Gripping force of the peace of the United Nations
The Gripping force of the peace of the United Nations can be sent in a zone of conflict to protect the civil population or to be used of force as interposition.
This force depends since 1992 on the Département on the operations on maintenance on peace.
The members of this force are often called Blue helmets because of the Couleur of their Casque.
RolesThe Blue helmets can be charged:
- to supervise the application of a Cease-fire
- to disarm and demobilize the combatants
- to protect the populations Civil be
- to make maintenance of law and order and to form a local police force
- of déminer
According to the Mandate given by the Safety advice of the United Nations, these roles can be combined. The Gripping forces of peace are organized by the Département of the operations of maintenance of peace.
OrganizationThe members of the Blue helmets are mainly military lent by Member States of UNO. Civilians can be also present in certain cases, for the police force and the administration in particular.
OriginThe first gripping force of the peace of UNO was sent in 1948, with for mission of supervising the Trêve war arabo-Israeli. This force was not armed and was there only as an observer.
The first armed intervention was in 1956, at the time of the Crise of Suez Canal. It was created following a resolution presented to the General meeting of the United Nations, by the Canadian minister of the Foreign affairs, Lester Bowles Pearson.
Evolution of the three principles governing its intervention
The maintenance mission of peace was framed by three rules to which the States held absolutely and which worked its traditional definition:
- the assent of the parts to the conflict with the intervention;
- impartiality of the blue helmets vis-a-vis the involved forces;
- the limitation of the use of the force by the Blue helmets at ends of self-defense only. There was no question of opening fire to impose peace. Except notable for the mission to the Congo, in 1960-1964, where the force was actually used to put an end to the secession Katanga, the traditional notion of the maintenance of peace guided the setting-up of the missions of peace of UNO until the beginning of the year 1990.
Since, the majority of the mandates authorize the use of the force if the civil population is in danger.
CriticalSome object that the model of this multinational force does not function any more.
The “rich countries” balk to send soldiers in conflicts which are not in their zone of influence and have accounts to return to their Public opinion.
Insofar as the soldier of a Western country costs much more in his Country of origin that a soldier of a country of the Tiers-monde, an operation will be thus always overdrawn for a country of Western Europe or North America whereas it does not cut down (on the contrary) the appropriations by a country of South Asia or of Africa.
All that would cause a drop in the level of the interventions and would be favourable with more “failures”, the soldiers sent being less better involved and being equipped that wished.
Nobel Prize of peaceThe Blue helmets accepted the Nobel Prize of peace in 1988.
In 1956, the Canadian Minister for the Businesses external , Lester Bowles Pearson, received the same honor for the role that he played in the creation of the first force of Maintien of the peace which was spread to solve the Crise of Suez Canal.
- Maintenance of peace
- Operations of maintenance of peace
- Department of the operations of maintenance of peace
- List of the operations of maintenance of peace
- white Helmet
- Imposition of peace
- Official site of the Blue helmets.
- the French-speaking Network of research on peace operations proposes in particular a database of the operations of maintenance of peace.
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