off Mankind (1931). These popularizing works became sufficiently popular to give the opportunity to James Thurber to off parody them in its humorous test entitled An Outline Scientists . The introduction to the world History of Wells in two volumes was regularly republished, with a republication in 2005, while has History Shorts off the World was republished in 2006.
As of the beginnings of his career, Herbert George Wells sought a better manner of organizing the company, writing many Utopias. Its novels generally started with the description of a world running to the catastrophe until the world population reaches a novel mode of life: either thanks to a mysterious gas released by a comet and which made human the more rational ( In the Days off the Comet ), or thanks to a scientific advice seizing the capacity ( The Shape off Things to Like (1933)), adapted later for film of Alexander Korda, Things to Like , gone back to 1936. Wells also made to the description of a social rebuilding of post-war period by the advent of fascistic dictators in The Autocracy off Mr. Parham (1930) and The Holy Terror (1939).
Wells questioned the gasoline even of humanity by opposing the ideas of nature and culture. All its Utopias did not finish inevitably in a happy way, as the novel When the Sleeper Wakes shows it (1899) (republished under the title The Sleeper Awakes , 1910) which concerns more the Dystopie. the Island of Doctor Moreau , darker, force still the feature. The narrator, prisoner on an island where the animals are changed into human beings by vivisection, but without success, returns to Great Britain. Following the example GULLIVER when it returns of the country of the Houyhnhnm S, it is found unable to differently see its fellow-citizens than like civilized animals regressing slowly to find their animal nature.
Wells also wrote the foreword of the first edition of the diaries of W. NR. P. Barbellion, The Journal off has Disappointed Man ( the Newspaper of a man disappointed ), published in 1919. As much criticisms thought that Barbellion was only one pseudonym, Wells was regarded a long time as the true author of the Journal ; Wells always contradicted these allegations, but the rumors persisted until the death of Barbellion this same year.
In 1927, Florence Deeks continued Wells for plagiarism, asserting which it had copied most of The Outline off History starting from its manuscript entitled The Web which had been submitted to the Canadian editor Canadian Macmillan Company and refuse. In spite of many similarities of style and many common historical errors, justice cleared Wells.
In 1938, it published World Brain , a series of tests on the future organization of knowledge and the education, among which off one finds a test entitled The Idea has Permanent World Encyclopedia .
Towards the end of the Second world war, the Alliés discovered that the S had drawn up a list of the intellectuals and politicians to be assassinated immediately after the invasion of Great Britain during the Operation Sea Lion . The name of Herbert George Wells appeared top of the list to be a Socialiste. Wells, become president of PEN international club, had already dealt in Germany Nazi by supervising itself the exclusion of the PEN German club of the international league in 1934, following the exclusion of the not-Aryan writers.
Political commitmentH.G. Wells was regarded as a Socialist, even if it were occasionally in dissension with some other Socialists of its time. He was member of the Fabian Society, but left it then because he considered this organization much more radical than he would have liked it. It became even one of its keenest adversaries, reproaching its members for having a poor comprehension of the economic and educational problems. He was also the candidate of the Labor Party at the University of London in 1922 and 1923, but even at that time its faith in its own party was at the very least fragile.
Its political idea most fertile related to the need for creating a State-World. According to its autobiography, he considered that as from 1900 a State-World was inevitable. If the details of this State-World varied during time, its basic principle consisted in organizing a company which would support sciences, would put an end to nationalisms and would allow the citizens to progress according to their merits and of their birth. At the time where he thought that a State-World was inevitable, he also realized that the parliamentary type of democracy which was practiced at the time was not satisfactory. Thus, when he worked with the Charte of the United Nations, he was opposed to any mention of the democracy term. In addition, it feared that the average citizen never sufficiently was not educated or was lit to deal with main issues of the world. This is why he thought of having to limit the right to vote with the scientists, engineers and other people of merit. But it defended at the same time the idea that the citizens were to enjoy the maximum of freedom possible, as long as this one did not restrict that of others. All the values which H.G. Wells defended were criticized more and more as from the years 1920.
Until in the years 1930, Wells remained convinced of the need for creating a State-World. From this point of view, it accommodated with enthusiasm the attempts at Lénine to rebuild the Russian economy, as it brought it back in Russia in the Shadows (1920). At the beginning, H.G. Wells thought that Lénine could initiate the construction of the planned world of which he dreamed, even if he were itself a Socialist fundamentally anti-Marxist, going until affirming that the world would go better if Karl Marx had never come in the world. Then, the policy of Joseph Stalin led it to change point of view on the Soviet Union, even if its first impression on Stalin were rather mitigated. He did not appreciate what he considered being in Stalin a blunt orthodoxy, but he made all the same the praise of his qualities, saying that he “had never met a man righter, more ingenuous and more honest”, thus rejecting reputation of Stalin like unjust sinks it or quite simply distorts. However, he judged the manner of controlling of Stalin too much rigid, not leaving the any place to least thought independent, and too blunt for really leading to the Cosmopolis which he called of his wishes.
