The Republic of Guinea , sometimes called Guinea Conakry , is a country of West Africa.
See also: Geography of Guinea
Guinea is on the Atlantic coast of West Africa and is surrounded of the Guinea-Bissau (386 km of borders), the Senegal (330 km), of the Mali (858 km), of the Ivory Coast (610 km) of the Liberia (563 km) and of the Sierra Leone (652 km) and of the Atlantic Ocean.
Four geographical areas are distinguished: an coastal area (Low-Guinea or maritime Guinea), an mountainous area (Average-Guinea or Fouta Djallon with for principal city Labé), a zone of savanna in North (High Guinea) and a zone of forests in South-east (forest Guinea).
Many rivers, the such Niger, Senegal, Gambia find their source in Guinea, making of this country " the castle of eau" from West Africa.
This country contains important bauxite natural reserves, diamonds, of gold, iron and uranium.
See also List of towns of Guinea
See also: History of Guinea
Time précolonialeNalou and Baga populate the area at the 8th century. 9th century at the 11th century, the kingdom mandingue, vassal of the Empire of Ghana, is established high Senegal in high Niger. They will be joined by the Jalonké of mandée origin. At the 13th century, legendary the Sundjata Keïta form an immense empire having for capital Niani (today Guinean small village). The Empire of Mali declines at the 15th century. Meanwhile and until the 18th century, the Peuls bring the Islam in the area. In the years 1880, Mandingue Samory Touré, with the head of an army effectively organized and equipped with modern weapons, takes the control of the interior of the country. It is one of the last heroes of the pre-colonial history of the country.
ColonizationLow Guinea, the coastal area was as a preliminary occupied by Portuguese, who was évincés by the French Army, because weakened by the occupation of Guinea Bissau. Guinea is proclaimed French colony in 1891, independently of the Senegal, to which it was previously attached. This new name replaces that which it carried, up to that point: rivers of the South. Samory Touré, then relayed by the people of the forest, carries out a war organized against the French occupation on the coast and in the mountainous solid masses of south-east before being overcome in 1898. The war which opposes French to Fouta-Djallon, in Popodara, completes by the victory of the first. The Almamy Bocar Biro Barry is assassinated close to the edges of Bafing, in Kollen on its own request: a sub-prefecture with horse between Nyagara and Dabola. It chose this option not to be subjected or reduced into vassal of the colonizing power. Its warriors scatter or prefer to give each other death to its sides. The areas of High-Niger are annexed the following year. In 1901, Guinea becomes an integral part of the French Western Africa (AOF), managed by a general governorship.
IndependenceAt the time of the referendum of September 1958, Guinea is the only country of French-speaking Africa to disallow the proposal of the Général de Gaulle concerning the integration of the colonies of the AOF within the French Community, which involves an immediate rupture of the political relations and economic with France. The country reaches independence the October 2nd of the same year and Ahmed Sékou Touré, which is not the grandson of Samory Touré, becomes the president about it. He is combined with the Soviet Union and sets up a socialist mode at sole party.
After the death of Touré in 1984, the temporary government is quickly reversed by Lansana Conté. It introduces the multi-party system in 1993 and organizes elections, which confirmed it by twice with the presidency, in 1993 and 1998. In December 2003, the Head of the State, however seriously sick, is re-elected with 95,6% of the votes vis-a-vis a candidate resulting from a party combined to the president, the other opponents having preferred not to take part in a poll played in advance.
Policy and administration
See also: Political of Guinea
Guinea is a République with as Head of the State the president, elected by the people for a mandate of 5 initially then 7 years since the modification of the constitution in 2003, and the Prime Minister who is appointed by the Head of the State. The president's function is occupied by Lansana Conté since the April 5th 1984.
Since the introduction of the multi-party system in April 1992, forty new parties were recognized.
The Legislative power is ensured by a Parlement composed of only one room, the National Assembly, where 114 deputies elected by the people for a 5 years sit mandate. In the facts, the mode is a disguised military dictatorship.
- a constitutional and administrative room
- a legal room (civil, penal and economic)
- a room of the accounts.
The first president of the supreme court is at the same time president of the constitutional and administrative room.
See also: Subdivisions of Guinea
Guinea is subdivided in 8 urban areas, 33 prefectures, 33 communes (chief towns of the prefectures) and 303 rural communities of development. The capital Conakry is divided into 5 communes (Kaloum, Dixin, Matam, Ratoma and Matoto).
