Hachomer Hatzaïr or Hashomer Hatzaïr ( השומרהצעיר , “Young Hebrew Guard” in ) is a Jewish youth movement and Zionist of left born in 1913 in Poland. Its bases are the Socialisme, the Sionisme, the Scoutisme, the friendship between the people and the pioneer spirit (“Hebrew haloutz”).
As a youth movement strongly influenced by the socialist Zionism, the Hashomer Hatzaïr was primarily influenced by the Marxist socialist ideology of the Hapoel Hatzaïr, of which it seems the radical wing initially before moving away some.
The organization had a great responsibility in rising for the Ghetto for Warsaw, under the direction of Mordechaj Anielewicz in 1943. It was one of the components of the Mapam (1948-1992), and then of the Meretz two socialist parties Zionists members of the Internationale Socialist.
It is currently a youth movement framing the young people in the form of the Scoutisme. After a meeting in October 2006, Hachomer European decided on 3 common pillars for each section, namely humanistic Socialism, the Zionism and the Judaism
It is related in Israel to the movement of the Kibbutz Artzi, the wing on the left of the movement Kibbutz nik. Being given that the kibbutzes artzi joined the unified Federation (Labor) of the kibbutzes, Hachomer Hatzaïr did not join in December 2003 the party successor of Meretz, Yachad, although it of it is ideologically very close.
In France, Hachomer Hatzaïr was created in Paris, in the district of Belleville, in 1933, by a group of young Jews of origins Tunisian and Polish. The French branch counts 500 members today. Hachomer Hatzaïr de France is the most active movement in the world.
In Belgium, Hashomer is present since 1920. It has a section in Brussels and had some in Liege. It adheres to the " Brit Hairgounim Hakhaloutsim" , union of the 5 Belgian Jewish youth movements. The section of Brussels counts today nearly 220 members from 6 to 18 years
ContextAs of the beginning, two factors met to found Hachomer Hatzaïr:
On the one hand the movement of the national rebirth (Sionisme), which was spread then within youth, and on the other hand, the Scoutisme, which gave to youth an independent life and which was at the base of various youth movements from the Jewish people.
First of all created for themselves independent centers in various countries and cities, without any bond between them. Only the appearance of the first newspapers gave to these organizations the possibility of approaching and of concentrating. The first sheets published by the kenim isolated, are the first evidence of the existence of Hachomer Hatzaïr.
Jewish scouting appeared at the same time in different places, but all of Polish culture. These centers were the Galicie (which was then under the mode of the Austrian empire), where the conditions of a free development prevailed, and the part of the Poland under the mode tzarist, where the free development was blocked. There, the movement was done secretly and conspirativement.
In these two centers the first newspapers of Hachomer Hatzaïr appeared. But in these two centers, this movement scout was organized by a youth coming from the comparable layers with half, namely the pupils of the Polish schools. Also, as of the first day, it was the Polish language which dominated. Thereafter it was replaced, partially initially then completely, by the Hebraic language .
StammeringsIn Galicie was formed in 1912, within the framework of a sporting club of Lwow, the first gdoud of Tzofim ( battalion of the scouts ) cash 200 haverim (members). Other cities followed Lwow, and rather quickly, Jewish scouting will count in its rows several hundreds of haverim.
In 1913, the young organization received the name of Hashomer (guard). During the First World War, the center of Hachomer Hatzaïr will pass to Vienna, where it will unify with the circles of students '' Tzeïrei Zion '' (Young people of Sion).
This unification is very important in the history of Hachomer Hatzaïr. The Tzeïrei Zion were completely different from the movement which had just been born in Poland: while the Poles formed an organization purely scoute, developing only the life scoute and considered that the study was to stick only to that exempted by the school, the Tzeïrei Zion , on the contrary, formed purely intellectual circles, scorning the sports, the walks and the scouts in general. Moreover. while the scouts Jewish Polish were completely far away from the values Zionists, the Tzeïrei Tzion had a tendency clearly Zionist and Socialist. While amalgamating, the two movements brought their designs. For the scouts: an youth organization stressing the physical-activities and sporting; for the Tzeïrei Zion : importance of the study and the desire to look further into the ideology Zionist-Socialist.
In 1917 appears in Vienna, the first newspaper printed of Hachomer Hatzaïr under the name: Hashomer, newspaper of the youth of Hashomer Hatzaïr . For the first time, the ideology of Hachomer Hatzaïr reached of broad masses and penetrates in not organized Jewish youth. The newspaper creates the bonds with the Jewish youth of Russian Poland which was organized in l'" Union of Scouts Juifs". The newspaper will appear until 1919.
At the same time as the movement more structured of Galicie, Jewish scouting took form in 1913 in some cities of Russian Poland. like Warsaw, Lodz, Bendin. It started to work in clandestinity, and was hardly distinguished from Polish Scouting under Russian occupation, which was used to him as example.
