The hard rock is a Musical genre derived from the Rock.
The hard rock was born with the end from the Années 1960 and with the beginning from the Années 1970 with groups like Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, and Led Zeppelin with the the United Kingdom or Blue Cheer in California, Scorpions in Germany, KIS with New York, Alice Cooper with Détroit, Aerosmith with Boston and AC/DC in Australia. It is resulting from several influences:
- the Blues endiablé of Jimi Hendrix;
- the Blues rock'n'roll and Rock'n'roll Southerner of groups like Lynyrd Skynyrd, Steppenwolf;
- the musical rejection of the movement beatnik (but not necessarily of the values);
- some surrenchère technical and sound.
It is characterized by the use of a basic trio made up of a Guitare saturated, a low Guitare and a battery. One adds to that a certain aggressiveness, while remaining close to the roots Blues and Rock.
The direction of the term “hard rock” lends to controversies. Thus, he is considered by certain as a synonymous with what the Américano-British name heavy metal, by others he represents only one small portion of this same heavy metal, for others, finally, it is a generic term including any form of “music hardware” in opposition to the Musique S “software”. In France and continental Europe more generally, the hard rock term was preferred a long time at the end américano-British of heavy metal. The fans of this Musique were called besides “hardos”. Since the medium of the Years 1980, the use of the term Heavy metal takes the top on the term Hard rock.
The its of the electric guitars used in the hard rock known as “is saturated”. It is about a sound very rich in harmonics, and which releases an impression of power and aggressiveness.
Saturation was obtained at the origin by putting the volume of the amplifying of the Electric guitar at the Maximum, which causes a chopping of the signal: the electrical signal cannot exceed a maximum value and is thus truncated, which causes a distortion of the its. Jimi Hendrix worked with its Engineer to create new sounds by modifying electronics; this gave rise to electronic devices making it possible to modify the its without being likely to damage the amplifying .
Groups of hard rock
List groups covering all the currents of the hard rock, the origins at our days, the heavy to the hardware FM in particular.
- Hard rock (traditional) (Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, AC/DC, KIS, Cactus, Scorpions, Aerosmith, Guns Pink, Motörhead)
- Fusion (Living room Color, Extreme, daN Reed Network, Electric Servant boys, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine)
- Glam rock'n'roll and Glam Metal (T-Rex, Motley Raw, New York Frauds, Poison )
- Hardware FM or AOR (Journey, Louse, Foreigner, Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Europe)
- Hardware Psychédélique (Large Funk Railroad, Mountain, Cream, Blue Cheer)
- Heavy metal (Black Sabbath, Iron Maiden, Saxon, Judas Priest, HammerFall)
- progressive Metal (Rush, Queensrÿche, Dream Theater)
- Rock'n'roll Southerner (Lynyrd Skynyrd, The Allman Brothers Band, 38 Special)
- symphonic Metal (Within Temptation, Nightwish)
- Thrash metal (Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer, Carbuncle, Exodus, Will, Sepultura)
- alternate Metal (Jane' S Addiction, Faith No More)
- Grunge (Nirvana, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains)
- industrial Metal ( Ministry, Nine Inch Nails, Undercover Slut, Marilyn Manson, Rammstein)
- Neo metal (System Of has Down, KoЯn, Slipknot, Limp Bizkit, Linkin Park)
- Power metal (Manowar, Blind Guardian, Virgin Steele, Pantera)
- Doom metal (Cathedral, My Dying Bride)
- Death metal (Death, Napalm Death, Entombed, Deicide, Cannibal Corpse, Immolation)
- Black metal (Mayhem, Emperor, Darkthrone)
- Pagan metal, sometimes associated with the Folk metal or the Celtic metal (Enslaved, Windir, Graveland, Kampfar, Falkenbach, Skyforger)
Films related on the hard rock and the heavy metal
- 1984: Spinal Tap ( This is Spinal Tap ) of Rob Reiner
- 1992: Individual of Cameron Crowe
- 1992: Wayne's World of Penelope Spheeris (written by Mike Myers)
- 1993: Wayne's World 2 of Stephen Surjik (written by Mike Myers)
- 1994: Airheads of Michael Lehmann
- 1998: Still Crazy of Brian Gibson
- 1998: Heavy Metal Queen (episode n°7 of Cowboy Bebop ) ( Animates )
- 1999: Strait Rock'n'roll City of Adam Rifkin
- 2000: Heavy Metal 2000 of Michael Coldewey and Michel Lemire
- 2001: Rock'n'roll Star of Stephen Herek (inspired of the history of Tim Owens ex-singer of Judas Priest)
- 2004: Rock'n'roll Academy ( The School Off Rock'n'roll ) of Richard Linklater
- 2005: Last Days of Gus Van Sant
- 2005: Metal: travel in the middle of the animal ( Metal: In Headbanger' S Journey ) of Sam Dunn and Scott McFadyen
The pieces of hard rock and heavy metal are often used to underline the dark atmosphere of certain science fiction films or horror (Spawn, Matrix, Shocker…)
Polemics around the hard rock
Hard rock and heavy metal
Formerly, hard rock and heavy metal were two synonyms, but since the beginning of the Années 1980, a scission occurs. The term heavy metal is indeed redefined by the journalist Lester Bangs of the magazine Creem . However, this scission ready with controversies because it appears badly defined; Lester Bangs dies shortly after its “definition” and does not have time to defend it and refine it. Thus, according to Bangs,
- the hard rock is defined before just like a period: 1968 - 1976;
- the heavy metal is defined by a certain number of attributes (look leather, nails and badges) and the topics of the songs having for topic horror and science fiction (?!?).
