The Grameen Bank (" grameen" mean village) is a Banque specialized in the Microphone-credit. It was created officially in 1983 by Muhammad Yunus with the Bangladesh. It has nearly 1400 branches and works in more than 50.000 villages. Since its creation, she spent 4,69 billion dollars of loans and posts rates of refunding of almost 99%.
The organization and its founder were rewarded for the Nobel Prize of peace in 2006. Ole Danbolt Mjoes (president of the Committee Nobel) said that “a durable peace cannot be obtained without an important part of the population finding the means of leaving poverty” and “ the microcrédit is one of these means” .
HistoryThe founder of the bank is Mr. Muhammad Yunus doctor of economy of the university of Vanderbilt University in the United States. The idea came to him during a terrible famine in Bengladesh in 1974. The granted loan of 27$ (without the risks of the " lenders on gage") with a group of 42 families their to license to create menus objects to be sold. Yunus believed that to propose such loans available to large scales could improve the condition of poverty of the Bengladesh rural world.
Grameen Bank (literally, " Bank of Villages") was born from the ideas of Muhammad Yunus. The bank started like research project of Yunus associated with the " Economic projects and Ruraux" university of Bangladesh de Chittagong, and this in order to test its method of credit and banking services proposed at the zone rural the poor. In 1976, the village of Jobra and other villages neighbouring the university of Chittagong were the first to benefit from the services of Grameen Banque. The bank was an immense success and the project, with the assistance of the government was wide in 1979 with the district of Tangail. (in the north of the Dhaka capital). The success of the bank continued and was spread with other districts of Bengladesh, in 1983 it was transformed into bank independent by the government of Bangladesh.
The bank continues today to increase through the country, and continuous to propose small loans with the poor of the rural areas. Semi-2006, the bank has more than 2100 agencies. Its success with inspired by the similar projects throughout the world.
Method of the microcrédit
The method of the microcrédit integrates a base of 16 values morals, ethics and of management of the everyday life: the 16 Decisions, extract:
- 1 - We must follow the 4 principles of Grameen Banque: Discipline, Unité, Courage and Work
- 2 - To bring prosperity to our families
- 3 - We should not live in dilapidated houses, we must repair our houses and build news
- 4 of them - We must cultivate vegetables all the year, to eat much and sell the surplus of it.
- 5 - During the season of the seeds, we must plant seeds as many as possible.
- 6 - We must keep our small families, reduce our expenditure and occupy us of our health.
- 12 - We should not inflict injustices, and prevent whoever from inflicting some.
These principles form the base of the microcrédit as well as the management of " groups of car-entraide" , this system functions in more than 43 countries. One lends money to a group of 5 people, and it is not possible any more for the group to again borrow if one only of the five people fails. That created a group dynamic in term of responsibility (so that the other members of the group can again borrow), thus increasing the economic viability of Grameen Banque.
In a country or few women reach the credit by the means of the large banks, (translation in progress…)
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