At the end of its life, it had lost much of its influence in the political circles. Its efforts to help with the creation of the league of the Nations showed a deep disappointment, when this organization appeared unable to prevent the Second world war. The war itself made it increasingly pessimistic. In its last book, Mind At the End off its Tether (1945), it judged that it would not be a so bad idea to replace the mankind by another species. Moreover, it called this time “the era of frustration”. It spent its last years to criticize the Roman Catholic church and a neighbor who made advertisement for a military club. As it devoted the last years of its life to be defended of the lost causes, its literary reputation also declined. However, The Happy Turning , one little book gone back to 1944, still conceals much spirit and imagination.
As well of alive sound as after his disappearance, Herbert George Wells was regarded as a socialist thinker of very first order. However, these last years, the image of H.G. Wells changed to retain only its role of pioneer of the Science-fiction. Wells has also the reputation to be indirectly the inventor of the science fictions and animation mechanized. The first mécas , the tripods Martians, appear in his novel entitled the War of the worlds.
Winks with H.G. WellsThe character of Herbert George Wells appeared in many novels, films and series televised:
- the realizer George Pal makes of Wells its traveller in time in a film gone back to 1960, “the Machine to explore time”. The plate fixed at the machine is marked humorous on this subject “ Manufactured by H. George Wells ” (manufactured per H. George Wells);
- in the novel and film entitled It was tomorrow ( Time After Time , 1979), the character of H.G. Wells is played by the British actor Malcolm McDowell which leaves to research Jack the eventror after the latter stole its machine to him to travel in time. It is found then with San Francisco in 1979;
- Wells is a semi-recurring character of the series Loïs & Clark, the new adventures of Superman ;
- the novel of Stephen Baxter entitled the Vessels of time is presented in the form of a continuation of the famous novel of Wells, the Machine to explore time , to celebrate the centenary of its publication. In his work, the British author includes technologies, jargons and characters drawn from various novels of Wells and directly refers to Wells by challenging “the author, my friend”;
- in the novel of C.S. Lewis entitled This hideous power ( That Hideous Strength ), the character of Jules is a caricature of H.G. Wells;
- the photograph of H.G. Wells appears hung to the wall of the residence of a traveller in time, Alex Hartdegen, in the version filmed of the Machine to explore time , realized by the great-grandson of the author, Simon Wells, in 2002;
- in its novel entitled the Machine to explore space ( The Space Machine , 1976), Christopher Priest pays homage to H.G. Wells by proposing a version modified of its machine to go up time. In the novel, the hero leaves on the planet Mars and is being the witness of a Martian civil war where tripods clash.
- 1895 : the Machine to explore time ( The Time Machine );
- 1896 : the Island of Doctor Moreau ( The Island off Doctor Moreau );
- 1897 : the invisible Man ( Invisible The Man );
- 1897 : history of Plattner (The Plattner Story, and Others) ;
- 1898 : the War of the worlds ( The War off Worlds );
- 1899 : a history of times to come (has Story off the Days To Like) ;
- 1901 : First Men in the moon ( The First Men in the Moon );
- 1902 : Miss Toilets ( The Sea Lady );
- 1902 : Anticipations ( Anticipations off the Reaction off Mechanical and Scientific Progress upon Human Life and Thought );
- 1903 : Mr. Skelmersdale with the country of the fairies (Twelve Stories and has Dream) ;
- 1904 : country of the blind men ( The Country off the Blind );
- 1906 : the burlesque one equipped with the cyclist ;
- 1906 : At the time of the comet ( In the Days off the Makes );
- 1908 : the War in the airs ( The War in the Air );
- 1914 : the Destruction liberator ( The World Set Free: In Story off Mankind );
- 1916 : Mr. Britling starts to see clearly ( Mr. Britling Sees It Through );
- 1917 : God the invisible king ( God the Invisible King );
- 1919 : the immortal flame ( The Undying Fire );
- 1923 : Mr. Barnstaple in the God-men ( Men Like Gods ).
- new Machiavel
- the father of Christine Alberte
- wheels of the chance
- the treasure in the forest
- a dream… A life
A bibliography was drawn up by Mrs Wells (of 1891 to 1920) and was published in the biography devoted to H. - G. Wells, by Edouard Guyot, Payot, Paris, 1920.
|Random links:||Bernard Christmas | Large Sour | Duke of Broglie | Kamogueul | Radio operator One | Galilée_(vaisseau_spatial)|