The First World WarThe world war bursts in 1914.
In 1915, the Germans conquer Russian Poland, and the conditions of exercise of scouting change. The national alarm clock becomes of day in stronger day. The slogans of the rebirth and the rebuilding of Eretz-Israel start to influence great masses of Jewish youth. The movement scout takes to a national character Zionist and widens with speed. At the beginning, the movement was called the Organization of Jewish Scouting . In 1918, the organization took the name of " Hashomer-Hatzaïr" (Young Guard). The two centers (empire Austro-Hungarian and Russian Poland) develop in parallel, reinforcing more and more the ideological and administrative links between them.
The interval warsWith the end of the war, the center of Vienna weakens, after the chomrim come from Galicie are turned over on their premises. However it remains in Vienna a secretariat of the Galician movement which renews the publication of the newspaper " Hachomer" , serving this time the two Polish centers at the same time.
After the massacres which marked the First World War, the Jewish people were again touched by vast Pogrom S, in particular in Ukraine (40.000 died according to certain estimates).
With the collapse of the German empires, Austro-Hungarian and Russian, a wave of nationalism touched the populations of the center and the east of Europe in general. New states were created: Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia. This wave of nationalism concerned also the Jews, more especially as the declaration Balfour (the promise of a " National hearth Juif" in Palestine) crédibilisait the Zionist project.
Among the first which embarked for Palestine after the First World War (the 3rd Aliyah), were haverim of the young organization of Hachomer Hatzaïr. They formed the first core of the movement in Israel. Parralèlement, the immediate post-war period saw Hachomer Hatzaïrs being spread in other countries, like the Romania and the Russia. It was then felt the need to coordinate the various national centres in a world movement. In 1924, met in Dantzig the first World congress of Hachomer Hatzaïr. This congress took part of deputy of seven countries or areas: Poland, Galicie, Lithuania, Latvia, the USSR, Romania, Dantzig and Eretz-Israel. They created a Hanhaga Elyona (world Direction) which was to direct the world movement.
This stage, the movement is not only any more one youth movement. He also affirms himself like a specific ideological force. While remaining faithful to the socialist ideology Zionist not-Marxist of the Hapoel Hatzaïr, it moves away from this one, regarded as too reformist, and approaches other groups of the radical left, like the Poale Sion Gauche, dissidence of left of the Poale Sion (Marxist socialist Zionist).
In Eretz-Israel, the movement is reinforced, in particular by the creation of collective farms. In 1927, the Kibbutzes im formed by the haverim which left the rows of Hachomer Hatzaïr, provide the foundations of the organization of the kibbutzes of Hachomer Hatzaïr in lsraël: Hakibboutz Haartzi. In the same year meets the second World congress of Hachomer Hatzaïr, which looks further into the ideological and administrative bases of them.
As of this moment, Hachomer Hatzaïr will not cease being reinforced. It attacks all the centers of the Jewish life by introducing its ideology everywhere. It widens its organizations unceasingly, and it creates at the same time new kibbutzes in Israel.
The Second world warThe second world war carried a great blow in Hachomer Hatzaïr. The movement lost, with the extermination of the Polish center, the cradle of its world movement.
The post-war period is however not marked by a stop of the expension of the hachomer. This one pénêtre maintaining in the Jewish centers which had not been reached by Hitlérisme: the America, the Africa and Western Europe.
The creation of the MAPAMAfter the last war, ideological contradictions between Hachomer Hatzaïr and the Mapai (the unified party of the left Zionist, enough reformist) are accentuated. The organization create then in 1947 a true party, also called " Hachomer Hatzaïr".
At the beginning of 1948, the party Hachomer Hatzaïr amalgamates with the 2 other parties of Socialism haloutzic in Israel: the dissidence of left of Mapai, the Achdut Ha' avoda and the Left Poale Sion.
Thus born Mifleget HaPoalim HaMeuhedet : " Unified party of the ouvriers" or MAPAM. The party takes to an orientation pro-Soviet clearly. In 1949, it obtains almost 15% of the voices, becoming the second party of the country, behind the Workers party.
As from the beginning of the year 1950, the Soviet Union of Stalin lance a violent campaign anti-Zionist. In 1952, Jewish Communists are accused of “Zionism” during the Procès of Prague. Then in 1953, of the Jewish doctors are blamed in the “Complot of the white blouses”. These evolutions shake enormously the partisans of the Stalinisme. In 1954, the right wing of the party, Achdut Ha' avoda, leaves Mapam, refusing alignment on the USSR.
In 1955, Mapam undergoes an electoral reverse, passing from 12,5 % with 7,3 % of the votes. The party then decides to take its distances with the USSR, but remains positioned on the left like the party Zionist of the country. The same year, the left wing of the party criticizes the distance of with the Soviet Union. Under the direction of Moshé Sneh, former chief of Staff of the Haganah, it joined the Communist party of Israel. It reinforces there the Jewish tendency most favorable to the Sionisme (even if it is not claimed any more officially).