The Encyclopedia off Rock'n'roll & Roll of Rolling Stone does not make distinction between hard rock and heavy metal . Only the term heavy metal is defined and it includes all the component hard rock and heavy metal by referring to the song of Steppenwolf, Born to Be wild (1968): “heavy metal thunder” . The encyclopedia of Rolling Stone evokes however the theories To ballast Bangs (which was also journalist at Rolling Stone ), without holding account of it. Also let us specify that the expression heavy metal was deposited by the American magazine National Lampoon .
In France, the general public knew until in the years the 1990 only term hard rock , the term heavy metal was used only by the “experts”. Since, it is rather the term “metal” (very short) which was essential.
In general, the hard rock is inspired directly by the Blues and uses major pentatonic ranges whereas the heavy metal is more directed worms of the rhythmic doors and powerful which move away it from the shuffle. Certain groups as Judas Priest were radicalized with time and passed from one kind to the other.
Hard rock and satanism
If it does not make integral part of the hard rock and the heavy metal, the satanism flirté with them throughout the history of these movements. It acts in the majority of the cases of a misunderstanding , nourished by a desired ambiguity. For example, one of the first groups of heavy metal was called Black Sabbath (black mass), but if the words contain references to the demons, with the devil, it is in fact to denounce the dangers of them (the song éponyme contains even a supplication “Oh No please God help me”).
The references to the demons are often used for their side Fantastique, esthetics. The groups of heavy metal develop a typical imagery then (fires, devils, craniums and other bones, cross), but also in their terminology (use of terms to religious connotation, like “Sabbath”, “angel”…) ; the sign of recognition of the hardware-rockers is besides the closed fist, index and auricular survey, symbol of the horns of the devil, but also gesture of conspiracy in sorcery. This is amplified by the fact that certain fans also practice the roleplays, which had to them-even a sulfurous reputation for similar reasons in the Années 1980 - 1990 (movement of young people, activity not existing with the former generation, imagery fantastic).
This negative aspect of the hard rock was poked during this same period by protest movements of families of children who had given each other death, allegedly after having listened to this type of music. The group Judas Priest was thus shown to diffuse subliminal messages in its songs but was discharged.
For certain groups, the satanism intervenes as a rejection of the religion , therefore of a standard and a morals: it thus acts there more than one anticlericalism that of satanism, for example the group Atheist.
In the second time, the satanism intervenes as a against-religion , religion which protects and inspires, but which is opposed to the religions anchored well in the company like Christianity. There are in fact only very few groups which claim really satanism (for example Deicide).
Let us note in addition that the satanic imagery which is often related to this kind can attract certain asocial individuals, in loss of landmarks, which will try to find an identity in “the Evil”.
Hard rock and racism
The music hard rock and heavy metal do not have a bond with racism, even if certain musicians and fans can be racist. The origin of this reputation can be in:
- the violence of the music: strong music, omnipresent percussions… and sometimes violent words too; seen outside, sound esthetics and clothing can make accept dealings with the Oï of the Skinhead S, whereas the two fields are completely separately;
- the fact that, in the multicultural companies, the musicians and the public of the hard rock are primarily white;
- references to the States Southerners of certain groups, which are in fact rather references to the music Country (ZZ Top, Lynyrd Skynyrd);
- certain groups which assert themselves indeed openly racist, like the groups of '' black metal '' Nazi;
- the provocative side of certain groups which often do not have anything racist (the S of S of the logo of KIS, the iron cross on the guitar of James Hetfield, the death's-head on the helmet of Marilyn Manson, a speech of Hitler in intro of a song of Undercover Slut…)
Many groups are rather against racism, violence, the war and have for some of the concern social (for example Accept, Trust, Anthrax, Kreator, Nuclear Assault, Megadeth). On the other hand, some are machists (Manowar). It should however be noted that, in spite of the folklore indeed machist, the fair sex is rather well accepted. Proof is with certain groups whose emblematic figure is a woman (Warlock, Nightwish, Lacuna Coil, Midnattsol, Leaves' Eyes, Theater off Tragedy, Lunatica, The Gathering, Within Temptation, Tristania, Epica, Eths) or even exclusively made up women (Vixen, Girlschool, Kittie, L7).
Beats-smg: Hard rock Simple: Hard rock
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