See also: Newfoundland (homonymy), Labrador
Ground-New-and-Labrador (in English, Newfoundland and Labrador ; in Irish Talamh year Éisc ) is one of the provinces Canada. The capital is St John' S.
The province is consisted of the island of Newfoundland and of the continental area of Labrador, to the extreme is country (the Eastern point of Canada is with a few kilometers of the capital). The principal land borders are with the Quebec. This border Quebec/Ground-New-and-Labrador, in Labrador, defined by the private Council of London in 1927, is not recognized by Quebec. There are also very small land borders with the Nunavut on the island Killiniq in the extreme north of Labrador. The territory French of Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon is at broad southern part of the province.
The province is called “Ground-New-and-Labrador” on the level interns since 1964, but the name “Newfoundland” was used fédéralement to relieve an argument with the Quebec on the membership of Labrador. In October 2001, a constitutional amendment passed in front of the Sénat and the House of Commons of Canada as well as the Chambre of Parliament of the province, in order to change official name into Ground-New-and-Labrador. This amendment took its effect the December 6th 2001.
The population of the province is of 533 800 people ( Newfoundlanders and Labradoriens ).
History before the Union
Period of colonization
Newfoundland has a long story. The first European colony in America, founded in the year 1000 by the Viking S, was with the Handle in Meadows on the island. Remainders and artefacts coming from this occupation are presented with the Handle in Meadows, now classified with the world heritage of UNESCO. The island was then inhabited by the Inuit S and the Beothuk S. The explorer Jean Cabot accosted with Bonavista in 1497 and took possession of Newfoundland in the name of the crown of England, which made its first overseas colony of it. The colony was not a Canadian province until in 1949 and is remained until this date a Dominion of the British Empire having a legal existence separated from the Canada.
Member of the British Empire
Newfoundland was equipped in 1832 with a colonial assembly, which is currently known under the term of the Room of assembly ( House off Assembly ). In 1855 Newfoundland accepted its clean Gouvernement and Philip François Little, native of the island of the Prince-Edouard, formed the first administration of 1855 with 1858.
Events having led to the union with the Canada
Newfoundland rejected first once the union with the Canadian confederation in the general election of 1869. It remained British colony until it received the statute of dominion in 1907 at the same time as the New Zealand. It tried to reach an agreement of free trade with the the United States but that failed. The Dominion of Newfoundland reached its golden age under the Prime Minister Sir Robert Bond. Newfoundland constituted its own regiment to take part in the First World War in order to support the the United Kingdom. July 1st 1916, most of this regiment was massacred at the beginning of the Bataille of the Sum. The war debt following the expenditure due to this regiment led to an increasing debt at the time of the years 1920, because contrary in all the Sovereign states of the time (which cancelled or spread out their refundings of their war debt to their advantage) Newfoundland faced its financial liabilities without disavowing them.
The Années 1920 were also marked by an atmosphere of scandal. In 1923 the Prime Minister Richard Squires was stopped and accused of corruption. It was left in freedom little time afterwards on guarantee, but one named a British commission directed by Hollis Walker to clarify the business. Little time after, the government of Squires fell. It returned to the capacity in 1928 during the inflicted serious attack to the country by the Grande depression. The April 5th 1932, a riot of ten thousand people to the Parliament forced Squires to flee.
The following government, carried out by Frederick Alderdice, asked the British government to take the direct control of the country, until Newfoundland is self-sufficing.
History within Canada
Acquired referendum of accuracy
In 1946, an election set up a national convention to decide future of Newfoundland. After a keen debate and a first referendum with three options in June 1948, a second referendum in July 1948 decided by a vote of 52% against 48% to be linked with Canada.
Newfoundland became member of the Canadian Confederation on April 1st 1949.
The policy of the province was dominated by the Liberal party under Joseph R. Smallwood until in 1972. This year, the Smallwood government was demolishes by the progressist-conservatives directed by Frank Moores.
Brian Peckford became Prime Minister in 1979. For this period, the province fought with the federal government to control the important maritime oil resources, argument which was completed by a compromise. In 1989, the Liberal party of Clyde Wells seized the power.
