Golda Meir (in Hebrew: גולדהמאיר) (Meirson - born Mabovitz) (May 3rd 1898 - December 8th, 1978) took part in the creation of the State of Israel, was Foreign Minister, as well as the fourth Prime Minister of Israel from March 17th, 1969 to April 11th, 1974. It was known like the " Ram of Fer" of the Israeli policy before this qualifier is not employed later for Margaret Thatcher. It was the first woman to be reached the post of Prime Minister in Israel (only to date) and the third woman in the world on this level of responsibility (only Sirimavo Bandaranaike with the Sri Lanka and Indira Gandhi in India preceded it).
She resigned of her station in 1974 and withdrew political life.
Born with Kiev in Ukraine in the middle of the Russian Empire, its family knows the time of the Pogrom S, the hunger and the cold before his/her father does not choose to emigrate towards the the United States in 1903 and to install them in the Wisconsin starting from 1906. At the 14 years age, it leaves the house of her parents who wish to marry it with an older man. It joined her Sheyna sister with Denver and meets there Morris Myerson whom it will marry later (in 1917).
On their arrival, they join a Kibboutz and their lives are made trees be planted, of kitchen and work of the farm. Golda then starts to be affirmed like a leader. It is in particular chosen by its kibbutz like representing near the trade union of the Histadrout (embryo of the future Workers party) until in 1924, date on which her husband and itself choose to leave the kibbutz to move with Tel Aviv, then with Jerusalem. They have two children there: Menahem and Sarah.
When Golda must turn over with his/her children in Tel Aviv to become there representing it of the women of Histadrout, her husband remains alone in Jerusalem until his death in 1951. It gains gradually influences some within Histadrout which composes a form of government of the shade, in waiting of the creation of the State of Israel.
In 1946, the British capacity stops many political leaders Zionists of Palestine, but Golda Meir escapes and takes from it then charges the organization with it. It negotiates with the British while remaining in contact with the movement of guerilla.
The following day, Golda Meir receives the first Israeli passport published to go to the the United States and to collect funds there.
Of 1949 with 1956, it is Minister for Labor. In 1956, it receives the wallet of the Foreign affairs in the government of David Ben Gourion, which says of it that it is “the only man of its cabinet” . It makes him change its family name for a Hebrew name , Meir, which indicates a “brilliant glare”.
In 1965, it leaves the government, tired by the exercise of its responsibilities. She is quickly recalled to the businesses to take the function of general secretary of the Workers party for eight month, before withdrawing on August 1st, 1968 again.
With the sudden death of Levi Eshkol on February 26th, 1969, the party chooses it to become Prime Minister. Its mandate is marked by disorders within the coalition with the capacity and by a lack of leadership. That results in the surprise in front of the unexpected attack by the Arab armies which occurs the day of the Yom Kippour 1973. At the conclusion of the War of Kippour, Golda Meir resigns on April 11th, 1974 and Yitzhak Rabin succeeds to him.
The frame of mind of the Israelis during the mandate of Golda Meir is a total confidence, in particular related to the crushing victory and the conquests of the Guerre the Six Day old of 1967. Golda Meir forever considered to be necessary to seek compromises with the Palestinians. On this subject, this sentence is allotted to him: “Peace will come when the Arabs love their children more than they do not hate us” .
Functions in Israel
- Of the October 8th 1951 at June 10th, 1956 (~ 4,5 years): Minister for Labor.
- Of the June 19th 1956 at January 12th, 1966 (~ 9,5 years): Foreign Minister.
- From March 17th, 1969 to June 3rd, 1974 (~ 5,5 years): Prime Minister.
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