The nutrition (of Latin nutrire : to nourish) can cover two directions, according to whether one specifically is interested in the physiological mechanisms Métabolisme cellular, or more generally with the contribution with Aliment S at the organization as a whole.
Physiology and metabolismThe functions of nutrition are one of the great functions of the Physiologie.
The nutrition indicates the whole of the phenomena which bring Nutriment S to the cells and export waste of the metabolism. It thus includes all the physiological functions necessary to the use (metabolisation) of the nutrients for the growth, maintenance, the operation of the organization, like producing heat and energy:
- the absorption of food
- assimilation and the transformation of food: the Digestion, the assimilation racinaire (see vegetable Nutrition), Photosynthesis
- the circulation of the interior medium (Blood: to see Blood circulation, Sap)
- the Breathing (contribution and export of gases of the external medium to the cells)
- the Excretion
the energy value is: 1 kcal (kilogram calorie) = 4,18 kJ (kilojoule)
FoodThe nutrition is defined here as being the Science which analyze the relationship between the Nourriture and the Santé: study of the composition of the Food S, their properties, and of their use by the organization. These studies lead to the Diététique. One also takes into account, in the framework of the nutrition, the food behaviors of the individuals, in particular at the time of the Repas or of Grignotage.
However, starting from the clinical observation of Disease S whose origin was a food deficiency (for example, the Scorbut), the nutrition relates to also today diseases such as the problems cardiovascular S and the Cancer (with the method Kousmine for example), the Ostéoporose and the arterial Hypertension (excess of salt in particular), the Diabète of the type 2, the Obésité, the autoimmune diseases, the disease of Alzheimer.
The nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of many diseases. For example more than 100.000 cases of cancers could be avoided in France each year, by changing dietary habits simply.
The complex processes to which the nutritive elements are subjected - interactions between food, degradation, conversion energy and release of this energy, transport and use of the chemical compounds for construction (anabolism = construction; catabolism =) of specialized fabrics and maintenance waste disposal of a total good health - only are partly elucidated. Important nutritional choices must however be made to ensure the good health of the individuals, like very the young children and the elderly, and of whole populations which suffer from Malnutrition.
The adaptation of the food practices to the satisfaction of the physiological needs is the Diététique.
- National plan Nutrition Health
- Professional Union of the graduates in Dietetics of French language
- wikibooks ''''' Mode and gastronomy '''''
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