See also: Demography of Guinea
The Guinean populations were almost decimated by the draft started at the 16th century and carried out beyond 1850, by the French colonial conquest and the forced labors which it brought. The second world war (1939-1945) weakened colonizing France and pushed this one to abolish the forced labors in 1945 finally. With this date l´essor starts demographic, the population doubling every 20 years.
France not being able to militarily hold all these colonies in nationalist effervescence, this one releases Guinea in 1958. L´amélioration of the standard of living after l´indépendance increased l´espérance life. However the misery and the dictatorship of Sékou Touré pushed many Guineans, in particular elites, to emigrate towards the developed countries.
Birth rate is high. The rate of AIDS is of course worrying (3%) but remains still quite lower than d´autres African countries (South Africa 12%, Mozambique 16%, Zimbabwe 23%). Finally the population remains very young: 44% less 15ans.
See also: Economy of Guinea
L economy is primarily agricultural. The majority of the population saw food crops. Some cities concentrate l´essentiel secondary industries and tertiary sector, little developed. The taxes return badly. Guinea is the second world bauxite producer (rough) after Australia, but with corruption, the capital flights and brains, the bad governorship, and misses it infrastructures, the country has evil to benefit from the benefit of the export of bauxite.
Tourisma very beautiful country which presents many tourist sites but those still remains very natural following a lack of means of exploitation.
See also: Culture of Guinea
Ba Cissoko, singer and Guinean musician. Master of will kora.
- Bill of Sam, the pioneer of Guinean Rap
- Mamady Keïta, Guinean Musician, percussionnist and more particularly djembéfola (player of Djembé S) of international repute.
- Mory Kanté, singer and Guinean musician.
- Bembeya Jazz, headlight group of the years 1960 to 70 with its guitarist Sékou Diabaté.
- Gahité Fofana, Guinean scenario writer.
- Sekouba Bambino, Guinean singer.
- Kill Not, Guinean group of rap and hip-hop, founder of the movement hip-hop in this country.
- Seyni, Guinean Singer
- hopes of Coronthie musicians of Conakry
; Guinean authors
- Tanou Diallo (1976 -)
- Sirah Balde de Labe
- Aïssatou Barry (1959 -)
- Kesso Barry (1948 -)
- Koumanthio Zeinab Diallo (1956 -)
- Mariana Kesso Diallo
- Camara Bush hammer
- Tierno Monénembo
- Williams Sassine
- Marie Bernadette Tiendrébéogo (1958 -)
- Senyo Adjibolosoo
- Mahmoud Bah
LanguagesFrench is official language. The principal languages are the Peuhl on average Guinea (Fouta Djalon), the Malinké in High Guinea, the soussou and Baga in Guinea Maritime, the Manon, the Kpele, the Toma, the Kissi, the Guerzé and the Kono in Guinea Forestiere.
OthersPopulation: 9.788.000 inhabitants (estimate in January 2007). 0-14 years: 44,4%; 15-64 years: 52,4%; + 65 years: 3,2%
Surface: 245.857 km ²
Density: 40 hab. /km ²
Land borders: 3.399 km (Mali 858 km; Sierra Leone 652 km; Ivory Coast 610 km; Liberia 563 km; Guinea-Bissau 386 km; Senegal 330 km)
Littoral: 320 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 1.752 m
Life expectancy of the men: 48,28 years (in 2003)
Life expectancy of the women: 50,83 years (in 2003)
Foreign exchange rate: 6,252 GNF for 1€ (23/11/2007)
Growth rate of the population: 2,37% (in 2003)
Rate of migration: - 3,14 ‰ (in 2003)
Death rate: 15,7 ‰ (in 2003)
infantile Death rate: 96,3 ‰ (in 2003)
Birth rate: 42,5 ‰ (in 2003)
Fertility rate: 5,9 children/woman (in 2003)
Independence: October 2nd 1958 (old French colony)
Phone lines: 40.000 (in 2004)
Cellphones: 2.455.618 (in 2005)
Radios: 357.000 (in 1997)
Television stations: 85.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 15.000 (in 2002)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 3 (in 2004), 4 (in 2001)
Roads: 30.500 km (including 5 33 tarred km) (in 1996)
Railways: 1.086 km
360 km in 2006 inland Waterways: 1.295 km
Many airports: 15 (including 5 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
CodesGuinea has as codes:
- 3X, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- GIN, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- GIN, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- GN, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- GU, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- GUI, according to the Code list country of CIO,
- Steam Generator, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- RG, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
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