Godefroy de Bouillon
See also: Bubble
Godefroy de Bouillon (1058 with Boulogne-sur-Mer - 1100 with Jerusalem) is a Chevalier and the first Christian sovereign of Jerusalem, but which refused the title of king for that, humbler, of acknowledged of the Holy Sepulchre .
Knight of legend
Wire of holy Ide d' Ardenne, heiress of the dukes of Low-Lotharingie and Eustace II, count de Boulogne, of the kingdom of France, Godefroy de Bouillon is downward of Charlemagne and, like her famous ancestor, a character of legend.
Godefroy was born son junior in 1060. Its education of knight is made by his uncle Godefroy III Uneven the with Bouillon. With died this last he inherits his grounds. However, if the emperor of Germany concedes to him the office of marquis of Antwerp (1076), it prohibits to him, as a king of Germanie, the title of duke of Low-Lotharingie as his/her uncle in his will wished it. Godefroy lines up nevertheless accurately at the side of Henri IV in the Fight of Nomination which opposes the Germanic emperor and the Pape Gregoire VII; and enters Rome the weapons to the hand. To reward it for his faithful and honest services, the Germanic emperor recognizes it finally duke of Low-Lotharingie in 1087. He thus reigns from now on on a duchy extending between the France and the the Rhine which covered the the Brabant, the Hainaut, the Limbourg, the Namurois, the Luxembourg and part of the Flanders. But having been seriously sick shortly after this forwarding on Rome, it made wish, to repair its wrongs, to go to defend the Chrétiens in the East.
The First Crusade
One of the first to answer the call of Urbain II, in 1095, Godefroy de Bouillon becomes also one of the main leaders of the First crusade. In 1096, to finance its departure, it sells the castle of Bouillon with Otbert, prince-bishop of Liege and Sténay with the prince-bishop of Verdun. Started from Bubble on August 15th, 1096 with a many continuation, it passes by Ratisbon, Vienna, Belgrade and Sofia, arrives at Constantinople, and runs up at once against Alexis Comnène. After negotiatehaving lengthily negotiated with the emperor of Constantinople his crossing of the the Bosphorus and being engaged to restore the territories to him which it would take again with the Turks, it penetrated in Asia. It seized Nicée initially, overcame then the Turkish S with Dorylée then took by storm Antioche.
It is in the forefront at the time of the catch of Jerusalem in 1099 (the two first are Letold and Gilbert de Tournai, then comes Godefroy followed by his Eustace brother). The crown of king de Jérusalem to him is proposed after the catch of the city, but he refuses it, asserting that he could not carry a gold crown where Jesus Christ was to carry a crown of spines. He accepted the title of Avoué of the Holy Sepulchre and was satisfied with the title of baron. This choice meant that he considered the Holy Land, Jerusalem above all, like the property of Christ and thus, by extension, of the Saint sits. It positioned thus as a servant, as a defender of the Église. He was nominally lord of the the Holy Sepulchre all while being maintained under the ecclesiastical authority. Its title conferred the following responsibilities to him: it was initially with its vassal to keep Jerusalem and the tomb of Christ, then it was then to distribute grounds to the knights, to conquer and pacify the cities in the neighborhoods, to return justice and to perennialize the local economy. It gave in its new States a code of wise laws, known under the name of Assises of Jerusalem .
He died on July 18th 1100 while returning from a forwarding against the sultan of Damas, which he had beaten in front of Ascalon; one suspected that it had been poisoned after having eaten an apple of cedar which the emir of Césarée had offered to him. His/her brother Baudouin, who had also taken part in the crusade, becomes king. After having given up Edesse, it is made crown on December 25th. Albert of Aix, German chronicler, reconstituted towards 1100-1110 the history and the important facts of the duke. Guillaume de Tyr contributed to the 13th century with the legend of Godefroy de Bouillon in its work entitled the Histoire of Eraclès . One tells of him extraordinary, and generally fabulous exploits; he united with courage prudence, moderation and the sharpest piety. The lord of Bubble became the knight with the swan which one finds in Lohengrin . the Cup chose it for the hero of its poem. Its equestrian statue decorates the Royale place of Brussels.
Albert of Aix wrote this shortly after 1100 in connection with Godefroy de Bouillon at the time of the catch of Jerusalem in June 1099: “while all the Christian people made a dreadful devastation of the Sarrasins, the duke Godefroy, abstaining from any massacre, stripped his armor and, wrapping himself of a wool clothing, left barefeet out of the walls and, according to the enclosure external of the city in all humility, returning then by the door which faces the mountain of the Olive-trees, it went to be presented in front of the sepulchre of our lord Jesus-Christ, alive sons of God, pouring tears, pronouncing prayers, singing praises of God and returning graces to him to be judged worthy to see what it always had so ardently desired”.
- Godefroy de Bouillon on Channel Academy
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