The Espèce Cannabis sativa L. was subdivided in many Sous-espèces. This division is discussed by the botanists: some do not consider the differences between the sufficiently stable and significant subspecies to justify it.
History of hemp
See also: History of hemp
Plant rudérale, which opens out near anthropized spaces; it benefits the man who in the car of many products; thus, hemp accompanied the man in his migrations, at least since the Neolithic era. Originating in Asia, Hemp colonized whole planet gradually.
The most known subspecies
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa
It comes from the equatorial areas. It reaches in a few months a height of several meters (until more than 6 meters). The blades of its sheets are fine. One can observe at Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa concentrations in highest THC. However, this subspecies is famous for its fibers and it was largely used in the creation of the Hybride S which constitute legally the Chanvre cultivated in France. These hybrids are the subject of a program of breeding and genetic selection intensive in order to minimize their content of THC and to support their adaptation to the French climate. Its life cycle is longer than that of the other subspecies, undoubtedly because of the Photopériode of the equatorial areas.
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. indica , or Indien hemp
Originating in the Hindu Kouch, an area of India, it is famous for its properties Psychotropes, which are at the origin of its distinction of subspecies. Its concentration in active ingredients is to be attached to the climate and the environment in which it evolved/moved. It is characterized physically by broad blades, an average stature (in general from 1 to 2 meters height) and it becomes ripe more quickly than Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa .
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ruderalis
This subspecies pushes in a wild state in areas of the Europe of the East and Russia. It is characterized by its early flowering, some of its representatives flower even independently of the photoperiod. It supports difficult climates colder and environmental conditions. Like Cannabis sativa L. subsp. indica , its stature is average.
Cannabinoïdes in the plant
One counts more than sixty Cannabinoïdes in the various varieties of hemp. The tétrahydrocannabinol (THC), the Cannabidiol (CBD) and the Cannabinol (CBN) are most widespread. Their Biosynthèse is done in glands specialized present on all the air parts of the plant. The development of these glands begins with the formation from the Bractée S. The factors controlling the production of cannabinoïdes are only partially known. Although it is proven that the environmental stress increases in an important way the quantity of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Haney and Kutscheid, 1973; Coffman and Gentner, 1975), a more general theory is than the qualitative aspects depend on the genetics of the plant and than the quantitative aspects are influenced by environmental factors (Fairbairn and Liebmann, 1974; Lathed and Eaton, 1975). The cannabinoïdes play the part of defensive agents, against the Dessiccation, the Parasites, the UV-B and the Microbe S.
Legislation on the cannabis
See also: Legislation on the cannabis
The convention of 1961 class the cannabis like a substance of table I having a potential of strong abuse and harmful effects important without therapeutic value notable.
The cannabis is regarded as Stupéfiant in the majority of the countries signatories, of which France, where its possession even its consumption are penally reprehensible.
See also: Cannabis
Because of its content of THC, the cannabis is one of the substances Psychotrope S most used in the world.
See also: Hemp cultivated
One draws from hemp a big number and always crescent of product: wire, string, fabric, paper (more than 70% of the production before 1883), but also construction materials, fuel, plastics, food products, drugs.
The American magazine Popular Mechanics of February 1938, titrates an article about the exploitation of hemp: " New billion dollar crop" . The extraction of fibers of the stem of hemp, tiresome operation, had just profited from a new process from automation, which promised an enormous profitability. However, the culture of hemp was gradually prohibited in the United States, by a succession of measurements, in particular the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937. The synthetic fibers, like the Nylon, marketed in 1938, started to take a lead in the worldwide market. The seedlings pushing in a wild state were tracked and destroyed. During the second world war, the United States encouraged their farmers to produce hemp massively. The film Hemp For Victory , realized by the US government, explains to the farmers the need for producing hemp to support the effort of war. Before 1989, the existence of this film was ignored, and the department of the agriculture of the United States, as well as the Bookseller of the Congress denied his existence, until two copies VHS re-appear, of the hands of Maria Farrow, Carl Packard, and Jack Herer.
See also: medical Cannabis
The various varieties of hemp can contain more than 60 active ingredients. Some of these active ingredients have recognized medical virtues.
The Dronabinol, interdict in France, is in particular prescribed against the vomiting and nauseas of the patients under chemotherapy and in order to increase the appetite of the patients of the AIDS.
Hemp could find applications in the treatment of the asthma attacks, the glaucome, the tumors, nauseas, the epilepsy, the scleroses, arthritis, the herpes, insomnia, the stress, etc
FoodOil resulting from seeds of hemp contains 8% of saturated greases, 55% of Linoleic acid and 25% of α-linoleic Acide. Only the Linseed oil contains a larger proportion of α-linoleic acid, but the seed oil of hemp contains more essential Fatty-acid S (80% of the total volume of oil). Moreover, these proportions are ideal for the human and animal consumption.
One draws from seeds of hemp of many food products.
The seed of hemp is called Chenevis .
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