See also: Harmonium (homonymy)
the harmonium is a Musical instrument with keyboard and blower.
The harmonium was invented in Europe at the 19th century, by French Alexandre François Debain (1809 - 1877) who made it patent in 1842. Jakob Alexandre (1804 - 1876) and his son Edouard (1824 - 1888) with Victor Mustel will carry out the instrument, which they call “organ-mélodium” at his point of perfection, this last adding a Célesta to it to the second keyboard.
Being connected with the Organ with the principle of the registers of various sonorities, in its most widespread form it includes/understands a keyboard and the reserve of air is fed by a pump with foot: the air generally blown, sometimes aspired, makes vibrate free Anche S (even principle that the Harmonica and the Accordéon). When the expressive mode is activated, the tanks are shorted-circuit; the musician can then produce expressions extremely different by modulating his pumping from air.
Principal types of harmonium:
- instrument of a keyboard (often with transposing instrument) having several registers (or half registers) of 16,8 and 4 foot S; the blower is actuated by a pair of pedals which the instrumentalist must activate;
- the keyboard is cut into low and above between mid 3 and F 3;
- rarer, instrument with one or two keyboards (some rare models with three keyboards) and pedals of organ; the instrument then has a ventilator to supply the bellows;
- portable instrument which has a manual pump with bellows (very near to the Accordéon).
The plays most frequently installed on harmonium are:
- in the low ones: cor anglais 8 ', bumblebee 16 ', bugle 4 ', bassoon 8 '.
- in the tops: flute 8, clarinet 16 ', fifre 4 ', oboe 8 ', celestial Voice 16 '.
- in the low ones: wind harp 2 ', double bass 16 '…
- in the tops: haversack 16 ', wind harp 8 ', baritone 32 '…
Contrary to the organ, one finds neither change, nor mixture.
Indian HarmoniumAs of the 19th century it was imported in India. However harmonium with pedals disappeared quickly because unsuited to the social culture (one assoit by ground in India) and musical (not of harmonic agreement in the Indian Music). Very quickly the pedals were replaced by bellows (similar to that of the Accordéon) and the instrument was posed by ground, the musician actuating it of the left hand while he plays the melody of the right-hand side.
It is necessary to note the revolution which this arrival causes. Admittedly of an easy employment, it has nevertheless the defect to be granted according to the equal Tempérament Western, and in spite of the attempts at tuning to the Indian, it does not correspond at all to the height right of the variable notes met in various the Râga S.
Because of its influence, the Indian Musique is occidentalized and the musical ears of the Masters also change, for the worst: a " standardization occidentale". Of simple of accompaniment, having replaced the Sarangi, a hurdy-gurdy difficult to play, but just and close to the inflections of the voice, the harmonium is on the way to become an instrument " majeur" since it is him which gives the tone to the others, in the small units. In the same way the singers base themselves on him, whereas before it granted their lute of accompaniment, the Tampura, under the terms of their ear and the Râga to be played. Because of its sonorities nasillardes, the stamp of voice of the singers which studies with his assistance, also changes whereas contradictorily, it tends to disappear from the Occidental culture.
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