The hajj (with a /a/ short) (Arab: ḥajj, rear RTL حَجّ, or ḥijjaʰ, rear RTL حِجّة, (to go towards) pilgrimage ) is for the Moslems the Pèlerinage with the holy places of the town of Mecque in Saudi Arabia. It is between the 8 and the 13 of the lunar month of Dhû Al-hijja (ḏū Al-ḥijja, rear RTL ذوالحجة) that has place the Great Pilgrimage with Mecque, 5th Pilier of Islam.
The hâj or hâjjî (/a/ long) (Arab: ḥājj, rear RTL حَاجّ, or ḥājjī, rear RTL حَاجِّي, pilgrim ) nominates also any person who made this pilgrimage.
Dhû Al-hijja (Arab: ḏū Al-ḥijja, rear RTL ذوالحِجّة, that of the pilgrimage ) twelfth month of the Moslem year during which the great pilgrimage is done.
Obligation to make the pilgrimage'Ali ^Imran/97 what means: “Allah orders to people to achieve the pilgrimage at the House crowned for all those which of it are able”.
The Messenger of Allah said:
by Al-Boukhariyy what means: “Islam is founded on five principal duties: the testimony which it is of god only Allah and who Mohammed is the messenger of Allah, the achievement of the prayer, the payment of the zakat, the pilgrimage at the crowned House and the fast of Ramadan”.
Ali ^Imran/97 what means: “It is a duty towards Allah to make the pilgrimage at the House for whoever has the means of going there”.
The pilgrimage is one of the most eminent things of Islam and it is obligatory for any responsible person (moukallaf), free, who in with the capacity. It is the same for the ^oumrah. It is thus a duty to once achieve them in its life and it is not necessary to repeat them several times.
Advantages of making the pilgrimageThe pilgrimage has a favor, that to be an atonement for the great sins as for the small sins in accordance with its word:
by Al-Boukhariyy what means: “Whoever will make the pilgrimage without having sexual relation and without making great sin is released from its sins and becomes again as the day when his/her mother put it at the world”, and that provided that its intention is sincere for Allah ta^ala, that the money used to carry out its pilgrimage is licit and that it preserves fisq, i.e. to fall into a great sin.
Among the evidence of the favor of the pilgrimage, it is that it joins together various manners of calming its heart, i.e. to control it. Indeed, it comprises a money expenditure, an effort against its passions by the hunger, thirst, the fact of taking care a long time, to undergo tests, the distance of its place of residence, the separation of with its family and her friends and what is of the same order.
Pillars of the pilgrimage and the oumrah
The pillars are the acts without which the pilgrimage and the ^oumrah are not valid. Thus that which forsakes one of the pillars, its pilgrimage is not valid. Nothing can compensate for this pillar, it is essential to achieve it.
Pillars of the pilgrimageThey are six, they are the following:
the intention of the entry in ritual (Al 'ihram): i.e. to formulate in its heart for example: (nawaytou l-hajja wa 'ahramtou bihi Li l-Lahi ta^ala) what means: “I start the acts of the pilgrimage and I enter in ritual for the approval of Allah ta^ala”.
- the station with ^Arafah (even a moment): between the moment when the sun declines of the zenith the ninth day of Dhou l-Hijjah and the appearance of paddle (Al-fajr) of the tenth day, i.e. the feastday.
- ritual turns around Ka^bah (At-tawaf): seven courses, i.e. one turns around Ka^bah seven times, by keeping Ka^bah on his left and by beginning level of the black stone; it is a condition: to be purified of both hadath.
- the ways (have-sa^y) between mount of Have-Safa and Al-Marwah: seven times. To be purified here is not a condition. One starts with Have-Safa and one finishes by Al-Marwah.
- the shaving of cranium or cut of the hair (Al-halq or At-taqsir): shaving means to remove all the hair, while the cut consists in cutting three hair at least; as for the woman, it cuts her hair but does not shave them.
- the respect of the order enters the major part of the pillars: one first of all makes the intention to enter in ritual and it is a condition of practicing the shaving or the cut of the hair and of making the ritual turns around Ka^bah after the station with ^Arafah.
Pillars of the oumrah
They are five, it are:
the intention of the entry in ritual. It is the intention to start the ^oumrah while saying by its heart for example: (nawaytou l-^oumrata wa 'ahramtou biha Li l-Lahi ta^ala) what means: “I intend to make the ^oumrah and I enter in ritual for the approval of Allah ta^ala”.
- ritual turns.
- the ways between the mount of Have-Safa and that of Al-Marwah.
- the shaving or cut of the hair.
- the order between the whole of its pillars such as it is quoted.
Duties of the pilgrimage and the ^oumrah
The duty is an act without which the pilgrimage or the ^oumrah remains valid but whose renunciation must be compensated by the sticking of an animal; there is moreover one disobedience to forsake it deliberately.
Obligatory acts of the pilgrimage
the intention of the entry in ritual since the miqat - the site determined by the Prophet from which the entry in ritual must have taken place -.
- the to launch stones to the three Jamrah: small Jamrah, Jamrah median and Al-^Aqabah Jamrah, with seventy stones.
- the stay of night in Mouzdalifah: it is a place close to ^Arafat where the pilgrims collect stones to carry out the throw in Jamrah.
