The department of the Hautes-Pyrénées ( 65 ) (in Gascon Occitan eths Pirenèus Nauts or eths High Pirenèus ) department French of the area the Midday-Pyrenees is a . Its prefecture is the town of Tarbes.
The inhabitants of the Hautes-Pyrénées are the High-Pyrenean .
See also: History of the Hautes-Pyrénées
The department was created with the French revolution, the March 4th 1790 pursuant to the law of the December 22nd 1789, starting from part of the province of Gascogne, the aforementioned Bigorre.
The department initially called “ Bigorre ” is renamed “ Hautes-Pyrénées ”. The conventional one tarbais Bertrand Barère particularly fought for that:
“If this country, Bigorre, is too small to form a department, it is advisable to increase it. But it would be very iniquitous to make of them only districts depending on a foreign city; it would be a political murder to make of Tarbes the poor wretch chief town of a district. ”
One will note the astonishing geography of this department which has two small enclaves in the department close to the Yrénées-Atlantiques. It is a survival of the Moyen-âge: indeed, at the end of the 11th century, Gaston IV the Crusader, Viscount of Béarn, wife Talèse d' Aragon, viscountess of the Montaner, small territory located between Béarn and Bigorre; the Montaner remains with the Béarn but Talèse keeps for it five parishes which always constitute the two enclaves in the Yrénées-Atlantiques.
See also: Geography of the Hautes-Pyrénées
The department of the Hautes-Pyrénées belongs to the area the Midday-Pyrenees. It is bordering on the departments of the Yrénées-Atlantiques, of the Gers, the Haute-Garonne, and the Province of Huesca (Spain).
Three quite distinct natural areas compose the high-Pyrenean landscape: the mountain and its valleys, slopes and plains.
The mountain, i.e. the Pyrenees, recovers, in the south, half of the territory of the department. It forms a natural barrier between the France and the Spain, allowing one road access towards the Aragon by the Tunnel Aragnouet-Bielsa. 35 of its peaks exceed: 3000 m and the peak of Vignemale, with: 3298 m, are the culminating point.
Two distinct geological zones characterize this area of Montagne S:
- the chain known as “axial”, where one finds more the high summits of the French Pyrenees like the Vignemale, which culminates with: 3298 m;
- a zone of sedimentary folded links.
Less low but more massive than the alpine reliefs, they isolate from many valleys steepsided and “cul-de-sac” natural, true microcosms preserved by these stone walls.
The altitude of the Pyrenees grows blurred gradually while going up towards north, and the mountains yield the place to Piedmont, limited to the east by vast the Plateau of Lannemezan (to approximately 600 m), true tower water of the department where are born from many rivers of the basins of the the Garonne and of the Adour (Gers, Baïse, Save, Gimone, Midou, Twelve). This morainic plate formed with the Quaternaire by the rout of the glaciers is prone to a relatively hard climate.
More in the west and north, Piedmont lets filter broader valleys which attract the majority of the population of the department. It is an undulating country there, with the more lenient climate.
In the west, the basin of the Gave of Pau or Lavedan form a broad Heavy valley of with Argelès-Gazost.
In the center, one finds the valley of Campan dominated by the Pic of the South, the Col of Tourmalet, the solid masses of Néouvielle and Arbizon.
In the east, the valley of the Neste is held until Arreau where meet the valleys of Aure and of the Louron.
The valleys are connected between them by collars of sometimes high altitude the such Soulor, the Tourmalet, the Aspin or the Peyresourde.
See also: Climate of the Hautes-Pyrénées
A contrasted climate is changing. The normal temperatures reveal a rather soft and rainy climate, but they do not reflect the great variability of the weather parameters such as precipitations, temperatures, sunning.
The annual average temperature (12°C) is relatively high with a rather low seasonal amplitude, 6°C on average the winter and 19°C the summer. But in winter, the temperature already reached - 18°C in January 1985 and it can also exceed 29°C in full summer. These blows of strong heats are typical Effet of fœhn, due to the relief of the Pyrenees. With Tarbes, the fogs are rare, just like the strong winds.
The characteristics of this climate are found on north of the department, but with more fogs in winter, higher diurnal temperatures and less precipitations in summer. Contrary, while approaching the relief, the average quantities of precipitations increase. They strongly vary according to the exposure and from the slopes, but become abundant near the peaks borders.
The zone between plain and mountain has a climate wetter and less sunny than the remainder of the department. In mountain, the sun is frequently shining with the top of a sea of clouds, and the wind blows more extremely and more often than in plain (breezes, very strong winds of south sometimes).
See also: Economy of the Hautes-Pyrénées
The Hautes-Pyrénées, territory of culture of corn and breeding, are largely turned towards the food production. They count many famous productions the such onion of Trébons, the bean tarbais…
Slightly industrialized, they were illustrated a long time in the electrical material, railway and the textile and try to turn to the aréonautique one and electronics. The principal activity is in the plain of Tarbes, around Lourdes and of Bagnères-with-Bigorre.
Hydrotherapy, with Bagnères-with-Bigorre, Barèges or Cauterets, has a considerable economic importance.
Tourism constitutes the first economic activity. It developed around Lourdes, center of pilgrimage, of the ski stations, the such station of the Tourmalet, or of the sites the such glacial circus of Gavarnie, of world reputation, or the observatory of the Pic of the South of Bigorre.
See also: Demography of the Hautes-Pyrénées
The inhabitants of the Hautes-Pyrénées are thePyrenean ones.
The principal city and chief town are Tarbes which has joins together around it an agglomeration, the Grand Tarbes, including/understanding common secondaries such as Ibos, Aureilhan, Orleix or Séméac.
The mariale city, Heavy, is the second plus big city.
Bagnères-with-Bigorre, Argelès-Gazost is of the thermal cities of less importance.
The communes of Vic-in-Bigorre, Rabastens-with-Bigorre, Maubourguet, Lannemezan, Saint-Laurent-with-Neste, Arreau or Luz-Saint-Saver could still be quoted.
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