These two departures, as well as the bonds passed with the USSR, weaken Mapam clearly. With a narrow sociological base, that of the Kibbutz im, Mapam finds its original influence never again. The party indeed never succeeded in being established in urban environment, whether it is in the proletariat or the middle-classes. As well its electoral base as its social project are closely related to the kibbutzes. It is not that during the 1950 qu years ' it succeeds in gaining voices in other mediums. It reaches that point more and more with difficulty with time.
From November 1955 in November 1961, the party makes party of the government. It returns in January 1966 there, and will remain there until 1977.
As from the elections of 1969, Mapam is presented to the elections on same the lists of candidates as the workers party, but without amalgamating (the second alignment, or Ma' arakh). It continues this policy until the elections of 1988, for which it is again only presented. The departure of Mapam of the left coalition is related to the refusal of the national government of union which sees the Likoud (nationalist right) and the members of the Labor Party to control together of 1984 to 1990.
In 1992, Mapam, and thus the militants hachomer, take part in the creation of the party Meretz.
Israel exists… What becomes Hachomer?
The creation of a political party since 1947 raises the question of the existence of the hachomer as an youth organization AND as a party general practitioner.
It was thus decided that the movement, even after the creation of the party, would preserve its complete independence.
Though it has on the political field the same ideology that the Mapam party, it achieves entirely different tasks. The movement is first of all a movement of car-realization, and socialist colonization of Israel. Of Hachomer Hatzaïr only that can be member which endeavors to carry out itself its ideal within the framework of the Kibboutz. Party can be to cut (member), that which agree to fight for the political ideals of the party
Hachomer hatzaïr is thus a whole with 3 historical facets:
- the political party Hachomer Hatzaïr, created in 1947, is its successors, the Mapam, then the Meretz and since 2003 Yachad.
- the Kibbutz Artzi, resulting from Hachomer.
- the youth organization itself (scouting). It is this 3rd facet to which the members of the hachomer of France adhere, although they often have sympathies to the 2 others.
The organization of the youth movement today in France and Belgium30 Madrihim (monitors) deal with every saturday afternoon the +ou- 200 young people divided into groups of ages. The activity of Saturday is summarized as follows:
- Israeli Dances and reception of the young people
- Mifkad (gathering): one sings songs, one gives the useful informations and the topicality of the week
- peoula (activity) on the most varied topics, for the oldest haverim often around a cultural topic.
- Park: 1 hour with the Duden park défouler, to eat to taste it (koumzit) and to play creeks (play of ball characteristic of the Jewish youth movements of Belgium).
- Oneg: end of the activity: all the movement met and the madrihim organize an activity all together
Here some sites of Hachomer in the world for certain useful informations:
Hashomer Hatzair France http://www.hachomer.net
Hashomer Hatzair Belgium http://www.hashomer.be Hashomer Hatzair Ukraine http://www.hashomer.narod.ru/ Hashomer Hatzair Italy http://www.hashomerhatzair.it Swiss Hashomer Hatzair http://www.hashomerhatzair.ch Hashomer Hatzair the United States http://www.hashomerhatzair.com Hashomer Hatzair Argentina www.hashomerhatzair.com.ar Hashomer Hatzair Brazil http://www.hashomer.org.br Hashomer Hatzair Mexico http://www.nether.net/home.html Hashomer Hatzair Chile http://cipres.cec.uchile.cl/~jheiss/ Hashomer Hatzair Canada http://www.hashomerhatzaircanada.com Hashomer Hatzair Australia http://www.ecr.mu.oz.au/~brt/what.html Hashomer Hatzair Israel http://www.hashomer-hatzair.org Hashomer Hatzair Petah Tikva (Israel) http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/3327/ Site of old to cut of the United States which tries to gather all the haverim world http://home.earthlink.net/~urik/index.html
OldHachomer Hatzaïr saw passing in its rows of many people who became important militants of the labor movement or personalities of the Israeli company, French or other countries of the world:
- Alexandre Arcady
- Tony Cliff;
- Reinhard Bendix;
- Avi Dichter;
- Boris Fraenkel;
- Chaike Grossman ;
- Abba Hushi ;
- Élie Kakou ;
- Éliane Karp ;
- Aba Kovner ;
- Abraham Leon;
- Daniel Lindenberg;
- Amnon Flax
- Ernest Mandel;
- Benny Morris;
- Haim Oron ;
- Christian Piquet;
- Haviva Reik ;
- Roza Robota ;
- Moshe Shamir ;
- Sam Spiegel;
- Manes Sperber;
- Leopold Trepper ;
- Henri Weber.
- world Site
- Belgian Antenna
- French Antenna
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