Economic crisis and frictions with the federal government of Canada
During the years 1990, Newfoundland faced an ecological and environmental crisis severe. The activity of fisheries of Morue, whose Newfoundlanders had lived during five hundred years, fell because of the quasi disappearance of the species. The federal government helped Newfoundland with height of a billion dollar.
In 1996 the former federal politician Brian Tobin seized the power. Its principal goal was to make benefit the province from the rich person deposits of Nickel recently discovered in Labrador. He resigned to turn over to the federal policy in 2000. The Liberal party was under a condition weakened since this time, situation felt by current the Prime Minister, Roger Grimes.
A disagreement perdure with the Nova Scotia about the maritime border in the south.
In 2003, the federal government imposed a complete moratorium on the fishing of cod, because of the extremely low population of this fish. This ignited the spirits everywhere in Atlantic Canada; in Ground-New-and-Labrador, the Grimes Prime Minister ordered a review of the Act of Union and place of the province in Canada.
The basement of the province abounds in mining resources. The most important iron layers in the world were discovered in Labrador. The ground also contains enormous quantities of ores of Or, of Argent, Amiante, Fluor, Tungstène, Nickel, Cuivre, Plomb, Zinc and coal as well as Gypse, of Calcaire, and Cobalt. This last is especially in the island of Newfoundland. Much Offshore oil rig oil at summer discovered close to the provincial capital. But the lack of means slows down the exploitation of these layers.
- Capital: St John' S
- Currency: Quaetrite Precedes Regnum Dei (Seek initially the kingdom of God)
- Fleur emblem: The Sarracénie crimson
- Date of entry in the Confederation: March 31st, 1949
- Members of the legislative Parliament: 48
- Appointed with the House of Commons: 7
- Senators: 6
- Population in 1998: 538.832
- Returned family annual means - 1996: 42.993 $
- Rate of employment - 1997 - 62,4%
- Costs of the health care per capita - 1995: 2.612 $
- the inflation measured with the IPC - 1997: 1,2%
- Returned weekly means - 1997: 483,49 $
- Put in building site of dwellings - 1997: 960
- Tax on the sales - 1998: 10%
- Urban population - 1996: 41,8%
- GDP per capita - 1995: 16.858 $
- Surface compared to the remainder of Canada: 4,06%
Tracks of revivals of the dialog between Ground-New-and-Labrador and Canada
The July 2nd 2003, the results of the royal Commission on the place of Ground-New-and-Labrador in the federation were revealed. The commission gave a report on the elements of tensions in the relation between Ground-New-and-Labrador and Canada:
massive impact of the destruction of the activity of fisheries of cod;
- the fact that the resources of Hydroélectricité of Labrador mainly profited in Quebec;
- high chronic unemployment rate;
- incomes per capita low in Canada;
- high levels of tax;
- the highest rate of emigration.
The report/ratio preached:
a more co-operative Federalism with Ground-New-and-Labrador;
- an united action to reconvert the activity of fisheries;
- a collaboration enters Canada, Quebec, and Ground-New-and-Labrador to develop the hydroelectric site of Gul Island;
- a revision of the Atlantic agreements so that maritime oil reserves (Hibernia) profit in priority in Ground-New-and-Labrador;
- of the immediate and realistic talks on a joint management of the fisheries.
The text of the report/ratio can be here in English, with a French synopsis here (format .pdf).
- Canadian List of the provinces and territories
- List of Canadian cities
- List of the Prime Ministers of Ground-New-and-Labrador
- List of the municipalities of Ground-New-and-Labrador
- Federation of the French-speaking people of Ground-New-and-Labrador
- Official site Government of tourist Ground-New-and-Labrador
- Official site of Ground-New-and-Labrador
- To travel and work in Ground-New-and-Labrador
- Heritage TN
Beats-smg: Niufanlends ė Labradors Simple: Newfoundland and Labrador Zh-min-nan: Newfoundland kap Labrador
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