- the stay of night in Mina: it is a place located between Mecque and ^Arafat, but nearer of Mecque.
- ritual turns of the departure (tawafou l-wada^).
What it is a duty to make in the event of renunciation of a duty:
That which forsook one of the duties of the pilgrimage has the duty to cut the throat of with the choice - a one year old ewe or which lost its teeth front or goat a two year old -.
If it is in the incapacity to cut the throat of, it will fast ten days: three during the pilgrimage and seven on its return among his.
Things prohibited with that which entered in ritual of pilgrimage or ^oumrah
Among the things prohibited with that which entered in ritual, two are specific to the men:
to cover the head.
- to wear a clothing which surrounds the body thanks to a seam, with the forming of the felt or to what is equivalent.
It is interdict with the woman:
to cover its face.
- to put on gloves.
It is to them interdict to both, men and women, in the event of ritual:
to scent itself.
- of oindre the head or the beard with an ointment, for example of oil or what is same kind.
- to eliminate a hair, a hair or to cut a nail.
- to carry out the sexual relation or its preliminaries.
- to make a marriage certificate.
- to drive out a wild terrestrial animal authorized with consumption, like the gazelle.
Three types of Hajj
the pilgrimage is known as “ Tamattuʿ ” if it is made during the month of the pilgrimage and to say its intention to make a “small pilgrimage” (will ʿUmra). This pilgrimage must end in the sacrifice of an animal. (tamattuʿ, rear RTL تَمَتُّع, pleasure; possession )
the pilgrimage is known as “ Qirân ” if the pilgrim declares his intention to carry out the large one and the small pilgrimage at the same time. It will not shave its hair that after the lapidation of Jamarat with Mina and will leave the state of sacralization then. It must offer an animal in sacrifice. (qirān, rear RTL قَران, union )
the pilgrimage is known as of “ ʾifrâd ” if the pilgrim states to want to make only the great pilgrimage. It will remain in a state of sacralization until the day of the sacrifice but will not offer an animal in sacrifice. (ʾifrād, rear RTL إفْراد, individualization )
RitesThe rites are the slightly various according to whether one lives the area of Mecque or not, particularly rites of sacralization (ihrâm) which are made at the time of the entry in the territory crowned for people of outside. They vary also slightly according to the legal schools of Islam (Madhhab).
First day: 8 dhû Al-hijja . To declare its intention to make the pilgrimage by a ritual formula repeated by three times. (nīya, rear RTL نِيَّة, project; will )
- to put in state sacralization. (ihrâm) (1)
- To make the seven rounds around the Kaaba while trying to embrace the black stone. (matâf) (2)
- To make seven times walk (420 m in a long corridor contiguous to the mosque) between Safâ and Marwah in remembering the wandering of Agar in the search of water for Ismaël. Then to drink with the source Zamzam. (saʿīy, rear RTL سَعْيي, race; effort; seek ) (3)
- to go to the place known as “Mined” with 4 km of Mecque and to make the prayers of after midday (asr), of the evening (the Maghreb and icha) and of the morning (fajr). (4)
- Second day: 9 dhû Al-hijja . When the sun rises it is necessary to advance towards the mountain ʿ Arafat (20 km) and to make there the prayer of midday (dhur) and of after midday while ensuring itself well to be with-inside borders of ʿArafat. It is necessary to remain in this territory to the setting sun. It is of this point that the prophet made his speech of good-bye. (wuqūf, rear RTL وُقوف, halt; station upright; pauses) (5)
- After laying down it sun, it is necessary to go towards “Muzdalifa”. For arrival, it is necessary to make the prayers of the evening. It is necessary to remain in Muzdalifa until the night fell. The pilgrim will provide himself with stones for the continuation of the rites (49 stones: 7+21+21). (6)
- Third day: 10 dhû Al-hijja . After the prayer of the morning the pilgrim returns towards Mîna. The first feastday of the sacrifice (Aïd Al-Adha) the pilgrim traverses the 300 m which separates it from the place where Abraham took along his/her son Ismaël to sacrifice it. On the course it meets three pillars which symbolize the three points where Iblîs tried to divert it. The pilgrim lapidates these pillars with collected stones the day before. (7)
- In the interval, it is necessary to kill the animal of offering which symbolizes the ram that Abraham sacrificed to the place of his/her son. It is necessary to eat some but the greatest part must be given to the poor ones. The pilgrims have the possibilities of paying the amount of the offering at a bank managed by the local authorities. (8)
- It is also necessary to remake the rites (2) and (3) “circumambulation of the return”. (9)
- Fourth and fifth days: 11 & 12 dhû Al-hijja . The pilgrim during each day of Tachriq, lapidates the 3 steles of Mina initially, smallest, then the median and finally largest, that of Aqaba. On each one it throws 7 stones while saying: Allahou Akbar (Allah is more Grand)… between two steles it faces the Quibla and recites some invocations.
- To carry out a last Circumambulation: that of good-bye and to leave the state of sacralization: For the men to cut the very short hair or to shave cranium, for the women to shorten the length of the hair. (taqṣīr, rear RTL تقصير, reduction; cleaning ).
Often the pilgrimage is prolonged by a visit with Médine on the tombs of the prophet and his famous companions.
the pilgrimage with Mecque
- Virtual Hajj
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