Henry Morton Stanley
Early orphan, it embarks, at the 15 years age, like foams for the America. It unloads with La Nouvelle-Orléans and is adopted by a trader named Stanley, which gives him its patronym. It takes part then in the American Civil War like soldier Southerner before becoming corresponding various newspapers in minor Asia and Abyssinie (Ethiopia).
How I found LivingstoneIts reputation grows and, in 1869, the editor association of the New York Herald again sends it in equatorial Africa, with for mission of finding David Livingstone, left with research the source of the the Nile and reported missing, in order to carry out formidable a scoop! It will take him long months to discover the famous explorer. He will reach that point the November 10th 1871. Livingstone blocked with Ujiji on banks of the Lake Tanganyika, in Tanzania, is sick and with court of vivres. Later, Stanley will publish the account of this adventure which it will entitle: How I found Livingstone ; it will be a best-seller. One often retains the anecdote according to which he would have addressed himself to Livingstone in these terms:
- “ Doctor Livingstone, I supposes? ” (“Doctor Livingstone, I suppose? ”)
Through the mysterious continentAfter this crowned forwarding of success, Stanley continues its explorations of equatorial Africa which it crosses of is in west on the basis of Zanzibar in 1874. The forwarding, financed by the Daily Telegraph and the New York Herald account more than 230 people, carriers and soldiers, at the beginning of Bagamoyo which it leaves the November 17th. Stanley will have to recruit other companions in the course of road. It gains the Lake Victoria by the route of Speeke, and carries out the circumnavigation of the lake. He visits the Buganda. He discovers the Lac Albert in January 1876 and explores the totality of banks of the Lac Tanganyika of the June 11th to the July 31st.
Stanley meets Tippo Tip with Kasongo. Together, they assemble a strong forwarding of 400 men to explore the west. They leave Nyangwe the November 5th and penetrate in the Equatorial forest. After 50 days, Tippo Tip gives up, but Stanley continuous towards the west. To cross the areas, like the basin of Congo, where the exchanges are organized according to the strict rules of the trade by relay, Stanley must force the passage on several occasions. The December 20th, 150 people divided out of 23 boats start the descent of the river. The January 6th 1877, they are blocked by the Chutes Boyoma, which they spend 20 days to be avoided. , With the confluence with the Aruwimi, they fight against the Basoko. The February 14th, they face the Bangala. The March 9th, they reach the confluence with the Kasaï, and Ntamo the March 12th, future establishment of Léopoldville. The Chutes Livingstone will constitute most frightening of the obstacles: 5 months will be necessary to cover the few hundreds of kilometers which separates them from Boma, Alexandre Delcommune finally collecting a decimated forwarding. Stanley is the still alive last of 4 Europeans, and only 115 out of 356 of the African companions arrived on the Atlantic coast. But the exploit is historical.
Stanley describes this extraordinary voyage in a work published in 1878, Through the mysterious continent .
Its work for Léopold II
When Stanley returns in Europe in January 1878, two delegated of King Léopold II of Belgium, the baron Greindl and the Sanford general, acceillent it with Marseilles and inform him of the projects of the King to create a state on the basin of Congo. Between 1879 and 1884, Stanley installs a series of commercial counters along the Congo for the account of Léopold II. In 1884, it renames the village of the name of Kintambo on the Pool Malebo in Léopoldville, which will become the capital of Congo léopoldien. Of 1886 with 1889, it takes leave of the State independent of Congo to direct the Expédition of help in Emin Pasha, the last great forwarding deprived in the middle of Africa. He will undertake an ultimate forwarding in 1890. Its missions for Léopold II are told in its book The Congo and the founding off his free state .
Its complete files, documents of a great historical value, are preserved at the royal Musée of central Africa with Tervuren, Belgium.
|Random links:||Canton of Brest-Mare-White-Bohars-Guilers | Diamond helmet | Consommation Logement Tallies of Life | MXY-7 | Goba | Fleuve_de_Yukon|