See also: Pirate (homonymy)
A hacker is a person making of the acts considered as Délit S or Crime S whose object or weapon is related to data processing. This term refers to the Pirate S of the maritime medium, the term of hacking replaced that of Piraterie in the language by semantic Glissement and following the use of the term “hacking” in the Médias. Nevertheless, the term “piracy” remains very largely of setting in French-speaking Africa.
In 2005, as this term is relatively young, it is subjected to controversies and variations of direction following the individuals or the groups of individuals who use it.
Around the term “hacker”
; Hackers In the years 1980, groups of hackers like the Chaos Computer Club or the Cult off the Dead Cow car-proclaimed Hacker S, which means: “expert in their field”. This term was then taken again by the press and even sometimes in the medium of the computer security.
The word Hacker , sometimes translated by do-it-yourselfer , indicates simply in On the other side of the Atlantic a person ready to astutely modify an object to intend it for another use that envisaged initially. The term does not comprise a pejorative connotation, and is not necessarily associated with the computer security, even less with illegal activities.
; Cracker The hackers of the time such as Eric S. Raymond at all did not appreciate to be amalgamated with minor delinquency and they then called the hackers: cracker S , although this term is sometimes used to nominate persons breaking protections of the software.
; Black hat hackers In the current terminology (2007), the Black hat hackers (hackers with the black hat), i.e. the experts who use their knowledge ill-advisedly, are also qualified hackers.
It is today frequent to hear in the mouth of the music producers and film the qualifier of “hacker” to nominate the persons downloading of the musics and films in spite of the royalty. One thus witnesses a new semantic slip with an aim of making the amalgam between Net surfers who download, of the people attacking of the data-processing networks and the former pirates of the Caribbean. The term “pirates” thus does not finish any weakening.
Certificate of the use of the term
In 1998, in its Lexicon of the Internet , J. - C. Finidori defines an hacker as being one expert data processing which is introduced in a punishable way into a made safe machine, to recover confidential informations or to damage the system and its files.
The term pirate was chosen by the general Commission of terminology and neology and defines a nobody who circumvents or destroys protections of a software, a computer or a data-processing network . It was selected to also replace the term cracker .
According to their technical level, the hackers can be:
of the black hats , experts in their field and badly intentioneds; it can thus be very dangerous.
- of the Script-kiddies , which use the scripts developed by the members of the first group. Not very expert in their field, they uses programs which can be dangerous when their execution is not controlled.
According to their field of predilection, an hacker can also be:
a Crasher , if it only erases data by play.
- a cracker , if it deals with breaking the protection of the software
- a Carder , if it deals with breaking the protective systems of the chip cards like the bank cards, but also the charts of decoder of paying chain.
- a Phreaker , if it deals with breaking protections of the commutated telephone system (STN).
Techniques of hacking
Except the use of Malicious software, the hacker has a whole arsenal of tools to attack a target on an open network like Internet. Some, such as the authors of the work halt to the hacker , speak even about methodology of attack.
See the article Insecurity of the information system for more precise details on the techniques of attacks than an hacker can implement to arrive at its ends.
- Hacker (university)
- Proclamation of the hacker
- Hacker (computer security)
- Reproduction and division of cultural products without agreement of having rights (“musical hacking”)
- telephone Hacking
- Information system security
- Insecurity of the information system
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